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o'aDD? 1201031 2 „ v 

California Stale Library LIV I- • 

Accession No. 


I Call M 

r J ^^£Ll 

-— -— 

Mining ™« Press 







I U 1 ■ 


[•(Ion of cupels 

ICtll . 







I Utto, 

Hoi ■ m metal than In 

Prevention by the - 

«. v Wllloughl 


Bxploslblltt) ol 

Qas, output "f miners' lamp 
i-imps tn mines 

fjimpe, uae of In British Columbia .. 

Acid, and lower surface tension 

Flotation at Anaconda 

in leach Ing 

Acidified water, wetting power of 

Acidity <>f ore at Dlvlsadero 

Addlcka, Lawi -nig sltmr tailing.... 


Advertisements, dull Bdltoi 

Ditto P I" McDonald. . . . 

Advertising of Editorial . . . . 

Ditto P H McDonald . . 

Publlcltj and Editorial 

I- B M 

After the War Editorial 

and onyx 

Agitation, laboratory lank 

tmenl of concentrati 

I a on mine speculation .... 

All and Oil In llotallon 

Blasts Editorial.... 142, 

Blasts on the Rand 

Compressing plant at Balboa 212. 

Driven tools, cars of 

Peed hammer-drill for driving 

Frederick w Copeland.... 

For naming powdered coal - 

dotation, The M. 8. — Miami suit 

Hydraull npresslon of A B. Chodsko.... 

In cyantdatlon 

In notation, the natural medium 

In liquids 

In Miami flotation process 

Pipes, canvas In mines 

Ivers, attention to 

AJo mines, progress at 

Alaska Kdltorlal 

Gold production since lx>',7 

Minerals at Hie Exposition 

Timber resources 

Tin in 

Tolovana district 

Alaskan affair. The Editorial..., 

Alaska Gastineau mill, concentration run ,' 

Mill and Perseverance mine Robert S. Lewis.... 

Production , ■ 

Masks G ol<1 Mines Co Editorial 

And Alaska-Juneau M. Co 


Alaska-Juneau M, Co.. contracts tor $458,864 machinery.... 

\laska Mexican Gold Mining Co.. company r-port 

Alaska Treadwell Gold Mining Co., accident :.l 1. 


Company report 

Masks Tniled Gold Mining Co.. company report 

AIm. -kit. intrusions . . . . 

Porphyry at Iron Mountain 

All., it n oilfields 


n Carl A. ....... .Mining engineer and 

iiiov's in engineering construction 

Alluvial sampling, relative error in ... 

Altitude and gas-engines. 

....D. W. Brunton. i Parke 









7 66 

iv, i 

:. l :: 











8 1 8 







Channing, H. H. Clark, and A. T. Kasley. 

Effect on gas engines •■," 

Effect on mine-rescue apparatus 

Alum in water-filtration plants 

Alumina In earth , . 



Increased use of 

Pronation ai mill ;f Butters bivisatarefc . . 

r r E. M. Hamilton and P. H. Crawford. 

Precipitation cost of 

Precipitation, history of 





In I ■ 

i Zlnr ■ De Bava) >, i.t.i 

w Bl| Pln< mill 

\i l , 

In it, ill- 

«»f silver ores 

Tailing, recover) of merourj <""" E n i 

'i in r. thi Bdltoi 

Ditto En 

Ditto Chsrli » P. Richard 

Amateurs, proapectors, and sngineers Edit* 

Ditto Levi rati 

an and European zinc smelters compared 
Ftaad . . 


■ Ion for the Ad* ani omenl of £ 
American Association of Engineers 

DlttO F II. N. well. P. II If) lion.,!.! 

to Institute of Electrical Engineers and Interna- 
tional Engineering Congress 

American Inatltuts of Mining Engineers and Intern 
Engineering Congri 

Meeting at Ban Francisco 

Am, ri, ,,u Mining Congress Editorial. . . . 

American Smelting a.- Refining Co., prom* 
American Society of Civil Engineers, and [nternatloi 

glneerlng Congress 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers and Interi 

Engineering Congress 

American Vanadium Co., operations of 

Amur, dredging on the K. I. Hlebnlkoff. . . , 

Anaconda Copper Mining Co., accldenl record 

And Michigan output 

And sine 

Flotation at Waal Reduction Works 

E. P. Mathewson. . . 

Improvements at 

Analysis of Tonopah Belmont concentrate 

Ancient gold mines In Africa 

Anod.s in electrolytic precipitation 

Anti-Debris Association, defunct 

Antimonlal lead 

Antimony Ho, 

And arsenic Editorial.... 


California 11, 


i 'alrbanks 189, 

Qold ores, S. D 

In ammunition 


Ore, prices for. every Issue In last three months. 

I ',-n ta -sulphide 

Apex litigation at Butte 

Bights In Rbodesls 

Apparatus for quicksilver analysis 

Application of efficiency principles. . . Fred H Kludge. Jr. . . . 
Applied geology Editorial. . . . 

Argentina, copper discovery in 

Notes on 

Arizona and modern mining I.. D. RlCkettS. . . . 

Hold Road district 

M.iai production of 1914 

Mines, taxation value of 

Mining ill Charles F. Willis... 

Molybdenite In 

Quicksilver In 

Strike Editorial. . . 

Ditto Walter i' 

Arkansas, zinc mining In 

Arsenic and antimony Editorial. . . . 

Production of I*. S 

Asbestos, Arizona I 


t'lu ysotile F. II. Mason 

Quel,, mines, strike at - 


Ash In Alaska, volcanic 

Asphnll 10 r 

U. 8. offices 

Furnaces, wood fuel for 

Of base-metal ores for sale 

■ >f ore containing metallic* J. J. Bristol.... 

Remoyal of selenium and tellurium In copper bullion... 

Georg,- L. I leath .... 

era and theh ways G. I* Sheldon 

Assaying at the Moss mine, platinum 

Frank A. Crampton . . . 

Ditto Thomas T Read.... 

Associated Northern mine, diamond-drilling at 

AtOlla, California 166, 

Austin L. S Recovery and use of thallium. . . . 
























7:, 1 




I 1:: 


II 1 

7i; 7 




MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. Ill 


Austin. \v. Lawrence ■ n " 

i>ui" Leaching copper ore. . ■ . L9V 

Australia, copper not mming to America 616 

Dredging in •0*» 

tatlon in Charles S. Galhjraith B3. 73 1 

K.i ward h. Shack ell. - 

Gold discovery In §82 

Gold output 

Lea<l disposal S L' ' 

If eta) business '-' ' s 

Metal condition! - 1 \ 

M«-tiil Exchange created 

Metal Exchange Editorial. 

Ifeta] sal. - 

111 U trade Editorial. . 

Mints, refining gold at 

Zlni exports ' ' ; 

Zlm .vrn.-Itlng 166 

Automatic skips v. belt-elevators 593 

Automobiles bought by Americans 615 

Awarulte, composition of 471 


Back-geared motors, work of 

aster, for U. s. Bureau of Mines 

Ditto, lectures In Cornwall 

- It. .Electrical theory of flotation 

Ball-bearings 87, 

Ball-mill, an early W. C. Ralston.... 

Ditto, Marcy 

ps editorial. . . 


oft George .1 Mining in Colorado. . . .55. 554. ISO, 

u, Howland.. .Geology of the Gold Road district. . . . 
Banking in Canada ' 

Banns- King-Kendall suit finished 

Barrett, L. A Timber on mining claims. . . . 

Has Mining Co., report 

ii & Lomb Optical Co. at the P. I'- L E 

Bauxite production of U. s 

Bawdwln mines metal output 

Becker, Clyde M Tin- engineer as a mine operator.... 

Belt-elevators v. automatic skips 

Belling at the Exposition 

Ita, used In 


1.1 n k 

Belts, leather 

Tension of 

V. motors 


Big Business Editorial. . . . 

Ditto W. I.. Austin. ... 

Ditto w. H. shocklev 

Big I'. .in exploration Co., Utah, .Mill of the 

L. O. Howard .... 

ine, Manhattan. Treatment at the P. J. Quinn.... 

Bluyard, John K. H. H Efficiency engineering In 

til I IleS 

Bishop Creek mine 

Bismuth Editorial. . . . 

Black ' mk mine. Cai.. developments 

Black sands 

Blake-Morscher separator 

Blast. A huge ■ 

Blast-furnace gases in silver-lead smelting 


g in an Iron mine. System of 

Blende, derivation of 

Block, .limes A Why is Flotation?. . . . 

Blomfleld, A- I' Classification and tine grinding. . . . 

Blue powder from zinc smelting 

Blytlt, YV. B Precipitating action of carbon In 

Ide solutions 

Boiler-pings. Fualble-tln 

Bnlivin anil Peru, taxes 

Gold mining in G. YV. Wepfer . contract for tin ores between European smelters 


Potosl tin-mlnlng district ,. .Francis Church Lincoln.... 

Sunn notes on 


Borax glass for welding metals 

In California 

In C S 

Production In U. S 

Boring holes in rubber 

'ine, Platinum assaying at the 

Frank A. Crampton .... 
Ditto Thomas T. Read 

letter fill) 

Creek gold area, tintarlo 

Bowie, C. P The Round Lake mine 

, the 

Mine, ore reserve of the 

•Tenient. Topics.' New publication . 

Bradford Li Flotation patent ..'... 

Bradley. G. " Coarse-crushing plant of 1000 tons 

: t V 

W. a., and Tuolumne ... ! 

Brakpan mice ■ _' 


D.linltion of ■» 

Who owns a' report?!!! ! 

Brazilian manganese or.- 

Mining titles 

Bretherton. S, c . . The waste oif' zinc '.'.'. 

Brick I if U. 8 

Brlnse ■ taxation of mineral land ' 


1 \ lining 'metal! 

Britannia copper mine, the 









■; 1 9 






■ e, 







H 1 9 


2 1 9 













i Columbia mining 

• ue mined In 796 

Zin. 147 

British Columbia Copper Co., new plants 670 

Smelter 257 

Broadwater Mills Co. at Park City 47 1 

I in i. Hi, J. M Sinking I lie W. mi] In try shaft, Mich. ... 7:: I 

Broken Hill, flotation at 81. 91 

Editorial 314 

Flotation at the,(%ntral mine James Hebbard.... :; 1 7 

Broken II ill Proprietory Co., report 801 

Broken Hill South Silver Mining Co., company report 191 

Brunton. D. W Technical reminiscences. . . . 811 

Bubbles H ' 

Ditto Editorial. . . . 578 

And surface tension 583 

Cost in.- hard labor and more hubbies, my Mist Introduc- 
tion to notation Ben S. Revett.... 690 

In dotation 514 

Bucket -elevator, cost of operating 507 

Bucyrus drag-line excavator at Iditarod 462 

Bulkhead, underground 786 

Bullion, sampling base I". D. Weeks.... 810 

Bunker Hill & Sullivan lead smeller 502 

Bureau of Mines. U. S 74 

Bureau, State Mining, Cal 75 

Burgess. Jolin A Study of mining geology.... 858 

Burma Corporation 864 

Burton. C. S Speculation in mines. ... 37 

Business. Big Editorial.... 35 

Ditto W. L. Austin 117 

Ditto W. H. Shockley 125 

Butte. Montana 754, 976 

Metal output of 354 

Butte & Superior Copper Co., company report 339, 840 

Flotation machine 585 

Mlslit name 303 

Profits 265 

Suit by Elm Orlu Mining Co 685 

Butters. Charles, and the new metallurgy 

An interview T. A. Rlckard. . . . 273 

Ditto Flotation of gold ore 954 

Ditto, and Clcnnell. .1. E Cyanide treatment of 

flotation concentrate 77s 

Butlers Dlvisadero Co.. aluminum precipitation at the mill 

of the E. M. Hamilton and P. H. Crawford. . . 387 

Buying mining supplies p. B. McDonald 198b 


Cadger, definition of 

Cage and skip, changing 

Calaveras Copper mine 

Culeite in pocket deposits 

Calcium carbide, temperature of manufacture . 

n poultry food 

Calc-scliist at Kalgoorlie 

California contribution of wealth to the world 

Iging In Charles G. 

First-aid teams 

Gold boom imminent? 

Gold output up to date 

1 in hi yield in 1914 

Industrial Accident Commission '. 

Iron industry, possibilities of 

Mineral production in 1914 

Minerals at the Exposition 

.Mining in Charles G. Yale. 

Ol lfield supervision 

Pocket mining in 

Mining Bureau 

stocks in Boston, feeling of 

v. j. M Notes on flotation. 

Ditto Flotation machine. . . 

Calumet & Hecla Mining Co. management 


Camp Bird, Limited 

Quarterly report 

Cam-shafts, thermit-welding of 

Canada, a trip through eastern P. B. McDonald . 

Canadian hanking system 

Capital and labor Editorial. 

Car, new mine 

Carat, and Frank Rowley 

Carbide lamps in mines 

Carbon in cyanide solutions, precipitating action of... 

W. B. Blyth. 

nine o. C. Ralston. 

Tn Kalgoorlie ores 

In steel 

Carbonic acid gas in flotation 

Carborundum lining for melting furnaces 

Career, the story of a Editorial . 

Carelessness underground 

Carnotite claims in L'tah 

Ores for radium, treatment of 

Carpenter. .lay A Precipitation with zinc-thread. 

Ditto Work at West End mill. 

Carr drill-hit 

Carranza. Venustiano. Obregon, Villa, and Zapata 


Rei 'ignition of 

Cathodes in electrolytic precipitation 

Cattermole flotation apparatus 

Flotation process 

Sulman and Picard patent 

-niese in 


! gods or potash in aluminum preeipitatinn 

1 'eitieut. lime in Portland 

ral American Mines Co., company report 

Centrifugal pumpe ai Leadville 

• en ile zinc output 

.-•4 7 






\..l 111 

MINING ami S.,rl.t,h. I'KI SS 



||Dg "II tlo 

UlnliiK < 

(Ml 111 

II T 1. 

nk Ot\ 

v i: . . llydraul, 

i it Mason 

Chuqul Ii 

Churn-drill holes for 

Cnurn-drtlling checked i.v underground wi.rk 

cinnabar in Western Nevada 

reated In U. 8 

Claims in nat lining li. \\\ i ! 

Burvayed in Utah . . 

Clark, aii, m .1 v on Komestake metallui 

grinding \. I- Bloml 

Ditto - v E. Drucker.... 

01 technical literature W. I'. Cutter.... 

■ r. Dorr 

'mi. i. Industry ..f Cornwall 

Products "i r B 

Clannall. J. Et, and Butters, Charles Cyanide ti 

..f dotation concentrate 

ind-CUffs Iron Co.. in i inn ^ school 

Shaft, work of 

Work in Iti* Morris- l.l-.yd mine 

» 'i. \ eland- Knowlea separator 

Clevenger. G. 11 Electrolytic precipitation of gold. 

■ r. and copper from cyanide solutions 

Clifton, Arizona, labor troubles 

ilatlon in dotation 

Coal for Fairbanks, Alaska 

Mm.- explosion tests 

Mining employs many men 

Milium in Mexico 

Powdered, air for 

I'ro, lu. lion of r. S 

Prospecting, value of fossils In 

Psed for domestic purposes, quantity of 

■ rushing plant of 1000 tons capacity 

O. O. Bradley. . . . 
Cobalt district developments 

District dividends 

Cobalt for coins 

Hardness of 

For electro-plating 

Ore In Canada 

i Ixlde, not.-s on 

Coeur ilAI.ii' dividends 

Metal production 

Metal production in 1914 

Mining region 

Region, Idaho, map of 

Coghlll. Will H Surface tension 

I'ltl Ferrous and ferric iron In cyaniding . . . . 

Coins, various 

Cole flotation machine 

Collins. Kdgnr A Pumping at the Commonwealth 

mine. Arizona 

Collins. George E Everson.... 

Collins. H. F Concentration of gold In bottoms ml 

th.- converter 

Colloid, definition of 

Colloidal chemistry Clifford Richardson . . . . 


Colombia, platinum production 

Colorado, enrly days in Editorial .... 

ecology of Gtlpln county 

Hammer-drilling in E. G. Snedaker. . . . 

Mining In George J. Bancroft. .. .65, 564. 760, 

i lolorado Fuel & Iron Co 

Combustion 3C3, 

nltlon of 


Of gases in boiler furnaces 

Commerce of T T . S 

Commission. Ontario Nickel YV. G. Miller.. . 

Commonwealth mine, pumping at the 

Edgar \. Collins. . . . 

Companies operating In Oklahoma 

Company Reports: 

Alaska Mexican Gold Mining Co 

Alaska Treadweli Gold Mining Co 

Alaska United Gold Mining Co 

Amalgamated Zinc (De Bavay's) Ltd 

Batopilas Mining Co 

Broken Hill Proprietary Co 

Broken Hill South Silver Mining Co 

Butte & Superior Copper Co 839, 

Central American Mines Co 

Chino Copper Co 

Consolidated Interstate-Callahan Mining Co 339. 651. 






J I'.' 









5 l 6 


8 is 

r. ■.. 2 





2 9f, 
c.s l 







5 111 


Ml v 


... l.t.l 

f Callfoi inn 


.'. Olid. I Mining CO 

mi- i Mining '., 

Sliuiiio.ii ■ 

Tombo; Oold M 



c pressl I all., all. \ I . • 

c pu 6-placi 

Comstock ■' 

a 'on. .1,1 1 -i I. .,,,,1 < ir , 

H. . . 308 

C\ ,,niii. treatment <>f flotatb n 

Charles Butters and -I I. Clenni 
Method of sampling mill pulp 

Con. . nt rating at .. I"" 

c million at the Tonopah-Belmonl 

lotatlon Editorial 

old in s in ti,. converter. .. .H. i I 

01 i' in Wisconsin 

Ratio at ,,m 

Then and now John Ebensteln ...I98s 

de down, dotation 

Concerning a .lain, Sdltoi 

is c a mi i 

Talk El) I tO I 

Concrete n 's in mills 

Structurei ir 

Condenser water, cooling system for 

Conditions in Sonora 

Congress, American Mining 128 

Congress, r. s.. mining bills in 

Consolidated Interstate-Callahan Mining Co., 

Consumption of Bine an. I alkali at West Bind mill NS 9 

minus com .,i[i,l,.- |,1. nil at 

Rochester 817 

Co-operation ami Individualism Editorial.... 846 

Co-operative experiments in production a failure 377 

Contact-deposits, origin of 

Contract for tin ores between European smelters ami Boliv- 
ian miners 17 5 

Converter, concentration of gold In bottoms In the 

II. I-'. Collins 182 

Converting blast-furnace due-dust 448 

Coorongit.- 1*7 

Copeland. Frederick W Alt-fed ham r-drlll for 

driving 802 

Copper bullion assays, removal of selenium and tellurium 

In Geo. L. Heath.... Mil 

Cost of producing in Alaska -177 

Discovery in Argentina 282 

Electrolysis, precipitation of R. R. Goodrich.. 


10 x port embargo 1 1:5 

For bull-rings . 386 

For Germany 915 

From Central Africa 226 

Import dutv on in Russia '195 

In China 7ii 

In Cyprus 698 

In Germany '-'-■• 

In iron manufacture I -7 

In Michigan ores ■ 773 

In Serbia 727 

Lake, price of 2 

Mass. extraction of 679 

Mail,-, handling leady H. K. Easter.... 484 

Mining In Russia II" 

Ore. by dotation, concentration of Editorial. .. . nil 

Ore from Alaska via Panama 173 

Ore leaching 485 

Ditto W. Lawrence Austin.... 199 

Output of Bonanza mine, Alaska 331 

i ititput of Michigan mines 106 

Prices and market conditions, .-very week. 

Production of Central Africa 364 

Production of Michigan mines 185, 256, 151. 608 

Production of Peru 

Production of Russia 96 

Purltv of Lake 177 

Shares, dividend basis of 198a 

Shares, rise in I 

Used in warfare 658 

l l8ed per capita in the world 829 

Uses of in Turkey 882 

v. Aluminum 915 

Copper Queen mine, ventilation of 151 

Corinthian .North mine, treatment at * 1 :> 

Cornish miner in America P. P.. McDonald. . . . I7'i 

Cornwall, mining in 566 

Telildv estate sold 1,5 1 

Tin situation in 7 1 8 

Corphnlie Zinc Co.. litigation Ill 

Cor,,, lions F. If. Mason.... 507 

Corundum 363 

Cost an,] efficiency A. e. Jacobs. . . . 197 

Costs .it Praden Mill 984 

Assays at Oriental Consolidated 7 11 

Britannia mine. B. C 553 

Chain repairs on tube-mills 483 

Constructing Engels mill 170 

Constructing the Tonopah-Belmont mill 321 

Diamond-drilling at Le Roi No. 2 mine 59S 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. Ill 


I MMjiusnl of residue at Wasp No. -' ruin.- 

1 'rilling underground 

Elevating pulp at Tonopah -Belmont |0i 

Erecting coarse-crushing plant 

Washington D C 

Flotation 126 

Flotation at Broken Hill 

Plumea In the Klondike '•-'-' 

Qoldfleld ed :,: ; s 

Qroutlng a shaft »6| 

Homestake mills ss 

Jumi'H Extension • **■ 

k irea, plant i onstructlon a. E, Drucker. . . . B87 

Lights in mines T^ 1 ' 

Ing 915 

Living <>r< the Eland '•'> * 

slaking aluminum 287 


Mining and milling in Wisconsin 360 

mi Lyell « 


ipttating by aluminum and zinc 890 

Producing copper in Alaska 877 

: gold B29 

at Joplln 207 

ping al Commonwealth mine, Arizona 7ss 

- i L. O. Howard 4 66 

Ka.llum production 212 

Thernilt-weldtng cam-shafts 447 

Transporting ore from Yukon to the outside 121 

Treating flotation concentrate 7 B6 

Treatment at N.-vada-Douglas mine 185 

atment at West End mill 884 

War 501 

Wear in crushing plant 891 

Cottonwood district of Utah, developments at 445. 533 


Couplings 976 


Crampton, Frank A I-Matlnum assaying a( 

mine 281 

Ditto Misuse of technical data.... 954 

!■; Efficiency engineering at mines. , . ,198s 

Crawford, P. H. and Hamilton, B, M Aluminum precipi- 
tation at the mill of the Butters Divisadero Co 

, Colo., mining situation at 29 

Cresson gold mine dividends 260 

Crlppl- Creek, Colorado 

84. 60, 101, 139. 180. 217, 250, 365. 410. 519. 564. 604. 86.'.. ''77 

rrornw.ll. it. H st-et shaft- timbering at Los Ocotes. . . . 519 

Ing at the Tonopah -Belmont mill 

Mechanical efficiency of n Stadler. . 697 

Ditto Algernon Del Mar... 808 

Mechanical work of Walter J, Rose.... 39 

Plant at Juneau 

;i of 1000 tons capacity, coarse G. O. Bradley. . 

Kittinger's law of rock 41*'. 

ROI k 47 

i . standardizing rock M. K. Rodgers. ... 7 n 

Ite fi.. ni Greenland 287 

Crystals of gypsum, artificial 486 

cup. -nation losses, a rule governing. .. .W. J. Bharwood.... 481 

Curious nugget. A F. H. Mason. . . . 699 

i hi . of the earth 679 

Cutter, W. P Classification of technical literature.... *> 

definition of 409 

datlon, improvements In 602 

In Shastfl l Cs llfornla 526 

In Western Australia V. F. Stanley Low. . . . 819 

On the Mother Lode 461 

On the Hand 276 

o, some history of 964 

Cyanide plant at Rochester, Continuous counter-current de- 

cantatlon 817 

[pltate, electric furnace for melting.. W. P. Lass.... 209 

Reduced consumption at West End mill 889 

Solution and precipitate, determination of mercury in... 

W. J. Bharwood. . . . 663 
So hn inns, electrolytic precipitation of gold, silver and 

copper from G. H. Clevenger. . . . 742 

Solutions, precipitating action of carbon In 

O. C. Ralston. . . 7 7 

Ditto W. B. Blyth 328 

Sol ut Ions, testing working i:: .; 

Treatment of flotation concentrate 

Charles Butters and J E. ciennell. ... 778 

Cyanldlng, ferrous and ferric iron In. . . .Will H. Coghlll. . . . 59S 

Use Of replacer in 560 

Cyprus, copper in 693 

De Witt, Charles W Prospecting on the Chlcksan 

esslon v '"' 

Diamond-drill bore, Deflection of a... .Ernest T. Preston. ... 361 

Ditto E. B. White 466 

Diamond-drilling P. B. McDonald 856 

Costs at L« Rol No. 2 mine 598 

In Michigan [91 

Diamond mines to resume in Africa 915 

Diamonds in New fiouth Wales 400 

Dlastrophlam -l 3 " 

Diaz and Mexico Editorial 76 

6W hook 913 

Dings separator 928 

Directors, should they speculate? 422 

I mho Editorial 227. 267 

crusher, Bymone 7 

Discussions and meetings 503 

Ditto John Williams 579 

1 llsposal of Australian lead 895 

Of dotation residue W. Shellshear 892 

Distress in Russia — An appeal 427 

Dividends of Coeur d'Alene district 255 

Of Idaho companies 

Do engineers talk enough? P. B. McDonald.... 229 

Dolbear. Samuel H Non-metallic products. ... 56. 599 

Dolomite in place of magnesite 789 

Uses and production 599 

Donnelly. P. J Mining accidents 953 

Dorr classifier 7 

Continuous counter-current decantatlon cyanide system. . 317 

Douglas. James, John Fritz medal for 461 

Douglas. Walter The strike in Arizona. ... 771 

Down Town pumping scheme at Leadvllle 253 

District at Leadvllle, unwatering the 

An occasional correspondent. . . . 866 

Drag- line excavator at Idltarod, Bucyrus 452 

Scraper at Fairbanks 4*7 

Dredge for Chiksan Mining Co 842 

Tailing forms moraines 447 

Dredged areas, growing cactus on 254 

Ground, re-soiling 679 

Dredging at Leadvllle, Colorado 253 

At Panama 91, 929 

In Australia 706 

in California 949 

Ditto Charles G. Yale 483 

In Philippines 326, 818 

In Russia 864 

Near Leadvllle, Colorado 683 

On Amur K. I. Hlebnikoff 283 

Origin of gold 560 

Results in Russia 681 

Ruining land LIS 

Drill bits, rock P. B. McDonald. . . . 700 

Concerning rock P. B. McDonald .... 208 

For driving, air-feed hammer. . Frederick W, Copeland .... 802 

In Michigan mines 193 

N*-w electric 988 

Puller and header 73 1 

Results from prospecting with 465 

Drill-steel 203 

Ditto Editorial 844 

' 'leaning hollow 151 

Cost of 58 

Effects of overheating 639 

Handling P. B. McDonald 773 

Qualitv 208 

Testing at North Star 13 

Drilling at A jo. Arizona 753 

At White Pine Extension. Michigan 685 

Contest at Joplln 794 

Diamond P. B. McDonald.... 856 

Dust in 202 

Efficiency 14 

For zinc ore in Wisconsin 359 

In Colorado, hammer E. G. Snedaker.... 669 

Driving in a Michigan iron mine, fast J. E. Hayden.... 885 

Drucker. A. E Classification and fine grinding 581 

Ditto Flotation on gold ore 772 

Ditto Plant-construction cost In Korea. . . . 887 

Dudley. E. P Moving machinery 953 

Dull advertisements Editorial .... 343 

Ditto P. B. McDonald 354 

Durell. Charles T Whv is flotation? 4 28 

Dust in drilling 202 

In Joplin mines 826 

Dwight-Lloyd machine 15 

Dycrasite 283 

Dynamite freezing 22, 137 

Daly- Judge hoist, Utah 632 

West hoist. Utah M.", 632 

Danish pebbles, efficiency of. 4t;;t 

Deadwood, South Dakota 252 977 

in various states I mi 

Rati 1 rui t;; 2 

ivel Leroy a. palmer... . 4^ 

ntatlon cyanide-plant at Rochester, Continuous counter- 

current 317 

tlon of a diamond-drill bore. . . . Brnest T. Preston " " 361 

E. E, White 466 

entrator g 

if. Algernon ... .Mechanical efficiency of crushing!!!! 808 

Ditto Position of the tube-mill. . . ISO 

1 t'lprat dotation process 347 

1 In the early days , !!!!!!!!! 817 

ruination of mercury in ryanide solution and pre.'ipi- 

*»**" W. J. Sharwood 663 

of tungsten «,■' 1 

tiling system 400 

Early ball-mill W. C. Ralston 879 

Days in Colorado Editorial. . . . 804 

Earth's crust, thickness of 409 

Easter, H. F Handling leady copper matte 484 

Eastern metal market — every week. 

Eastman Kodak Co., silver used by 949 

Ebenstein. John Concentration: Then and now. ... 198a 

Elmer mine, Alaska, sampling at '<37 

Economics of the metallurgy of zinc 

Walter Renton Ingalls.... 509 

Ecuador, notes on 971 

Effects of soluble components of ore on flotation 931 

Efficiency at Watertown Arsenal 353 

Cost and A. E. Jacobs. . . . 197 

Curve of pumps at Leadville 357 

Engineering in mines John R. H. H. Billvard. ... 620 

Ditto R. E. Cranston. . . 198a 

Ditto P. B. McDonald. . . 346 

Ditto W. H. Shockley... 198a 

In Copper Country. Michigan, engineering 

P. B. McDonald 120 

In work 309 

Vol 111 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


>n of 

i>ta In 

II Hindu.. I 171 



■•••••• 15! 

Drill, Ben * - 852 

Itlng ryanldi u i- i. 

blast-fumace for ic<>l>l sludge-. 

rner duty .'( -''' 

• ..i i ■.» 1 \ Weal mine, Utah 


Lighting fixtures 2X, 


i ai Panama 

: ..f iron in Sweden 789 

; In Germany 210 

Zinc smelting &' 2 

Electrical theory of flotation. The 

Thomu M Bain* Ji 824, B8S 

Electricity In Dotation Editorial 


in mi 


7 11' 

of, ut Tonopah-Belmont . 
Elliott, 11. H Relative ,-rror tn alluvial 


precipitation of copper by.. It. It. iloodrleh. 
Electrolytic precipitation of gold, silver, ami oopper from 

i- solutions i; H Clovcngci 

Precipitation of metata from cyanide aolutton 

Editorial, . . . '-' 

Zinc 803 

Ditto Editorial. . 960 

Blectro-atatlc separation of pyrltlo sine orea.J. H. Lewis. . . . 821 

Blectro-atatlca in Rotation Editorial.... 845 

ill I ni 

il sampling. . . . 4155 

Elm nrlii Mining C... Montana 639 

v. Butte & Superior Copper Co 685 

Elmore dotation patents 4 Js 

Ditto, BOld 341 

El i iro Dredging Oo. finishes 86 

El Paso smelter, enlarging plant 493 

Handling mutt, at 484 

El Tltr. sacked by Rodriguez 909 

Ely, Nevada 365 

Empire Bold Dredging Co 253 

Empire Mining Co.. and North Star suit 151 

En gels mine and mill T. T. Read 167 

Engineer as a mine operator Clyde M. Becker.... 619 

Awakes, The F. W. Newell.... 582 

I lo they talk enough? P. B. McDonald. . . . 229 

Mining William L. Saunders 468 

Engineers, amateurs, and prospectors Editorial.... 503 

Ditto Leverett S. Ropes 880 

Engineering construction, alloys In 658 

Efficiency in the Copper Country. Michigan 

P. B. McDonald 120 

Exhibits at the Exposition 417 

Geology as an aid to tropical Warren D. Smith.... 437 

In mines, efficiency John R. H. H. Blllyard 620 

Ditto P. B. McDonald 345 

Engineering Congress, The Editorial.... 379 

Enrichment, secondary 713 

Esperanza. Mexico 221 

Report 66 

Eucalyptus oil for flotation 352, 975 

Bverson, Carrie J George E. Collins. . . . 881 

Death of 767 

Further notes on 843 

Exchange, foreign 342 

Exit Villa Editorial 950 

Explosives 639 

Definition of 327 

Liquid oxygen in 589 

Made in U. S 198b 

I l in Michigan 213 

Exports of copper, lead and zinc — every week. 

Exports of zinc 1 

Exposition, belting at the 192 

California minerals at 59 

Electricity at the 71 

Engineering exhibits at the 417 

First-aid and mine-rescue contest at 527 

Hydraulic giants at the 340 

Japanese minerals at 138 

Mining and metallurgy at the 405 

Oregon minerals at the 138 

Passing of the Editorial. . . . 876 

Pipes at . 261 

Recording instruments at the 376 

Scientific instruments at 261, 340 

Valves at 152 

Westinghouse company exhibit 302 

Extraction at porphyry copper mills 117 

In zinc smelting 512 

Of gold and silver at Tonopah-Belmont 512 

Extra-lateral right L. F. S. Holland 921 

Factor of safety in hoisting ropes 

Fairbanks. Alaska 25, 449 

Statistics of 

Fairmount crusher 

Fanning, Paul R Mining and milling in Wisconsin. . . 

Fast driving in a Michigan iron mine J. E. Hayden . . . 

Ferrous and ferric iron in cyaniding. . . .Will H. Coghill... 

Fields. H. B A launder-sampler. . . 

Filing systems 

Ditto. Dewey 



Piling, Mo-- 


Edltoi i'«i 

Firebrick, productl ' i •- 

;.i and mini 
\i Blsbi - 

At Hull. 

At Walls 

nameless combustion 

Flotat Editorial 

a pai sdo i ludle) H Noi rle. . , . 

Hon. motors for 

An froth II. • M B Ml. mil "nil 

A lol fl Oth 

Al Broken mil 

ion.. Editorial, . . . 

ai Broken mil Proprietary Mine 

ai thi mine, Broken inn lamas Hebl i 

At Engels Copper mine 

At I lol, in, 1,1 

Al Idaho Springs 

At Inspiration mine 

DlttO W. Motherwell. . . . 

At mi, Morgan, i ! 

ai Park city 

At Washoe reduction works. Aiiiii oh. In 

I-: i\ MiithewMon .... 
Bubbles cosl me hard labor and re bubbles, how my 

first Introduction to Hen s. Revett.... 

r. ) froth at lead mills of Missouri 

i 'one. -lit rale, cyanide treatment of 

Charles Butters and .1. B, Clennell 

Concentrate, nodultzing -.1 copper or.- by 

est of 

Discussion a I S. I', section A. M. I. E 

Early Investigations al U. ..i C 

Early trials at Broken Hill 

Effects of soluble components of ore on 

Electrlca] th V of Thomas M. llains, Jr. . . .824, 

Electricity In Editorial 

Electro-statics In Editor!:. I 

For Mother Lode ores 

In Australia Charles S. llalbraltb . . . .83, 

Ditto Edward H. Shackell. . . . 

In British Columbia . . 

In a Mexican mill 

In Mexico 

In Michigan 

In Silvcrton district 

In Utah 

Litigation, the status of 

Machine at Butte and Superior 

Machines compared 

Ditto, plans of 513, 

No discussion at International Engineering Congress.... 

Notes on J. M. Callow 

Of gold ores Chas. Butters .... 

Oil. where added in Inspiration mill 


On dump ore V. F. Stanley Low .... 

On gold ores A. E. Drucker 

Patents .Editorial. . . . 

Patents since 1886 reviewed 

Patents sold, Elmore 

Physics of 

Plant at the Walker mine 

Plant of the Utah Leasing Co Herbert Salinger. . . . 

Power used in 


Ditto Edward Walker.... 

Prime requisites of 

Process technology 

Processes, inventors of 

Recent experiments 

Residue, disposal of W. Shellshear. . . . 

Results at Butte 


Use of kerosene-sludge 

What is? T. A. Rickard 382, 

Why do minerals float? Oliver C. Ralston 

Why is? Charles T. Durell .... 

Ditto James A. Block .... 

Flow-sheet — Inspiration mill 

Of crushing plant 

Flue-dust, reducing 

Fluorspar mine in Colorado, A Horace F. Lunt. . . . 


Fond du Lac nickel deposits, Alberta 

Food prices in Mexico 

Fool luck Editorial 

Forbestown Consolidated Mines Co 

Ford. Henry 

Foreign trade . 

Forests, mining claims in national 

Ditto L. A. Barrett. . . . 

Ditto H. W. Reed 

Forstner. William 

Fossils, an aid to coal prospectors 

Fracture in rocks, causes of 

Franklinlte. definition of 

French zinc process 

Frizell compressor 

Froth flotation, air — The M. S. -Miami suit 583, 

And flotation 

In flotation 38*1, 

Ditto. Discovery of process 

On flotation machine 312, 

Permanent and otherwise 

Frozen ground, depth of ■ 

Thawing in Russia 

Fuller's earth production in 1914 

Fulton. Charles H Methods of paying for metal contents 

of ores 

Fu-"e trouble at Tooele, Utah 

Smelter Editorial 

Furnace, an improved hot blast 
















94 9 
I I'.li 





7 3 1 


4 61 




MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. Ill 


Furnace for mell I 

W. P. Lass. . . . 209 

ol burning 882 

11 notation mixer 

Qalbraith, Charles B Flotation In Australia 83 

Gall na. weight of 

nixed aheet manufacture 

Wire rope 

Mi/...-™ buyln again 

Galvani ■ 

r, E. I > U 

on. F. Lynn Bpeculatlon In mines 

nt In a Utah mine 

Engines and altitude i Parke Channlng.... 

Ditto D. W. Rruntnn . . . . 

Ditto H. H. Clark. . . . 

nut v T. Kasley. ... 

Engines at Ford factory 

In coal mines 

Into .solution, forcing . 

Natural In eastern states 

Well at Byron, Wyoming 

Gasoline engines In mines 

V ■ * ' ee -i e.ns on milling praclli :e. . . . 

i 1 Electric Co 


U. S., guide-book 

Geology, applied Editorial ... . 

engineering. . .Warren D. Smith.... 

district Rowland Bancroft. . . . 

in 1 1 in Mountain Oscar H. Hershi 

of Kalg lie 0. o. G. Larcombi 

nian. Nevada 

Of Oatman district 

i if Tlntlo 

Btudy of mining 

Georgia, stamp-milling in N. s. Keith..., 

t rol of Austrs lian copper 

Control "f Australian metals 

Control of metals 

Sou til -west Africa 

supply ,,f copper 

Zinc smelters 

Germany, electric steel in 

uon in tbe zinc world 

Gilpin county. Colorado, geology of 

Gold absorbed in 0". S 

And foreign exchange 

And seheelite 

And sllvei production of r. s. in 191 1 

Antli on treatment 

At Ko wka i 

Ing mi" circulation from hoards 

osl of producing 

overy in Australia 

in Klondike. 19th anniversary 

I ir.-dglng. origin of 


Imports from England 

In the Amur region. Siberia 

In bottoms In the converter, cone, titration of 

H. F. f.dlins 

In British Empire during War 

In European hanks 

In the Klondike, early knowledge of 

In sea -wat.-r 

In schist at Porcupine 

In solids In flotation 

In Turkestan 

Influence of. on national finance 

Min,s in Africa, ancient 

Mining in i G. \\\ Wepfer.... 

Mining in the Philippines, history of 

Mining In Russia 

Mining In 

Nuggets in Western Australia 

Ores, dotal of Chas. Butters.... 

DittC A. E. Drucker 

i mtput of Australia 

Output of California to date 

Output of Hand 480, 559 

' Hi! pill of St. John 'Id Rev 

Output of South Dakota 

of northern California 

: tl; ii cf A laska since 1S6V 

Production of Peru 

Production of the United States In is years. ..!!.'!!.'!!!.' 

Very on tile Mother l.ode 

Refining by chlorine gas 

Saying line T . w . Gruett.'r. . . '. 

Shipments across the Atlantic 

Stealing ' ' 

Yield of California in mil '...'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 

Road district. Arizona i 

, _ Rowland Bancroft.... 

! mine 

nike. Utah, developments ....!!.*!!!!!'!! 

-lege . 

101 IT-. :-.e ;:i;.-, llu 1ST 6()V 

ii>'8 gold output 

! < ted Min.s Ci -tax suit 

Precipitation ■■< copper by electroi 

Government aid t,. mining 

Granby Consolidated M., S. 4 P C ort '.'. '.'.'.'.'. '. '.'. 

,.f operations 

Graphite in Madagascar \\ 

In Mother l . 


Production of TJ. s. In 1911 

'■'alley re-visited— II t a. Rlckard ! '. ! 

I. ravel in California rivers 






i ; 






21 I 


2 2 "> 





7 1H 


1 I 




:i 1 1; 

VI 3 


'•'•alt, G Law and patents. ... S17 

Grinding, classification and fine A. E. Druck.-i . . 581 

Ditto A. E. Blomfleld 919 

Fine Editorial. ... 110 

Pans at Sons of Gwalla mine :,_•!", 

Grouting m a shaft I. 1: I - . 859 

To stop water in mines *.>3 

Gruetter, T. W Saving line gold. 

II. A.. Work on notation 365 

iheira BxBIoratlon Co 109 


Profits 114 

To dissolve 

1 iypaum 58 

Artificial crystals of 486 

In Australia 387 

Production of U. S 159 

rsey Who owns a report'.' ... . 

Haley. 1 has. s Undercurn 

Hitto .Relative error In alluvial sampling. . . . 

Hall. H. II.. .Water-supply for the Klondike hydrauli 
Hamilton. E. -M.. and Crawford, P. H Aluminum precipi- 
tation at the mill of the Butters Divisadero Co 

Hammer-drilling in Colorado E. 1 ;. Snedaker. . . , 

Handling drill steel P. B. McDonald 

•I"! matte H. F. Easier.... 

Hardinge mill 

nsumed by 

Cor shaft sinking 

rlayden, J. E Fast driving in a Michigan Iron mine. . . . 

Heath, Geo. I* Removal of selenium and tellurium in 

copper bullion assays 

Heating cyanide solutions, effect of 

Heavy timber construction P. B. McDonald. . . . 

Hebbard, .lames Flotation at the Central mine. 

Broken Hill 

Hebbard flotation machine 

Mining Bureau 37, 

Hellmann. Fred Safety in mini 

Henneii Jennings, and mining on a big scale 

T. A. Rickard 

Hercules— A. S. i R. Co. dispute 

-ar H Geology of iron Mount! 

History of gold mining in the Philippines 

Illeluiikoff. K. I Dredging on the Amur. . . . 

Hoisting-works in Hie Park City district, Utah 

L,. O. Howard. . . .546, 

Holla ml, L. F. S Extra-lateral right 

Holmes, .1. A., professorship in memory of 

' ibltuary Editorial . . 

Horn. stake Mining Co. dividends 

Metallurgy, notes on Allan J. Clark . 

Honnold, W. E Mining conditions on the 


W. E Mine accidents. . . 

How ray first Introduction to flotation bubbles cost me hard 

labor and more bubbles Ben S. Revett .... 

Not to build a smelter 

Howard. L. O Cost of radium . 

Ditto Hoisting-works in the Park City 

district, Utah 64E 

Ditto. .. .Mill of the Big Four Exploration Co.. Utah.... 

Ditto Mining In Utah 15. 280, I 1 1 

Horsepower required at the Gastineau mill 

Horwood process 


Huff separator 

Hughes. W. M.. his work on the Australian metal In 

Humboldt county, Nevada, report on 

Humphrey pump 

Huntlngton-Heberlein pots 

Hutchinson. C. T Mining machinery bus 

Hydraulic compression of air A. E. Chodzko. . . . 

Giants at the Exposition 

Mines, water-supply for the Klondike. .. .H. H. Hall... 
Hydraulicking in California 

New dam at Oroville to permit 

Hydraulics, definition of 








3 17 






J S3 







1 _ ,s 
I I 


Idaho, metal output of Coeur d'Alene region 

11 1 Is, practical George Otis Smith. . . . 

Igneous intrusions T. A. Rlckard.... 

Illinois, oil production 


To U. S 

Import duty on copper into Russia 


Increasing spelter production 

Indians, a mine-owning tribe of Lucius L. Wlttlch 

India's influence on the silver market 

Individualism and co-operation Editorial .... 

Ingalls, Walter Renton Economics of the 

metallurgy of zinc 

Inspiration mill, photo 

Mine, flotation at the 

Institute meeting. The 

Institution of Mining and Metallurgy. Standardization terms. 

Instruments at the Exposition, scientific 

International Engineering Congress 179 

atlonal Smi Iting & Refining Co.. smoke-suit 

Interstate-Callahan Consolidated Mines Co. — Co. Report. 






Intrusions, igneous 

Iron, electric production of, in Sweden 

In cyanldlng, ferrous and ferric. . . . 

Mine, fast driving in a Michigan..., 

Mine, mechanical features at a.... 

Money in Germany 

Ore deposits, magnetic examination of 

Ore in California 

Ore in the Philippines 

.T. A. Rickard. . . 

wiii' h. cogiini!! ! 

. . .J. E. Hav-I.i, 
P. B. McDonald. . . 











Vt.l 111 

MIMV. ami Scientifit I'KI SS 

in India 

\-\ i ■ 

. HI 

iti\ "i termination .if names of minerals. 839 

■ ;.i Mln«a 

• 'o»\ and eflli i. n« >-.... 191 


in. Harold to meat miners.... S78 

'■' i it for ii t a 939 

.it the Exposition 13* 

< '"i'i" ' 

., Arthur, geologic Investigation ~2'j 

Jen n loss. Hennen, and mining on ji big scale. An lnt«-r- 

\i.w b) T a Rlckard 969 

ng r.-i 713 

\ m 

Joplln, Missouri 60. 917, 366. 61 

And the spelter i n Otto Ftunl. .. . 80S 

Itinera' lung trouble 

Miners, pulmonarj dl ig 

Miners sink. 146 

Zinc production Id 60 years 

Jumbo Bx tension Mining Co., company report 10 

Cost S1 th« 427 

n. w developments 410 

Juneau district, Alaska 867 


Kalgoorlie, Western Australia 291. 489, 904 

Geology of C O. G. Larcombe. . . . 238 

Kaolin In California 

Kauri -grum mining is:: 

Keith, N. S Stamp-milling in Georgia.... 119 

Kelp, potash contents 813 

Kennecott Copper Corporation, shares of no par value 306 

Ketchikan district, Alaska 490. 641 

Kewanas, mine development 453 

Kick's law of crushing 697 

Klondike hydraulic mines, water-supply for..H. H. Hall.... 321 

Knight. Cyril \\\. and Miller. Wlllet <; Pre-Cambrlan ore 

deposits in Ontario 101 

Kolar mines, India 975 

Korea, mining laws of 113 

.Mining Institute 421 

' ire-treatment In 706 

Plant-construction costs in A. E. Druckor.... 887 

Kowkash sold field, Canada 421, 640, 718 

i Irnlngv and prospects of 501, 530 

dt-ampere and kilowatt, definition of 602, 789 

Kyshtim Corporation Editorial 694 

Company report 695 

Labor and capital Editorial.... 654 

In zinc smelting 512 

Results of, cheap 421 

Troubles Editorial.... 617 

Ditto, in Arizona 575. 606 

Laboratory agitation-tank 766 

Ladders, accidents from 679 

Lagrange hydraulic mine 906 

Lake copper, price of 2 

Lake Superior Mining Institute 188 

Points of view from P. B. McDonald. . . .601. 712 

I^ake View and Oroya Exploration. Ltd., Company report. . . . 912 

Lamb, Mark R Notes on South America .... 49 

Lamps in mines, carbide 518 

Langeloth. Jacob, wealth of 336 

Lantern, new electric 988 

Lanyon. E. V Capacity of zinc retorts. . . . 341 

Larcombe, C. O. G Geology of Kalgoorlie.... 238 

Lass, W. P. . .Electric furnace for smelting cyanide precipitate 209 

Launder-sampler, a H. B. Fields.... 919 

Levers, Henry, flotation work of 352 

Law and patents Editorial. . . . 696 

Ditto W. E. Greenawalt 847 

Leaching at Yerington 94 

Copper at Ludwig, Nevada 942 

Copper ores 485 

Ditto W. Lawrence Austin. ... 199 

Slime tailing Lawrence Addicks.... 205 

Lead bullion sampling 310 

Disposal of Australian 895 

In terne plate 14 

Nitrate in cyanidatlon 58 

Prices and market conditions — every week. 

Smelter in Idaho 502 

Wool 177 

Zinc deposits of Wisconsin 359 

Leadville, Colorado 253, 529 

In the early days 815 

Unwatering the Down-Town district at 

An occasional correspondent. . . . 355 

Leady copper matte, handling H. F. Easter. . . . 484 

Lehigh Zinc Co 315 

Leslie. E. H Spelter situation .... 5 

Ditto On the metallurgy of zinc. . . . 162 

Lessees' results at Tonopah 686 

Lewis, J. H. .Electro-static separation of pyritic zinc ores... 927 

Lewis, Robert S Perseverance mine and Alaska 

Gastineau mill 397 

■ n hi work ol . «t9 

Ijhiik. ii T u kh Chang mini 


In aluminum precipitation, aotl t 

In Pur tin nd camel I 

Produi Hon or i . , 41a 

■ ■ 
Lincoln, Francli Church. .Potoal. tln-mlnlng dl 

Litigation at Gold 

"f sli pan I oa in n.-kimn 

The status of Rotation 

And assessmenl of clatmi 

1 'I mining claims ,, 

Locke, Km. st <: tmateur 1 

Ditto Tin- Pi 

Loco head IjkJum in milieu 

LOdl in 1 m UK in Alaska 

London letter. 102, 1 . ■ 

Longitude, determination of 

Lordsburg. New Mexico 

- iiik at... .1:. H Cromwell >lfl 

l^iss in smelting sine 163 


lie governing cupellatlon W. J. Bharw 1 . . . im 

Low, v p\ Stanley... Cyanidatlon In Western Australia..., BIS 

Ditto Flo tat I oi tump ore,.., B7B 

1. inn, Horace F a fluorspar mine In Colorado. 


Machinery, moving w, n. Storms.... 808 

I'luo k. P. Dudley.. B59 

Magnui t'opp.-r ' '".. con 1 porl 181 

Magnesite ',7*; 


In California 

Qualities of 713 

Work on in California 600 

Magnesium 82B 

use of ssi^ 

Magnetic examination "f iron-ore deposits 

Separator pulleys 332 

Surveying 885 

Magnetometer, the 385 

Mnl:irhite. use of 665 

Malakoff gravel mine 43 

Mammoth Copper Co., work of 793 

Manganese 575 

In Arizona 832 

In the Caucasus 54 

In Russia 1 13 

Mining in Russia 1411 

Ore from Brazil 84 8 

Ores, reduction of 207 

Production of U. S 159 

Refining at Alameda 57 

Steel gyratory crusher heads 975 

Steel, use of in mining 935 

Manhattan, Nevada, developments at 455 

Ditto Perclval Nash. - . . 523 

District, merger at 7'.i"> 

Treatment at the Big Pine P. J. Quinn 320 

Manila, Philippine Islands 292 

Manjack 86 

Manning, Van H., for U. S. Bureau of Mines 225 

Ditto Director of U. S. Bureau of Mines. . . . 341 

Marcy ball-mill 7, 116 

Mariposa county, re-opening Fremont grant 833 

Martin, F. J Accidents in mines.... 621 

Mason. F. H A curious nugget. . . . 699 

Ditto Chry so tile-asbestos .... 771 

Corrections 507 

Mass copper, extraction of 679 

Massif, definition of 556 

Mathewson. E. P Flotation at Washoe reduction 

works, Anaconda 311 

Matte, cause of formation 395 

Handling leady copper H. F. Easter.... 484 

Mayo district of Yukon 371 

Mazatlan. Sinaloa 181 

McDonald. P. B. .. .American Association of Engineers.... 732 

A trip through eastern Canada 775 

Buying mining supplies 198b 

Concerning rock-drills 208 

Cornish miners in America 470 

Diamond-drilling 856 

Do engineers talk enough? 229 

Dull advertisements 354 

Efficiency engineering in mines 345 

Engineering efficiency in the Copper Country, Mich 129 

Handling drill-steel 773 

Heavy timber construction 972 

Joins staff of Press 501 

Mechanical features at a Lake Superior iron mine 50 

Mining machinery salesmen 20 

Planning mine-equipment 661 

Points of view from Lake Superior S01, 712 

Professors of mining 308 

Psychology of advertisements 622 

Rare chances 159 

Rock-drill bits 700 

Valuation of metal mines 699 

What constitutes a mining college 559 

Mechanical classifier, work of . 919 

Efficiency of crushing, the H. Stadler. . . . 697 

Ditto Algernon Del Mar. . . . 808 

Features at Lake Superior iron mine 50 

P. B. McDonald. ... 50 

Work of crushing Walter J. Rose. ... 39 

Meetings and discussions Editorial. . . . 503 

Ditto John Williams. ... 579 

Mendano, or crescentic sand-dunes 320 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. Ill 


traction, wrel method of - „ „ 

Charles A. Mulholland, . 

algaroatlon tailing, recovery of 

E. B. ThornhlH. ... 211 
In evanide solution and precipitate nation of... 

W. J, Sharwood 663 

borax glass for welding 600 

Contents of ores, methods of paying for. 

Charles H. Fulton. . . 

Export tax in Peru l- ,: i 

In bombarding * - ' 

In shrapnel J 

bees imving activity 303 

Market, Eastern Every Week. 

Ma rket review Editorial. . 

MI nee. r-"tfulations for 1;: - 

Valuatlon of T, A. Rickard 548 

Ditto Frank H. Probert . . . . 657 

Ditto P- B. McDonald 699 

( » nt put of Arizona in 1914 183 

Ditto, Butte 864 

Ditto. Eastern Stales 82 

Pricey Editorial. ... 3 

Production of Colorado in 1914 554 

I > 1 1 in. Coeux d'Alene 362 

Ditto, Lead vllle 855 

Ditto, Mt. Lyell 6 

Ditto, Nevada in 1914 369 

Ditto, Ontario, of geological periods 403 

Quotations 3 

Radiograph of 32^ 

Recovered at copper mills Hi 

Sales in Australia 502 

Scrap 9' 

Through the Canal 310 

Trade. Australian Editorial 36 

X-ray examination • 34 

Metal Ilea, assay of ore containing J. J. Bristol. ... 39 

Products-non Samuel H. Dolbear.... 56 

Metallurgical plants, accidents at 891 

Metallurgy at the Exposition, mining and 405 

Charles Butters and the new 

An interview, T. A. Rickard.... 273 

Electricity in 279 

Notes on Homestake Allan J. Clark.... 87 

Of zinc E. H. Leslie 162 

Of zinc, Economics of the ... .Walter Renton Ingalls.... 509 

On the Mother Lode 433 

The new Editorial.... 868 

Meteorites In Yukon 335 

Methods of paving for metal contents of ores 

Charles H. Fulton .... 392 

Metric system of weights and measures 924 

Mexico 221 

Ditto Editorial. ... I 

City letter 216 

Conditions in 153. 570 

Conditions in Sonora 80 

Currencv problem 11 3 

Diaz and Editorial. ... 76 

Metal exports 534 

National Railways of. company report B7J 

Oil occurrences In 570 

Taxes in 944 

Villas decree to the A. S. * R. Co 647 

Mexican affairs 181, 194. 266. 303. 540. 653. 693. 915, 951 

Ditto Editorial 803 

Bullion exports 466 

Currencv 188. 193. 216 

Fiasco, the Editorial 463 

Government, the Editorial.... 577 

Impasse, the Editorial. . . . 154 

Leaders: Carranza. Obregon, Villa. Zapata, and others, 

their work! 468 

Mill, flotation in 122 

Mines 179 

Mines and Villa 575 

News 193 

Miami Copper Co. results for half-year 452 

Flotation process, principle of 586 

Suit by Minerals Separation against 583 

Mica, occurrence of 602 

Michigan and Anaconda output 727 

Copper and iron regions, notes on 601 

Copper production L85, 256 

Iron mine, fast driving in a J. E. Hayden .... 885 

Ores, copper in 773 

Results of safety-first in 785 

Taxation of mines In 548 

Valuation of mines in 699 

Miller. WlUet G.. and Knight, Cyril W Pre-Cambrian 

ore deposits in Ontario 401 

Miller. W. G Ontario Nickel Commission. . . . 426 

Milling at Park City, Utah 471 

And mining in Wisconsin Clarence A. Wright. . . . 359 

Practice at the Trojan mine 707 

Practice, questions on A. O. Gates. ... 47 

Mills at Manhattan, Nevada 524 

Capacity in Utah, increase of 687 

Of the Big Four Exploration Co.. Utah..L. O. Howard.... 47 

Sites, does work on do for assessment? 447 

Mine accidents 540 

Ditto P. B. McDonald 732 

Ditto I \V, D 732 

Ditto W. E. Hopper. ... 810 

Ditto f..F. J. Martin 621 

Accidents In Tennessee, unusual 553 

Car. new 988 

Change-houses 204 

Derivation of *4i 

Equipment, planning P. B. McDonald.... 651 

Foundries 177 

Lights, cosl of 789 

Rescue and first-aid contests at the Exposition 527 

Rescue apparatus, effect of altitude on 713 

Rescue contests at Bisbee 452 

Mine salting, clever 691 

Taxation 548 

Timbering 318 

Valuation of metal T. A. Rickard.... 548 


Whims 602 

Mines and railroads 713 

Carbide lamps In 518 

Efficiency engineering in P. B. McDonald... 848 

Ditto • R. E. Cranston. W. H. Slu.ekley 198a 

Ditto John It. H. H. Billyard 620 

New ores difficult to tind 2 

Operator, the engineer as a Clyde M. Becker. . . . 619 

Regulations for metal 432 

Speculation In C. S. Burton. ... 37 

Valuation of Editorial. . . . 540 

Valuation of metal Frank H. Probert 657 

Ditto P. B. McDonald 699 

Waters 68 

Miner in America, the Cornish P. B. McDonald. ... 470 

The amateur Editorial. ... 151 

Ditto Ernest G. Locke. . . . 426 

Ditto Charles P. Richardson. . . . 505 

Miners at Potosi. Bolivia 128 

Bravery 225 

Of Joplln district, some characteristics of '*'■> 

Pulmonary disease among. Joplin, Missouri B26 

Refusal to meet Harold Jameson. . . . 579 

Resourceful 177 

Strike in Arizona 461 

'Miners' Inch,' use of term 423 

Mineral export tax In Peru 30* 

Float, why do Oliver C. Ralston 623 

In basic rocks 409 

In new territory 232 

Land, natural taxation of R. B. Brinsmade. ... 071 

Land, public 672 

Of Kenai peninsula. Alaska 251 

Of Seward peninsula 178 

Output of Ontario for half-year 535 

Output of the Philippines 736 

Production of California 1914 607 

Production of U. S. in 1914 886 

Resources of Texas 492 

Waste in U. S 436 

Minerals Separation machines 311 

Patents, infringements of 653 

Plant 8 

Plant at Central mine. Broken Hill 352 

Some pertinent remarks on 958 

v. Miami Copper Co 583 

Mining accidents M. Smith 848 

Ditto Paul M. Paine. P. J. Donnelly. . . . 953 

A speculation 653 

And metallurgy at the Exposition 405 

And Metallurgical Society of America, standardization 

of terms 422 

And milling in Wisconsin Clarence A. Wright 359 

Ditto Paul R. Fanning. . . . 467 

At Fairbanks, Alaska 449. 487 

Brokers meet 377 

Bureau, State of California 75 

Camps, saloons in 327 

Claims in national forests 42. 97 

Ditto H. W. Reed and L. A. Barrett. ... 157 

Ditto H. W. Reed 229 

Claims, tax on unpatented 363 

Claims, timber on L A. Barrett. . . . 15S 

Claims, what constitutes work for unpatented 639 

College, what constitutes a P. B. McDonald. . . 559 

Conditions on the Witwatersrand. . . .W. L Honnold.... 285 

Congress, American 423 

Contract, terms In 639 

Decisions 70. 150, 224. 339. 497, 573. 765, 947 

Effect of on Peru 304 

Efficiency in Michigan 120 

Engineer, the William L Saunders.... 468 

Engineer and prospector Carl A. Allen.... 807 

Geology, the study of 858 

In Arizona Charles F. Willis. ... 95. 246. 751 

In Bolivia, gold G. W. Wepfer. . . . 38 

In British Columbia, review of 329 

In California Charles G. Yale 52 

In China 443 

In Colorado George J. Bancroft. . . .55, 554, 750, 926 

In metal mines 713 

In the Perseverance mine 397 

In South Dakota 23 

In United States at mid-year 34 

In Utah L. O. Howard 15. 280. 444, 666 

Investments 305 

Kauri-gum 483 

Laws of Korea 118 

Ditto, Missouri 27 

Ditto. U. S 875 

Litigation protracted 314 

Ditto, expenses in 622 

Machinery buyers C. T. Hutchinson.... 158 

Ditto. Salesmen P. B. McDonald .... 20 

On a big scale.. . .Hennen Jennings and T. A. Rickard. ... 959 

Owning tribe of Indians Lucius L. Wittich.... 92 

Professors of P. B. McDonald 30S 

Safetv in 201 

Safety In Fred Hellmann .... 953 

School for employees 660 

Sheet-ground at Joplin 717 

Speculation in F. Lynwood Garrison .... 17 

Speculation in William Forstner. . . . 307 

Supplies, buying P. B. McDonald 198b 

System at the Ray Con 62 

The teaching of Editorial. ... 542 

Titles. Brazilian 520 

Waste In 391 

Mining and Scientific Press, increase of subscribers 693 

Mint, at the Exposition 408 

San Francisco 448, S'"l 

Vol. Ill 

MINIM, and Stimuli. I'KI SS 




■Inc district*. slmllerlt) of ... 3M 

Mini* I npton . . . 95* 

Mr nlm* »>'»! . . 301 


trlsona; monthly output .. *44 

lions 988 

Ditto in Ontario ■ V3T 

Ditto, in wuernalnml ..... 935 

Mo nail t< 32« 

not stways metal 363 

irapletea dsm 

Montei 641 

Moraines human 4 17 

ml no, Brail 1, depth "f 1 1 3 

Mosquitoes in mud 639 

Mother Lode ore dreeelnf on B S Pettle. . . . 433 

well W .Flotation hi the Inspiration mine.... LM 


Motor back-Bear type 14 

Back-seared, use <>f 

Drive and water-wheel 7i 

Explosion -proof 83 

K.»r flotation * citation 161 

In Tonopah-Helmont mill 

v belt* 88 

Mt I.v.-ll. COStl ..t 46 

' output i»f .">! 

Mt Morgan Gold MinlnK Ook, Ltd., company report 889 

notation at 

Mountains, rlusalhVuthm of 868 

Moving machinery \v. M. storms.... 80S 

Ditto E P i ludlej 988 

Mulr, Jr.. Pownle D Sampling low-grade ore on a 

large scale 737 

Mulga, heating power of 632 

Mulholland, Charles A Wet methods of mercury 

• vtraction 316 

Munroe Henry s 226 

Mures process in Chile 49 

.Manhattan. Nevadu. . . . 


Perclval . ^ 

National, Nevada 

Railways of Mexico, company report 

National Tube Co. at the Exposition 

Natomaa of California, company report 

Natural gas output of Eastern States 

Taxation of mineral land R. B. Brinsmatie. . . . 

Neva, la. metal production in 191-1 

Nevada Consolidated Copper Co.. company report 259. 

Dumping area 

L-Douglaa leaching plant 

Mine treatment at 

Nevada Wonder Mining Co.. company report 

New Almaden. some history of 

New Jersey Zinc Co.'s shares 

Origin of 

Newell, P. H American Association of Engineers.... 

Ditto The engineer awakes.... 

New Mexico mining 

Review of state 

New York letter 

As s money centre 

As the world's money centre 

Stock Exchange transactions 

New Zealand production of kauri-gum 



At Fond du Lac. Alberta 

Commission. Ontario W. G. Miller.... 

In coins 

In copper 

Mining at Sudbury 

Nipissing silver output 

Nitrate deposits of Idaho and Oregon 


Nome. Alaska 

Statistics of 

Non-metallic products Samuel H. Dolbear . . . . 56. 

Norris. Dudley H Flotation — a paradox.... 

North Butte mine output 

Northport Smelting & Refining Co 

Sine] ter. progress at 

North Star mine development 

v. Empire suit 

Notes from South America Mark R. Lamb. . . . 

On flotation J. M. Callow 

On Hnmestake metallurgy Allan J. Clark.... 

Novel debris dam Lerov A. Palmer .... 

Nugget, a curious F. H. Mason .... 

Oatnian mining district. Arizona 63, 

Ditto Howard D. Smith...: 

Boom methods 

Geology of 

View of the profession on 

Office etiquette for busy men John Worden .... 

Ditto P. B. M 

Oil and air in flotation 

And gas. origin of 

Buoyancy of 

Displacing coal on Pacific coast 

Films on water Editorial .... 

For flotation determined by local supply 

Gushers in Mexico 

In Alberta 

In China 

J 61 



4 21 








on in i ion. ne< ■! ••! 

In Mexico 

In T. , - 

da, the nu. 
ivini*\ tvanla 

i*i odu< i i i 'allfoi in., 

ii odu< lion *>r iiiinoiN 

Pi odui ii i Penns) h urn., 

Prodi i a m It] i 

Pi .mIu, ti.. ii ,,r u., n ..i i.i 

in Hotel i . 

orlslng temperature 

Vlscoslt | -.r 

Well No. ? in Mi it I. .. i in. t .1 

mi Industr} association, organisation of In s. F ... ■ 

Oilfields of California, supervision _•::. 

Oklahoma. iiiIIIh In 7ur, 

old issue, mi Editorial... ami 

Oleic .i. hi in Dotation 348 

Manufaoturs ..i 

Ontario, void and silver output B86 

Mineral production ''ii 

Nickel commission w. u. Miller. 

Pre*Cambrla <■ deposits In 

Will, i i; Miller and Cyril W. Knlgln 401 

oivvx and agate 54 

'Ore' and 'Concentrate' Bis 

Ore in Joplln, deptb of 626 

At Park City i;i 

Bin construction I 

Buying Law In Colorado 

By parcel-post US, in 

Containing metallic.*, assay J. .1. Bristol.... :t'.' 

Deposits in Ontario. I're-l 'n nibrlan 

Willet (i. Miller ami Cyril w. Knight 401 

Deposits, models of 526 

Deposits on Douglas Island, .■...nslltulion of 639 

Dressing on the Mother Lode E. S. Pettis.... 188 

In granite 50S 

in Korea 706 

Methods of paying for metal contents of 

Charles H. Fulton . . . . 392 

On a large scale, sampling low-grade 

Downie D. Muir. Jr.... 737 

Persistence of on Kand 966 

Reserves of the Braden mine 32:1 

Stealing Editorial. . . . I64 

Treatment at Park Citv. Utah 472 

Verticals 753, 831 

'Ore in sight.' use of term 12:' 

i»r.|;i.ii minerals at the Fxposilion 138 

Oriental Consolidated Mining Co., company report 651 

Mills, cost of 887 

Ore-treatment at 706 

Trouble with rain 456 

Original Amador mill 435 

Orovtlle Dredging Co 34 

Ouray, Colorado 680 

Over-thrusts 560 

Oxnam. Jr.. T. H Concentrate: Then and now.... 308 

Oxy-acteylene 97 

For welding 975 

Oxygen, in explosives, liquid 589 

.Mining accidents. 

Pacific Gas & Electric Co. report 

Paine. Paul M 

Paints, protective 

Palmer. Leroy A - A novel debris-dam.... 

Pan-American Scientific Congress 

Panama Canal 615, 767, 

Dredging at 

Excavation at 

History of the. New Book 

Metals through the 


Tonnage through 

Panama-Pacific International Exposition — 

An impression T. A. Rickard. . . . 

The end of the 

Electric locomotives at the 

Pumps at the 

Parcel-post for ore 113, 

Park City district, Utah, hoisting-works in the 

L. O. Howard. . . .545, 


Tailings at 

Pay-days in California 

Patents and secrecy Editorial .... 


From Salt Lake City 

Law and Editorial.... 

Ditto W. E. Greenawalt. . . . 

New flotation 

Recent 98, 288, 562. 

Pebbles, tube-mill 

v. balls for Hardinge mills 

Permanganate of potash, use of in tracing bore-hole 

Perseverance mine and Alaska Gastineau mill 

Robert S. Lewis.... 

Persistence of ore on the Rand 

Peru, export tax on minerals 

Gold production of 

Metal export tax 

Mineral exports of 

Possibilities of 

Some notes on 

Petrograd, Russia 140. 

Pettis. E. S Ore dressing on the Mother Lode.... 

Phenomena in flotation 

Philippine Dredges. Ltd 

Philippine Islands 

Dredging in the 
















3 62 





MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. Ill 


Philippine Islands, history >>t gold mining In •}-■• 

Mineral output of 

■ - and psychology Editorial.. 

.11 and Industrial enei 

Prodm tlon of United States, September 

I'm. Cn h 

Ploneei ated mine 866 

Pipes at the Exposition 

Testing for quality •>''•' 

on of « 

Areas In northern Idaho 94 




writing George I His smith. 

Planning mine-equipment P. B. McDonald . . 

Plant ats In Korea A, E. Drucker. . 

Platinum assaying ai the Boss mine 

Frank A. Crampton.. 

Ditto Thomas T. Head.. 

Deposits of the world briefly described 270 

Production of Columbia '■'■'>> 

Production of U. S II J 


Situation In Russia 672 

The search tor G. S. Scott.... 270 

Wisconsin 100. 251, 603, 790, 936 

Plymouth Consolidated, gold output 294, 490 

in. Rotation B50 

Pneumatolysls 528 

tor, the 72 

l mining in California 332 

i 8 6 

tlon of r, S 377 

Porcupine, Ontario 182, 791 

Dividends 988 

On fli posits 575 

Hilarity of ore 

ble rock-loader B85 

. I.aki , Michigan 645 

Portland cemei position of 713 

Portland Gold Mining Co. buys St rat ton's Independence.... til 

And compensation 250 

Position of the lube-mill Algernon Del Mar.... 180 

Potash Editorial. - - 196 

American Editorial. . . 

Prom w i ash 

In kelp 213 

in Utah 16 

Sa Us imports 

Salts in Texas 212 

Potosl tin-mining district, Bolivia. .Francis Church Lincoln. . 127 

Potter flotation process 

Power consumed at Tonopah- Belmont mill 324 

Costs 536 

Required for electric smelling 789 

Used in notation 862 

Praclieal ideals George Otis Smith. . 

Pre-) 'ambrtan ore deposits in Ontario 

Wlllet G. Miller and Cyril W. Knight.. 
Precipitate and cyanide solution, determination of mercury in 

W. .1. Sharwood .... 

Precipitating action of carbon in cyanide solutions 

O. C. Ralston 

Ditto W, B. Blythe 

Precipitation at the mill of the Butters Ihvisadero Co., Alu- 
minum K. M. Hamilton and P. H. Crawford.... 

Of copper by electrolysis R. R. Goodrich. . . . 

Of gold, silver and copper from cyanide solutions, elec- 
trolytic G. H. Clevenger. . . . 

Willi zinc-thread ray A. Carpenter.... 

Preferential flotation Edward Walker. .. .269, 

Preparedness 843 

Ditto Editorial 877 

Pressure v. exhaust ventilation 518 

Preston. Ernest T Deflection of a diamond -drill bore. ... 361 

Probert, Frank IT Valuation of metal mines. . . . 657 

Processes at Park City 472 

Production of gold and silver in U. S. in 1914 381 

Professors of mining P. B. McDonald. . . . 308 

Prolong, use of in zinc smelting 511 

Prospect and retrospect Editorial .... 616 

Prospecting, feature of 307 

In Australia 353 

On the Chiksan concession Charles W. De Witt 896 

pector, the Ernest G. Docke. . . 

Ditto F. L. Sizer... 

Ditlo W. W, Waters 427 

-Mining engineer and Carl A. Allen... 

Prospectors, engineers, and amateurs ..Editorial... 

Ditto Deverett S. Ropes. . . 

Psychology of advertisements P. B. McDonald... 

Of advertising Editorial. . . 

Publicity agents, use of 

And advertising P. B. McDonald. . . 

Ditto Editorial . . . 

Pulmonary disease among Joplln, Missouri, miners 826 

Pumice deposits in California 599 

Pumping at Deadville 35 6 

At the Commonwealth mine. Arizona . .Edgar A. Collins. ... 786 
Pumps at the Exposition 652 

Cost of operating 507 

Quarrying, accidents in 920 

Quartz dolerite at Kalgoorlie 23 9 

In Victoria, Australia * 279 

Mining at Fairbanks 25. 449 

Uses of 599 

Veins in slate, characteristics . 882 

Quebec, asbestos in 776 

Questions on milling practice A. O. Gates. ... 47 

Quicksilver, assay of 663 

Development in Texas 370 

Extraction, wet method of 346 

Freezing 58 

From Italy 153 










Quicksilver. Improvements In metallurgy of 768 

In Arizona 938 

In western Nevada l 

Prices and market conditions— every Wi 

Quantitv in L". S. ores 

Quinn, P. J Treatment at the Big Pine, Manhattan. 


Radium % 212 

Cost of L. O. Howard.... 166 

Determination in ores 176 

Minerals 679 

Treatment of carnotlte ores for 97* 

Railroad construction in Russia 

Ralston. O. C Precipitating action of carbon in cyanide 

solutions 77 

Ditto Why do minerals floal ?. . . , 62S 

Ralston. W. C An early ball-mill.... B79 

Rand, air- bias ts 616 

Cost of living on 84 

i ieath-rate on the ,; ^- 

« iold Min put "i" 559 

Mining conditions -*■"■ 

Ore-bins 135 

Rock-drilling practice on the 882, B98 

Some history of 962 

'Range,' definition of 827 

Rankin-Westling process 30$ 

Rare chances P. B. McDonald.... 16S 

Rats in Chinese coal mines 

Kay Consolidated Copper Co.. company report 254, BOO 

Raj Hercules I topper Co 653" 

Ditto, a new porphyry ''I' 1 

Read, T. T Engels mine and mill. . 161 

Ditto Platinum assaying at the Boss mine. . 

ling instruments at the Exposition 876 

Recovery and use of thallium L. S. Austin... 930 

Of mercury from amalgamation tailing 

E. B. Thornhlll 211 

Redwood Manufacturers Co. at the Exposition 262 

Reed. H. W Mining claims in national forests. . . .157, 229 

Ditto .L. A. Barrett .... 157 

Refusal to meet miners Harold Jameson. . . . 579 

Regulations for metal mines 432 

Reigart, J. R Grouting In a shaft.... B59 

Relative errors in alluvial sampling. . . .Charles S. Haley. ... 79 

Ditto 11- H. Elliott... 165 

Reminiscences, technical D. W. Brunton. ... 811 

Ditto E. Gybbon Spilsbury. . . . 10, 31 I 

Replace!-, use of. in cyaniding ores 560 

Report, who owns a? Editorial. . . 665 

DlttC Corey C. Brayton . . . . 920 

Ditto Dorsev Hager. ... 848 

Ditto F. L. Sizer.... 920 

Republic, Washington 498 

Re-soiling dredged ground in Australia 679 

•Re-sorbed,' definition of 566 

Revett. Ben S How my first introduction to notation 

bubbles cost me hard labor and more bubbles 590 

Rheostat for electric hoist 546 

Rhyollte intrusions 557 

Richardson. Charles P Amateur miner, the.... 506 

Richardson, Clifford Colloidal chemistry. ... 48 

Rickard. T. A An interview. Charles Butters and the 

new metallurgy - 273 

Ditto Grass Valley re-vislted. . . . 11 

Ditto. . . .Hennen Jennings and mining on a big scale. . . . Bj69 

Ditto Igneous intrusion ... . 566 

Ditto The Exposition — An impression.... 280 

Ditto Valuation of metal mines. . . . 548 

Ditto What is flotation? 382 513 

Ricketts, L.. D.. Honor at Exposition 803 

Ditto Arizona and modern mining. .. . 862 

RIdgway filler, operation of - 821 

Rindge. Jr., Fred H. . . .Application of efficiency principles. . . 476 

Rittinger's law of rock crushing 446 

Roads in South Dakota 984 

Roasting concentrate (79 

Furnace for cyanide clean-up. . K23 

Roberts. J. C. appointment "67 

Rocher de Boule copper mine 371 

Rochester Mines Co 186 

Development 835 

Mill, the G. w. Wood ... 811 

Rock-drill bits P. B. McDonald.... 700 

Drilling practice on the Rand 882, 898 

Rockefeller. Jr.. John D., in Colorado 539 

Rodgers. M. K Standardizing rock-crushing tests.... 711 

Roller-bearings • B82 

Rolls in coarse-crushing plants 593 

And hall-mills v. stamps Editorial. . 576 

Roof-masses, definition of 556 

Roosevelt drainage-tunnel 365. 641 

Rope guides _^s 

Rope.s, care of 713 

Factor of safety in hoisting " 

Sheaves and drums for 213 

Ropes. Leverett, S., Prospectors, engineers, and amateurs.. ^* (1 

Rose, Walter J Mechanical work of crushing. ... 3 9 

Round Lake mine, the C. P. Bowie. 

Round Mountain Mining Co., company report 984 

Rowley. Frank The carat.. 845 

Royalty in flotation L54 

Ruhl. Otto Joplin and the SDelter boom .... 206 

Rule governing cupellatlon losses W. J. Sharwood.... 481 

Russia copper production 96 

Distress in — an appeal »21 

Gold, copper, manganese • 140 

Import duty on copper fi9 ;j 

Manganese in H3 


Safety-first at Butte 421 

In hoisting ropes, factor of. 602 

Vol Ml 

Ml\l\U and Sc.cru.tu I'KI .» 

1 I 

|U| ..f 

In mlnlna ■ *?I 

Ditto M.-lliitunn. . . . Ml 
Flotation plant ol tin I'tuh i.rnnii ■ 


Sailing- mln- - .......... 6*1 

II I: I I « ltl ■ 

irs "• if. 

-t-r mill • . 3JS 
r. D. Wl 

Drlll-hol« b) dynamite 

Low -i on a Inner scale Dovnli D. Mulr, Jr.. 

Mill t. i 

■ -r..r in alluvial.... Charles S Halt) 

Dltti R H Blllotl -. 465 

Michigan mills. ua« of 

M«thod ol lampllni mill pulp 

Tuiima. tramming J.*.-*.- Simmons. 


San Francisco mint in August [*J 

s«n Juiin. the, in aarly duys »** 

Bants F« Gold A Coppar <*.. 

Santa Oartrudls output in Juns : *i2 

Quarterly report -* 6 ' 

San t Ism district, I iregon *'{- 

Si i .1 1 iu-i. nilntnic In •*" 

Sjiturn.- company litigation 8M 

Saunders, l> SI I var discovery in the Yukon... 121 

Saunders, William U The mining engineer. . . . 468 

Saving fine gold T. \\\ Gruetter 698 

Scheellte un.l gold 560 

in California 666 

Schwab, Charles Iff., and Bethlehem Steel 639 

Scientific Instruments at itn- Exposition 340 

Man a cement, the utility of rest intervals 

w. h. Shockley 809 

Scott. G. s The search for platinum. .. . 270 

Scott. Walter A Arguments on dotation.... 583 

Sea-water, gold In 

Condensed for boilers &60 

Secondary enrichment 713 

pat ion in rocks, definition of 558 

Selby Lead A Smelting Co., fume Investigation 878 

Smelter Commission 878 

Ive action in notation 131 

lum and tellurium in copper bullion assays, removal of. 

Geo. L. Heath 161 

Seoul Mining Co 147 

New mill , ; 1 ' 

Production 258 

Serbian copper output (27 

Seven Troughs Coalition sold output 455 

Mine rich returns 334 

Shackell, Bdward H Flotation in Australia 620 

Shaft, grouting in a J. R. Reigart 859 

Reversal of draft In 385 

Timbering at Los o.-ot.-s. steel R. H. Cromwell.... 519 

Shaler. N. S., notes on 959 

Shannon Copper Co. report 62 

Shares of no par value Editorial.... 305 

Sharwood, W. J Rule governing cupellation losses.... 481 

l 'itto. .. .Determination of mercury in cyanide solution 

and precipitate 663 

Shattuck mine. Arizona, minerals found in 882 

Sheet-ground mining at Joplln 717 

Sheldon, G. L. Assay ers and their ways. ... 628 

Shellshear. W Disposal of flotation residue. . . . 892 

Shocklev, W. H Efficiency engineering at mines. . . 198a 

Ditto. .Scientific management, the utility of rest intervals. 309 

Ditto i Big Business.... 425 

Should directors speculate Editorial .... 227. 267, 422 

Shrapnel, metal in w 1 

Slemens-Halske process 742 

Silica, notes on 599, 600 

Graphite paint 975 

Silt in Mississippi river 14 

Silver, a bv-product of smelting 249 

And gold production of U. S. In 1914 381 

Antimonlde 283 

As chloride In Texas 486 

Currency in Sonora 303 

Discovery in the Yukon D. Saunders.... 121 

Editorial 378 

Every week. 

In Michigan mines, native 789 

Lead ore from Yukon 73. 114 

Lead smelting, blast-furnace gases in 04 

Losses in cupelling 481 

Occurrences of in Tonopah-Belmont mine 560 

Ores, amalgamation of 211 

Prices and market conditions — every week. 

Production of Potosi 127 

Proportion produced by Tonopah 127 

Recovery by flotation 122 

The rise in 844 

Used by Eastman Kodak Co 949 

Silver King Coalition hoist. Utah 629 

Silver Lake mine, Colorado 219 

Simmons, Jesse Tramming sand-tailing. . . . 475 

Ditto Trojan ore and milling practice. . . . 707 

Sinking the Woodbury shaft, Michigan J. M. Broan.... 734 

Sizer. F. L The prospector. . . . 580 

Ditto Who owns a report?. . . . 920 

Skidoo Mines Co 368 

Skip and cage, changing 547 

Skips, automatic, v. belt-elevators 593 

Slide-rule 340 

In rock analyses 602 

Slime settlement aided by thickness 679 

Tailing, leaching Lawrence Addicks. . . . 205 

"'Sluice-head." use of term 423 

Sin. It. i . Spaolt) for /in. ■ ■> . 

I-'ui.l. ICdltO! I 

HOW not to bull. I n 

i in Idaho . . 60S 

It squire nts to tint ■•!. 

Bmelttng, blast furnace «•■«•■ In silver-lead ... t»* 

Infoi mat Ion . ...... 

... IBS 
■ ompai Ison of sine 
Sum i.. George "tin Plain writing 

i Utto Practical ld< ..i- 

Bmlth, Howard D.. Oatman district, arlsoni 

Smith. M Mining. s »^ 

Warren D .Oeology »i< an aid to tropical englneerln 

Smithsonian Institution, report 

Bnake Range tungsten area, Nevada 

Sncdakoi G . .Hammer-drilling in Colorado.... 6*9 

Soap-bubbles, some notes on 

Roapstonc and tai- production 1 1 

So, i ill am 7:1 

G t\ ol Naval Architects and Main.- Engineers li« work 

in tie' International Bin gin coring Congress 379 

s. 1.1,1 tsh in » ->;in i.i. solutions for aluminum precipitation. . . 3hh 

So|, it suit 

Soiubi. compo ore on flotation, effects of 

Sonora, California 

Sonora. Mexico, conditions in SO 

• Qwalla mill, stage » rushing 

si a nip- Tni 11. Improvements and costs 079 

Soloed,' and verrugas BOfl 

South America, trade with ECdltorlal, IBB 

Notes on Mark It. Lamb.. 

South Dakota al the exposition L4fl 

South EBureka Mining Co. returns Bill 

Spec I lie gravity Of minerals 789 


Speculation in mines I*'. Lyuwood Garrison .... 17 

Ditto C. S. Burton 37 

Ditto William Porstner. 

Spelter, commercial grades of 536 

Drop In price 265 

Prices and market eondittons — every week. 

Product Inn, increasing 

Situation, the K. II. Leslie.... 5 

Spilsbury. E. Gybbon Technical reminiscences. .. .40. 314 

Spokane as a mining centre 762 

Square-set timbering changed for waste-till method 753 

Ssu-Chuan, gold in II 

Stadler, H Mechanical efficiency of crushing. . . . 697 

Stamp-milt repairs 447 

Milling In Georgia N. S. Keith.... 119 

v. rolls and ball-mills Editorial 576 

Standard Oil Co. at the Exposition 408 

standard silver-lead mine 387 

Standardization 4 22 

Standardizlng rock-crushing tests M. K. Rodgers.... 711 

State Mining Bureau. California Editorial.... 75 

Status of flotation litigation, the Editorial 917 

Staurolite 486 

St.ani shovel work in the Klondike 322 

Valve, new 914 

Steel, for drills 844 

High-speed, constituents of 249 

Industry of Canada 937 

Output increases copper consumption 693 

Plant at Duluth, Steel Corporation 284 

Shaft-timbering at Los Ocotes R. H. Cromwell.... 519 

Steel Corporation, U. S., accident prevention by the 

A. A. Wllloughby 82 

Duluth plant 284 

Stimler district, Nevada 170 

Stinger, use of in drilling 670 

Storms, W. H Moving machinery. . . . 808 

Story of a career, the Editorial. . . . 952 

Stratton's Independence sold to Portland 61 

Stream gauging, importance of 447 

Strike in Arizona, the Editorial.... 695 

Ditto Walter Douglas.... 771 

Strontium hydroxide, use of 486 

Study of mining geology 858 

Sulphur for repairs 249 

In ores 395 

Sublimed 177 

Sulphuric acid in leaching ore 199 

Strength of 327 

Sunflower Cinnabar Mining Co 938 

Surface adsorption 623 

Tension 513 

Ditto Will H. Coghlll 543 

Tension of liquids 383, 583 

Tension of water 382 

Surveying a diamond-drill hole 361, 857 

Magnetic 3$5 

Symons disc-crusher 7, lit; 

Swansea Vale zinc smelter 341 

Sweden, electric production of Iron 789 

Smelting at Laxo 882 

Tailing mill at Joplin 83 1> 

Trouble at Georgetown, Colorado 068 

Tailings at Park City J'J 

Damaging creeks at Cobalt 29* 

Disposal at Wasp No. 2 475 

For brick 311 

Tale and soapstone production 14 

Tamping tool • • • - 9i.t 

Tanganyika Concessions 22s>, |!h4 

Taxes in Bolivia and Peru <6i 

In Mexico, new 944 

In Michigan, consolidation to escape 369 

Taxation of mineral land, natural R. B. Brinsmade . . . . 671 

Of mines in Michigan and Wisconsin 549 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. Ill 

Taxation >*f mines 648 

Value "t Arizona mines i4.j 

Taylor compreaeor - 234 

ag, the Editorial 

Technical data, ml a use of Frank A. Crampton 954 

Pap- 11 'ion of 422 

Rem I E. Gybbon Spllsbury 40. 314 

Ditto D. W. Brunton *11 

Societies --ii the Rand 968 

estate, Cornwall, sold 6a4 

Tellurium in 1 <>pper bullion assays, removal of selenium and 

L. Heath 161 

Temperature In zinc distillation 511 

'Ten fen te Topics,' new publication 265 

on surface Will H. Coghill 543 

Tension, surface, of water... 382 

Terne plate 97 

Manufacture 14 

Plate and tin-plate 443 

Nikola 9*9 

Testing working cyanide solutions 136 

Texas copper, quicksilver, and sulphur deposits 870 

Mineral resources of 492 

oilfields 182 

Potash salts 212 

Thallium, recovery and use of I* S. Austin. . . . 930 

Thawing frozen ground In Russia 932 

Thermit-welding cam-shafts 447 

Thorne. W. E Woven wire for revetment. . . . 733 

Thornhill, E. B Recovery of mercury from amalgamation 

tailing 211 

Three Kings Silver Mining Co 280 

Timber construction, heavy P. B. McDonald. . - . 972 

Effect of preservatives on 679 

Framing 177 

Jn Alaska 294 

Loose In mine 602 

Making large 789 

Mine, peeling bark 829 

On mining claims L. A. Barrett. ... 158 

Shaft, framing 639 

Timbering at Los Ocotes, steel shaft. . . . II. H. Cromwell. ... 519 

Square set method 639 

Tin boiler-plugs, fusible 249 

Geology In Straits Settlement 179 

In Alaska 757 

In terne plate 14 

Mining district, Bolivia, Potosi 

Francis Church Lincoln.... 127 

Ores between European smelters and Bolivian miners... 175 

Plate and terne-plate 443 

Prices and market conditions — every week. 

Situation in Cornwall 716 

Smelting in Bolivia 129 

Smelting in Fnited States 33 

Tintic district. Utah, geology of 662. 761 

Electric power and leasing at 493 

Tintir Milling Co 28 

Tip Top silver-tungsten mine. Arizona 905 

Titles. Brazilian mining 520 

Tolovana, Alaska 32*, is*, lyn 

Tomboy Gold Mines Co 843 

Company report 800 

Tom Reed gold mine 174 

Tonopah-Belmont mill, crushing at 391 

Cost of constructing the 824 

using at 686 

Proportion of Nevada's silver output 427 

Toi onto, i (ntarlo 139, 880, i4s. 71s. S64, 937 

Tough -Oak es finances 293 

Towne-Fllnn notation machine 8 

Trade balances 33 

Foreign 668 

Openings In China 665 

With South America Editorial. . . - 195 

Tramming sand -tailing Jesse Simmons. . . . 475 

Treadwell, house rent at. 868 

m< hi at the Big Pine. Manhattan P. J. Qulnn. . . . 320 

At the West End mill 284 

Charge in South Dakota 610 

Of carnotlte ores for radium :<7 \ 

Tie n 1 agitator 284 

I 'yaniding apparatus 435 

Trtbophoaphoreacence in ore 591 

Trip through eastern Canada P. B. McDonald.... 775 

1 and milling practice . ..(esse Simmons. .. . 707 

Tropical engineering, geologv as an aid to 

Warren D. Smith. ... 437 

Tube-mill feed, ratio of return to initial feed 363 

Efficiency of short 581 

Liners. Komata 281, Mis 

i'. 1. Ides 58, 284 

Position of the Algernon Del Mar.... 130 

V. Chilean 581 

Tul Ml Chung mill. Korea 456 

Tungsten 803, 830, 83 1 

And gold 560 

And gold at Wasp No. 2 Mine, South Dakota 253 

1 !ha ract eristics of 975 

I terlvatlon of 930 

1 1< i er ml nation of 924 

In California 565, 966 

In Colorado 750 

I I Cornwall 5fi7 

In South Dakota 365. 609 

In White Pine county, Nevada . . . .% 365 609 

Minerals in 140 

Mines in Cornwall 341 

Notes on B84 

Ore. prices for 611 

Ore, simple test for 975 

Production In Colorado 645 

Silver ore at Tip Top mine, Arizona 905 

Tuolumne w. A Bradley 954 

Count; ■ rnla, revival in 

im 1 a is in 140 


Undercurrents Chas. s. Haley. ... 6 

Union Amalgamated Mining Co.. new company at Manhat- 
tan. Nevada 795 

Union Mlntere Ju Katanga ::*; . 

Union Oil Co. at the Exposition 408 

University Of California students on flotation 160 

Un watering that Down -Town district at Leadvllle 855 

United States Bureau of Mines at the Exposition 106 

And fume investigation 878 

Work on radium !»74 

United States commerce 540 

Courts, procedure in :<i 7 

■ >loglca 1 Survey at the Exposition 401 

Gold and silver production m 1914 ::*2 

Mineral production in 1914 .- 886 

Mints in September 665 

Population over 100,000,000 377 

Trade ' I 

United States Steel Corporation at the Exposition 408 

Awards at Exposition 460 

Corporation zinc plant 7^7 

Utah, claims surveyed in 7ss 

Dividends 943 

Increase in mill capacity . 687 

.Mining in L. O. Howard 15, 280. 414, 666 

Potash in 806 

Wages 187 

Utah Copper Co., property at full capacity 146 

Report 251 

Utah Leasing Co., dotation plant of the. .Herbert Salinger. . . . 899- 

Vacuum-filter, Butters 276 

Pump, a new 692 

Valuation of mines Editorial ... . 541 

Of metal mines T. A. Rickard. ... 548 

Ditto P. B. McDonald. . . 699 

Ditto Frank H. Probert 657 

Valves at the Exposition 152 

For steam engines, new 914 

Vanadium 930 

Effect on steel 935 

Van Horn district, Texas 187 

Venezuela, some notes on S18 

Ventilated crusherheads 975 

Ventilation by churn-drill holes . 2 IS 

Conditions affecting 409 

Mine MS 

Of Copper Queen mine 452 

Of square-sets and shrinkage-stopes 409 

Verrugas, soroche and 508; 

Vertical ore in South Dakota 753 

\ |i torla, Australia, dredging in 706 

British Columbia 329- 

Villa, exit Editorial 950 

Francisco, bis photo 67 

Viscosity of lubricants 249 

Vulcanisrn 437 

Vulture gold mine, Arizooa 905 


. H. T. Liang. 

Wages at Butte 

Clifton, Arizona 

! »isi ussion of 

In Arizona 

In Utah 

Paid at Butte 

Wah Chang Antimony Co 

Mines. China 

Waltll Grand Junction, geology of... 

\V:j Ik it. Edward Preferential flotation. . . . 

Wa llaoe, Idaho. A. I. M. E. meeting at 

Wanted. Criticism Editorial 

War, after the Editorial.... 


' 'undition after the 

Cost of .-. 

Loans and casualties 

Orders tend to preparedness 

Ships destroyed during 

Stock, gambling in 

Twenty-one declarations of 

Waring separator 

Washington, D. C 902, 937 

Mining law revision 

Yearly communications 

Washoe reduction works, Anaconda, flotation at 

E, P. Mathews'tn 

Wasp No. - Mining Co. pay large dividends 

Waste in mining 

Water consumption of Kalgoorlie mines 

Effect of. on roads 

Tn chalk 

In flotation, the natural medium 

in southeastern Nevada ■ 

In yukon-Tanana region 

Problems on tropical engineering 

Supply for the Klondike hydraulic mines.. H. H. Hall.... 

Surface tension of 

Wheel and motor-drive 

Waters, w, w Prospector, the. . . . 427 

Waugh drill, use of 

Weeks, F. D - .Sampling base bullion . . . . 

Welding metals, borax glass for 

Wellington Mines Co., Colorado, output 

Wepfer, G. W Gold mines in Bolivia. . . . 

Wernher, Beit & Co 

West Africa mines, lives of 

West End mill, treatment atthe 









I la 









\,,l 111 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


,i . > anldatlon in \ 

■ III 


Wet method ••( mi ■ • • _,„ 

Ch»l ll - V M I.1I...1 . 346 

Wet her III i' ■ '" 

What ronstltuu-a a mining i-olles. I' II McDonald 

I'. He. lion ..( . 460 

illlng al. 
While riu.- niiiir Michigan ... •« 

BMIlOl ...I ... 666 

Ditto Co 

Ditto ' ' ,! ■•) Hanoi 148 

Ditto . r i. .-■ ■ 

u (i) do mineral! Hoal Ollvi i C Ralston 

Charlu T. Durell 

Ditto James A. Hi. i. k 

Editorial l»4 

... 31« 

Wllllums. John .Meetings and d 

Willis. Charlei F .Mining In Arllona 

Wlllougbby, a a v . .1.1. i , t prevention by the Steel 


r revetment woven W. K. Tie 

I:.. ims, lubrication of 

sin. change! at Plattevllle Ill, 

Mining and milling In Clarence a. Wright.... 

Ditto Paul R. Panning.... 

Taxation of nun... in 

Withdrawn oil-lands, the Editorial.... 

Wlttlch, Lucius u Mtne-ownlng tribe of Indians.... 92 


\v oo. I. .:, W Tin- Rochester mill.... 817,i fuel for aaeaytng 827 

Woodbury shaft. Michigan, sinking I. .M. Broan 

Worden, Jolin Office etiquette for busy men 61M 

Woven wire for revetment W. ED. Thorne.... 733 

Wright Clarence A.... Mining ami milling In Wisconsin. 368 

Writing, plain George Otis Smith.... B27 

Wyoming mines and olltields 150 



;,r,i i 

X-Ray examination of metals 

Yak Mining. Milling & Tunnel Co. development 453 

Tunnel. Leadville, to be extended 629 

Jale, Cbarlea <', Mining in California.... 62 

Ditto Dredging in California.... 483 

Yellow Aster Mining Co.. notes on 644 

ferlngton lea< hlng at . .. •' 

Yuk-.n Qold Co.. water suppls f"' .. SSI 

Yukon let 

Sll. . 

Sll\. !• 


\i »'-.ii roe ' >kiai 

Conditions In Wisconsin 603 

Drop in price 

..111 tallurgy of.. Walter Ronton Ingalla. . »o» 


Ditto Editorial. 

Exports from Australia 

in British Columbia 146 

in oyanlde solutions 363 

In galvanising 181 

in Park City ores 171 

In Sardinia 40 

In sIiik 88 

In South Africa I 

Lead deposits of Wisconsin 

i.oss.s in smelting 163 

Minerals, common 162 

N s on iiic metallurgy E. 11 Leslie. . . . 162 

(Ire prices rise al JODIln 366 

Ore. selling terms in it.-igium 314 

Ores, eleetro-stalle separation of pyrltlc.J. H. Lewis. 

Oxld. m /hi. -dust 660 

Precipitation, cost of 390 

Prices and market conditions — every week. 

Process, French 104 

Product in Wisconsin, high-grade 1-1, 450 

Product of llrst half of 1916 303 

Product ion of Good Springs. Nevada 608 

Production of Joplin 1106 

Production of .loplin in .Mi years 667 

Retorts, increase of 421 

Situation. Hie K. II Leslie 

Situation in Wisconsin 251 

Situation of the world in 1913 509 

Smelters, additions to 869 

Smelters In IT. S in:! 

Smelters of Europe 164 

Smelting centres of the world 509 

Smelting in Wales 341 

Smeltinis" processes 510 

Some notes on its structure 363 

The waste of S. E. Bretherton 118 

Thread, precipitation with Jay A. Carpenter.... 888 

Zinc Corporation, report 91 

The Flotation Process— 

Do you know what it is, how it operates, what it will accomplish? If you are not completely 
posted, here is a chance to get sound, comprehensive information. 

On or about March 1, 1916, the MINING and Scientific PRESS will have ready for distribution A 
NEW BOOK, edited by T. A. Rickard, ON FLOTATION— the epoch-making process. 

The editor has revised the many notable articles that have been contributed to the MINING and 
Scientific PRESS by recognized authorities and has amplified and arranged them in logical sequence, 
thus producing by far the best and most illuminating presentation of The Flotation Process that has 
ever been published. 

It is not generally understood that the flotation of metallic sulphides and of the precious metals 
can be effected by three essentially different methods: (1) Surface suspension; (2) Bulk oil buoy- 
ancy; (3) Frothing. 

These involve machines of different character but generally of simple design. All of these feat- 
ures will be reviewed, as well as many typical instances of the practical operation of the process on ores 
of different character. Full details will be given of the apparatus used for experimentation. 

The price of the book, more than 250 pages and cloth bound, is $2, postage prepaid. But there is 
a less expensive way to get it. 

Every man engaged in mining and metallurgical work 
needs this great book. Read this offer — 

For $4 


This new book is now on 
the press and will be ready 
March 1,1916. Send in your 
order now so you will be one 
of the first to receive a copy. 
Orders will be filled in the 
order they are received. 

— just four dollars, you can get this book and an entire year (52 issues) of MINING 
and Scientific PRESS. And consider that some of the foremost authorities of the 
mining world are contributors. Winchell, Leggett. Farish, Beatty, Bradley, Caetani, 
DeKalb, Garrison, Probert, Shockley, Purington. and many other leaders in their re- 
spective fields use the MINING and Scientific PRESS as 
a medium for the expression of their experience. 

Then, too, T. A. Rickard is editor. There is, perhaps, 
no other mining engineer today whose writings are so 
alive with knowledge of his field and with the experience 
and facility of expression that make interesting as well 
as instructive reading. 

MINING and Scientific PRESS is published in the 
heart of the mining country. It is first to hear news and 
to publish it. A staff of trained correspondents covers 
the field. Its resources for news gathering are superb. 
The standard of importance in the special articles pub- 
lished during the past year will be maintained in the 

You need MINING and Scientific PRESS. When you 
consider that you can have it and this great book as well, 
you should accept this offer. 

Send us the coupon and four dollars. Your subscrip- 
tion to MINING and Scientific PRESS will start at once. 
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MINING and Scientific PRESS 
420 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

ENTER my subscription to the MINING and Scientific PRESS 

beginning current issue. 
RENEW my subscription to the MINING and Scientific PRESS 

at the expiration of my present subscription / 

for one year (52 issues); also send the new book, "The Flotation Process," by T. A. Rickard. for which I enclose $4 
to be divided as follows: $3 for MINING and Scientific PRESS (U. S. and Mexico) and $1 for the book; Canada, $4 
and $1 for the book; other countries in postal union, $5 and $1 for the book. 

Name ' Vocation 

Address Position 

Company employed by 

Mining' - Press 

Volume 111 

Edited by T. A. RICKARD 


Number I 


IN THIS ISSUE we publish a timely article 
on the most advanced phase of flotation, the 
art of concentration by frothing. A metallur- 
gist of wide experience describes the experi- 
mental work that preceded the erection of the 
big mill of the Inspiration Copper Company in 
Arizona. This is, we believe, the most impor- 
tant article on the application of the process that 
has been published in recent years. 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 3, 1915 



.Ink :i. 1915 

MINING ...ul Nu-nlifu PKKSS 

1 1 1 1 : 1 1 1 < it iiitiMiia 


/, iji/i i' At 

will/makb bits 
as ushge asathis 


Perfect in form — Cor- 
ners brought out full 
and sharp, enabling the 
bit to cut faster, stay 
sharp longer and retain 
the gauge. 

Properly gauged — So 
that bits will always 
follow, avoiding loss of 
time, stuck steels, and 
generally facilitating 

Steel quality undisturb- 
ed — By not overheating 
for ease of sharpening, 
nor crystallized by sub- 
jecting the cold parts 
of steel to the shock of 

Small Cost — It sharp- 
ens rapidly with the 
minimum of labor. 
Power consumption is 
low. Leaves time for 
the blacksmith to do 
other useful work. 

The Leyner Sharpener not only forms and resharpens bits, but also shanks 
round, square, hexagonal, octagonal and cruciform steel for all drill types. 

The Leyner Drill Sharpener is simple in construction, compact, port- 
able, self-contained, easy to operate; it runs on compressed air. 
The experience is all in the machine. 

It is a one man machine. A single lever controls the operation. 
Vibration is eliminated — no foundation is required. 
The Leyner occupies less Moor space than any other sharpener. 
It is about half the weight of other sharpeners, hence freight charges 
are much less. 

It eliminates all difficulties and defects of hand sharpening. 

Bulletin No. 4022 Will Interest You. 


NEW YORK Offices the World Over LONDON 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 3, 1915 

Power C orvsuxrvjatiorv 






Ai\y -way jtovl coirv.]pa.r-e it 

Ha.rcLiivsj[e Mills win. out 

Compare a stamp battery with the smallest HARDINGE CON- 
ICAL MILL, on a unit output basis. The stamp requires s 8 H. P. per 
ton to operate — the Hardinge Mill but % H. P. 

The stamp (still figuring per ton output) weighs 800 lbs. The 
Hardinge Mill but 100. Think of the saving in shipping and erec- 
tion costs. 

A Hardinge Mill erected and in running order costs no more than 
the foundation of a stamp mill of equal capacity. 

A fifteen stamp mill has a capacity of from 50 to 60 tons per 
24 hours. A 4'A foot Hardinge Mill, costing a fraction of the price 
and occupying a quarter of the floor space, has a capacity of from 
60 TO 75 TONS per twenty-four hours. 

ANY way you compare it, a HARDINGE CONICAL MILL 
wins out. It is all because of the cone. 



50 Church St., New York 

Hendrie & Bolthofl, Sales Ag<mW for *'olorado. Wyoming. New Mexico, and 9outh Dakota. 
W. G. Swart, Foster Building. Denver Coloiado. Consulting Engineer. 

London Olflce: Salisbury House. 

Cable Address: Halhardlng. New York 

July |, MS MINING and Scientific PRESS 

In Ore Dressing 

the classifying of the particles by means of screens or 
hydraulic classifiers to facilitate the elimination of the 
gangue by concentration, is a necessary preparation. 

Screening, or classification by size, is sufficient for the simple sepa- 
ration accomplished by jigging. However, concentration of fine material 
on tables and vanners is more complex and screen classification is found 
unsatisfactory. Hydraulic classification under free settling conditions is 
recognized as being more efficient in preparing ore for concentration on 
tables and vanners. 

The development of a hydraulic classifier operating perfectly, has 
been the aim of millmen for many years. This result, however, was 
not achieved until the value of the hindered settling principle was recog- 
nized and adopted by Professor Richards in his Hindered Settling Clas- 
sifier. (This classifier produces a feed best prepared for concentration 
on tables and vanners.) 

We build two types of classifiers involving 
this principle which we can fully recommend 

The Richards Hindered Settling Classifier— the automatic type— is 
successful in the small as well as the largest plants. 

The Richards-Janney Classifier— the mechanically operated type— is 
particularly adapted to large tonnage. 

Allis-Chalmers Mf g.Co. 

Mining Machinery Department 
Milwaukee - - Wisconcin 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 3, 1915 


IN MODERN OPERATIONS the tendency is toward lower grade ore and 
greatly increased tonnage. To meet this requirement without a great multi- 
plication of concentrating machinery, the pan motion machine has been per- 
fected — doing the work of from three to seven reciprocating motion machines. 

Senn Pan Motion 

have solved the large 
tonnage problem 

and, with equal or 
better extraction, they 
mark a new era in con- 
centrating machinery. 

Treating an unclassified feed, Senn Pan Motion Machines have simplified 
and improved the efficiency of milling practice, with the result that a decided 
saving in cost is possible over established methods. 

Amalgamator with a pan 
motion is free from 
scouring, offers a length 
of plate equivalent to 
500 feet, which is the 
distance traveled by a 
particle of mineral be- 
fore being discharged. 

Combination of these two machines in your milling plant means a reduction 
in size of plant and quantity of equipment with a corresponding decrease in 
power and operation expenses. The machines are neither an experiment in mill- 
ing practice nor a 'new process.' They are the application of an old principle 
and the perfect concentration to modern requirements. 


Senn Concentrator Company 

607 First National Bank Bdg., San Francisco 

Works and Testing Plant, Oakland, Cal. 





Juh I, I'M ■ MINING »nd Scientific PRESS 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 3, 1915 


Sullivan Sharpened Drill Bits 
Cut Faster and Farther 

Old drillmen know that a bit resharp- 
ened a few times on the anvil will "hold 
its edge" better, cut faster and wear slower 
than the same bit when first made up. 

This illustrates our point when we say 
that "hammering preserves the quality 
of your drill steel." 

Hammer-working is the oldest and 
best method of refining iron and steel. 
It gives the metal finer, closer grain, 
greater strength and toughness, greater 
resistance to breakage and wear. 

The Sullivan Sharpener 

is a mechanical blacksmith that forges 
drill bits entirely by hammering. One 
powerful air-hammer upsets the steel 
and forms the face of the bit by rapid 
blows on a loose dolly. A second, ver- 
tical air-hammer draws out the wings 

and corners in steel dies, one striking, 
the other holding the rod. 

All this is done at one heat, in a min- 
ute or less, whether the bit is forged new 
from blank stock, or whether it is simply 

Great heat is not required — there is 
no danger of burning high carbon steel. 

Other features of Sullivan all-hammer 
sharpeners that appeal to you are its 
quick-acting air vise that holds up the 
steel, of any length, in an unshakable 
grip while it is being upset; its com- 
pactness, 5 feet by 2]4; its solidity and 
strength — it weighs 4000 pounds ; its 
power — each hammer is a 25»-inch Sul- 
livan liteweight rock drill ; its economy 
of air, its safety for the operator, and its 
convenient arrangement. 



122 So. Michigan Ave., CHICAGO 

461 Market St., SAN FRANCISCO 

JuU 3, 1915 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


i'-\ I I >. I i:i> 

Special Mechanical Roasters Adapted to Your 
Requirements Are a Decided Help 

So long as there are different ores to treat, different types of machines 
will be required in order to secure high recovery of values at reasonable 
operating cost. 

Further, as roasting, in treating certain ores, is an important factor, 
the type, kind, and size of roaster you use will have a direct bearing on 
the results obtained. 

Kindly write us fully, stating analysis of ore, concentrates, mixture or material 
you desire to roast, characteristics and physical condition of same, number of 
tons to be treated per twenty-four hours, and results you desire in the calcine. 

Wedge Mechanical Furnace Company 

115 Chestnut Street, PHILADELPHIA 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 3, 1915 



Built to Withstand the 
Hardest Kind of Work 

JAW CRUSHERS are strongly recommended as initial ma- 
chines where economy and large capacities are desired. 

In fact considering power, wear and tear and repairs there is 
no machine built that can be compared with the Traylor Jaw 
Crushers from a standpoint of economy. 

All crushers are fitted with Water Cooled Pitman and Bear- 
ings, Manganese or Chrome Steel Wearing parts, and many other 
improvements which it will pay you well to find out. 

CRUSHING ROLLS that stand in a class of their own and 
are fitted with improvements worked out in the field, which have 
been demonstrated in actual practice to reduce the cost of op- 
eration to almost nothing. 

many points of special merit among 
which : the main shaft suspended at 
point of least gyration, large high-arch 
spider, countershaft bearing detachable 
from lower shell, and other features of 
great importance. 

TUB MILLS that are noted for the 
small amount of power consumed and 
the elimination of the breakage of the 
heads, because of the perfect alignment 
of all our mills. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Main Office and Work : Allentown, Pa. 

New York Office: 36 CHURCH ST. 
We.tern Office: SALT LAKE CITY 

Builders of Stamp Milling, Concentrating, Rock Crushing, 
Cyanide and Smelling Machinery 

l v lUCK wu> • Editor 

amocIm* Mltor 


Aaalatant K>Ht>T 

Mining *£* Press 


Ull.lSIIKli 1|«0 

Published at tzo Market si. Baa Franolaoo i>y tha 
Uahlng Co. 


. .11. 
1 .larrlaon. 


I' II Probi 
W II Hho, kl.-v 
C w Purlng-ton 
«'. K. T..lin.ii 
Horace V Wloohell 

laaucd Kvery Saturday 

I ma per Copy 

San Francisco, July 3, 1915 

Advertisers Index— Laat Pa»o 
Huy.-ra Directory— Pace ss 


Nora l 

A U\b» I'll im t 2 

How It was overlooked. 

Flotation 3 

ihject of great present interest 
Metal Prices 3 

The sale of metals Is largely controlled by a group of 

firms that are closely affiliated. 
Bmnm 4 

A rare metal that commands a high price because of 

its scarcity. 



By E. H. Leslie 5 

The present situation is abnormal. One-third of the 
spelter output is used in galvanizing iron, the high 
price of spelter is encouraging the use of substitutes 
and when conditions come back to normal consump- 
tion may be much decreased. 


By Chat. S. Haley 6 

Profitable working in hydraulic mining requires the 
handling of a large tonnage in a short season; devices 
that would increase the recovery would not be eco- 
nomical if they reduce the tonnage. 


By W. P. Culler 6 

Our readers are Invited to send in their own form of 


Flotation at the Inspiration Mine. Arizona. 

By Another Occasional Contributor 7 

The mill will handle 15,000 tons per day of 1.63% 
copper ore. Nine different methods of recovering the 
ore by flotation have been thoroughly tested, 50 flow- 
sheets having been tried. Details of the various meth- 
ods are given. 

Grass Valley Re-visited — II. 

By T. A. Richard 11 

The North Star vein has been followed to a depth of 
6300 ft. The dip varies from a maximum of 45° to 
flat. Several useful devices have been developed at 
the North Star mine. 

Tuim. Plates it 

Lead-coated plates are being Increasingly used, since 
galvanised iron has risen in price. ii Minim, m Ssi Cm \n j^ 

Alluvial mining Is carried on at many places. At 
Maha a lode mine of Importance Is being worked. 

Mining in I'iaii. 

Iiu L. O. Hoicard 15 

The smelters do not profit from the increase in price 
of lead, and tonnage handled is not likely to be much 
Increased. Three flotation plants are In process of 
construction out of the 5 sllver-lead-zinc mills in the 

Speculation in Minks. 

By F. Lynwood Garrison 17 

Investors place too much reliance on their own judg- 
ment. Developing ore reserves is an Investment, but 
the public persists in regarding mining as essentially 
a gamble. 

Mining Machinery Salesmen. 

By P. B. McDonald 20 

The machinery salesman must understand men as 
well as machines. Unless he knows about mining he 
can rarely persuade his customers; the average drum- 
mer would not succeed in this special field. 

Geology of Gold Road Distbii r. 

By Howland Bancroft 21 

Many of the veins in this district have formed within 
the green chloritic andesite, or at the contact of rocks 
which it has penetrated, but the thickness of the 
andesite has no connection with the productiveness of 
the veins. 


concentrates 22 

Review of Mining 23 

Special correspondence from Deadwood, South Da- 
kota; Cripple Creek, Colorado; Goldfield, Nevada. 

Mining News Summary 25 

Personai 29 

Schools and Societies 29 

The Market Place; 

Metal Prices 30 

Eastern Metal Market 31 

Current Prices of Ores, Minerals. Chemicals, Oil, and 

Candles 32 

Established May 24, I860, as The Scientific Preaa; name 
changed October 20 of the same year to Mining and Scientific 


Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class mat- 
ter. Cable address: Pertusola. 

Branch Offices — Chicago. 300 Fisher Bdg. ; New York, 1308-10 
Woolworth Bdg.: London, 724 Salisbury House, E.C. 

Price, 10 cents per copy. Annual subscription: United States 
and Mexico. $3: Canada, $4; other countries in postal union. 
21s. or $5 per annum. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 3, 1915 

More or Less Air 
by Shifting Brushes 
of Fan Motor 

"100 H.I'. Brush Shifting Motor." 

Install this variable speed brush shifting motor 
when the air demand is low — for new slopes or levels. 
As the working face recedes and the air need in- 
creases, shift the brushes to give any speed increase 
desired within a three to one range. 
At all speeds this motor is very efficient. 
From full speed to standstill all speed changes are 
obtained without external control equipment — simply 
shift the brushes. 

General Electric Company 

Atlanta. Ga. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Birmingham, Ala. 
Boston, Man. 
Buffalo. N. Y. 
Butte, Modi. 
Charles too, 
Charlotte. N.C 

Cincinnati, Ohio 
Cleveland, Ohio 
Columbus. Ohio 
Dayton, Ohio 
Denver, Colo. 
Dei Moines. Iowa 
Duluth. Minn. 
Elmira. N. Y. 
Erie. Pa. 
Fori Wayne. Ind. 
Hartford, Conn. 
Indianapolii, Ind. 

General Office 


action ville , Fla. 

oplin. Mo. 

Canaai Cilv, Mo. 
Knoxville. Tenn. 
Lot Angeles. Cal. 
Louisville. Ky. 
Memphis. Tenn. 
Milwaukee, Wit. 

Schenectady. N. Y. Omaha, Neb. 

Philadelphia. Pa 
Pittsburgh. Pa. 

M:-™.„ >: Portland. Ore. 

inneapolii, D ., D , 

M inn Providence. R. I. 

Nashville, Tenn. Richmond. Va. 
j New Haven, Conn. Rochester, N. Y. 
New Orleani La. Salt Lake City, 
New York. N.Y. Utah 
Niagara Falls, San Francisco, 

N. Y. Cal. 

For Michigan business refer to 
General Electric Company of 
Michigan, Detroit. Mich. 
For Texas. Oklahoma and 
Arizona business refer to 
Southwest General Elec- 
tric Company (formerly 
Hobson Electric Co.), 
Dallas, El Paso. Hous- 
ton and Oklahoma 
For Canadian bus- 
iness refer to 
Canadian Gen- 
eral Electric 


Seattle. Wath. 
Spokane, Wash. 
Springfield, Mass. 
Syracuse, N. Y. 
Toledo. Ohio 

D. C. 

Youngstown. Ohio 

"100 H.P. Brush Shifting Motor Driving 
IOu.000 cu. ft. Fan at Aullman. I'a. 







TUi .MAS T. KEAll 

Annix'lulr Killli.r 

J I LV THE POUBTH is a great day in the mining 
communities of the \\ , (| it is celebrated in a va- 
riety of ways. This war more inliTcst than OVftl lias 

been shown in preparation tor drilling oontests, first-aid 
exhibitions, atiil mine-resone demonstrations. These. 
apart tram the element of spectacular sport, in itself 
agreeable, are educative and informing. 

TIT KIM' A says thai "it is easier to crush cement than 
■*■■■• to crush a Mexican revolution." It certainly is 
better to make a durable building material than to add 
one more to the severa] 'revolutions' already in prog- 
ress. Mexico needs a constructive building material 
that will give it a government reinforced to resist the 
ambitions of unscrupulous adventurers. 

TN the making of an 18-lb. shrapnel shell the con- 
-*■ sumption of metal is as follows: copper, 4.04; zinc, 
1.87; lead, 6.93; antimony, 0.99 pounds. The larger 
shells require more brass, that is, more copper and zinc. 
Estimating the European orders already placed in this 
country at 25.000.000 shells, this involves the consump- 
tion of 101,000,000 pounds of copper, 46,750,000 of zinc, 
173,250,000 of lead, and 24,750,000 pounds of antimony. 

CPEAKING of zinc, this is imported into South Africa 
^ through Delagoa Bay. Most of it used to come from 
Germany ; now most of it is imported from the United 
States. During the five months August to December 
1913, all of it, namely 1758 tons, came from Germany. 
In the same period of 1914 only 402 tons came from 
there, while 2058 tons arrived from the United States. 
Now presumably all of the supply, 2500 tons, comes 
from here. 

A CCORDING to the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic 
-^*- Commerce, the exports of spelter in pigs, bars, 
plates, and sheets was 120,149 pounds in April last year, 
as against 17,683,173 pounds in the same month this 
year. Another comparison is based on the ten months 
covering the period of war, thus: 

Exports of zinc or spelter. Pounds. 

In 10 months ending April 1915 222,478,162 

In 10 months ending April 1914 3,243,418 

In 10 months ending April 1913 4,997,680 

These statistics are eloquent. 

STANFORD is to be congratulated on its new pro- 
fessor of geology, Mr. Bailey Willis, who succeeds 
Mr. John C. Branner, now president of the University. 
Mr. Willis is known to mining engineers for his work on 
the Geological Survey and his scientific investigations in 

China, Recently he has been serving as consulting geol- 
ogist to the Argentine government Thus, like Dr. Bran- 
ner, he understands South American conditions and is 
well fitted to further the ropprochmu rti between the two by preparing students for geological explora- 
tion in the southern continent. 

/^OPPER SHANKS have not risen in proportion to 
^ the price of the metal. On a 20J-cent quotation 
their earnings ought to increase by 50 to 60% as com- 
pared with copper at 16 cents, which was the price three 
months ago. This means, in the first place, that the 
benefit of the higher price does not come into operation 
at once, as copper is sold for forward delivery, and it 
also suggests that the public is waiting to see if the 
enhanced quotations persist. We believe they will. 

T^HE CHUQUICAMATA mine, owned by the Chile 
■*- Copper Company, is destined to put even the Rio 
Tinto and Calumet & Hecla in the background. Mr. 
Pope Yeatman estimates the ore assured at 303,300,000 
tons averaging 2.23%, and he regards it as certain that 
the tonnage will reach 400,000,000 "without by any 
means limiting still further possibilities." The mill, of 
10,000 tons daily capacity, was started on May 18 and is 
expecting to be working to full capacity by the end 
of the current year. It is intended to enlarge the plant 
to a capacity of 30,000 tons per day, not per week or per 
month. The estimate of cost, treating 10,000 tons daily, 
is $2.10 per ton on a 2% ore. Copper is to be delivered 
in Europe for 6 cents per pound. Thus, by the begin- 
ning of 1916, this mine will be producing at the rate of 
75 to 100 million pounds of refined copper per annum. 

IVriSFORTUNES of a serious kind have befallen the 
■'■"■*■ Treadwell group of mines, on Douglas island, 
Alaska. On June 19, the main shaft of the hoisting- 
engine at the Central shaft broke. This, of course, is a 
heavy piece of hammered steel, weighing fully 30 tons, 
so that it cannot be replaced in less than two months, 
although it could be repaired by the use of thermit at 
Seattle. Through the Central shaft is hoisted the ore 
that feeds the Treadwell, Mexican, and 700-Ft. mills, 
but not the Ready Bullion. A far worse mishap occurred 
on June 15 when the ground on the south orebody of 
the Treadwell caved from surface to the 1400-ft. level 
and at the same time the north orebody caved to the 
900-ft. level. This collapse of ground is due probably 
to the drawing of the caved ore from the stopes below 
the 750-ft. level. Additional caving ensued, affecting the 
main pillar between the No. 2 and No. 9 open-cuts. 
Apart from the interruption to production, this caving 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 3, 1915 

must entail serious loss by rendering unavailable a large 
tonnage of ore. The two misfortunes have caused a 
nearly complete cessation of milling, for the present, but 
the use of the Mexican shaft should enable the Mexican 
and 700-Ft. mills to resume work, while the Treadwell, 
we presume, will have to reorganize the No. 2 shaft, a 
task requiring two or three weeks. Mr. J. H. Mac- 
kenzie, in the absence of Mr. F. W. Bradley, now at 
Honolulu recovering from a recent illness, has gone to 
Treadwell to consult with the manager, Mr. Philip 
R. Bradley. 

T AKE COPPER has for many years commanded a 
*-* premium over electrolytic. The Calumet & Hecla 
and Quincy copper is free from arsenic and other dele- 
terious impurities that render copper less ductile and de- 
crease its electric conductivity. When the electrolytic 
copper-refining process was first developed the copper 
made by it was more impure than the Lake product. The 
process has been so perfected that this condition no 
longer obtains; nevertheless, many consumers still 
specify Lake copper and prefer to pay the premium for 
metal they know is pure rather than take a chance with 
metal that has been purified. Meanwhile the arsenic 
content of the Lake ores is increasing, and a short while 
ago the Calumet & Hecla built an electrolytic refinery 
to handle part of its output. Some of the mines, such as 
the Mohawk, Wolverine, Baltic, Champion, and Tri- 
mountain, produce copper that contains arsenic in suffi- 
cient amount to make it desirable for fabricating seam- 
less tubes, sheets for boilers, locomotive fire-boxes, and 
other uses for which hard copper is desirable. 

Bureau of Education, besides the Secretary of the In- 
terior. If some such centralization and simplification of 
authority could be effected, so as to end the wearisome 
delays in obtaining title to homestead and mining loca- 
tions, and in starting any sort of new work in a region 
awaiting sane^xploitation, the people of the North will 
be ready to exclaim: "For this relief, much thanks." 

ALASKA is indebted to the Secretary of the Interior, 
Mr. Franklin K. Lane, for publishing a clear state- 
ment in regard to the need for a simpler administration 
of the great northern territory. His statement appears 
in The New Republic, a periodical of growing influence. 
The President has spoken of Alaska's resources and the 
development of them in sympathetic terms. They 
"must be used, but not destroyed or wasted; used, but 
not monopolized under any narrow idea of individual 
rights as against the abiding interest of communities." 
That means, among other things, that the mineral re- 
sources of a vast region are neither to be monopolized 
by adventurous individuals and venturesome corpora- 
tions nor bound in impotence and unproductiveness by 
departmental red tape and administrative delays. 
Alaska has suffered quite as much from one set of evils 
as the other. The "abiding interest" of neither the ter- 
ritory itself nor the United States is served by irritating 
restrictions upon intelligent initiative and honest de- 
velopment. Mr. Lane recognizes this, and it is of good 
augury for Alaska, since he is in a position to give effect 
to his ideas. He advocates the ereation of a single De- 
velopment Board, appointed by the President and con- 
firmed by the Senate. This Board, while responsible to 
the Secretary of the Interior, should do the work now 
red and duplicated among the Oieneral Land Office, 
Forest Service. Road Commission, Bureau of Mines, and 

A Rare Chance 

From time to time we hear that financial corporations 
or exploration companies find great difficulty in their 
search for new business, that is, promising mines at 
reasonable prices. We realize that a good mine at a fair 
price is a rare bird. It may be suggested that the search 
for this desideratum has been so lively and so thorough 
that the chances of a kill are poorer than they used to be. 
Perhaps. But it is equally true that the criteria for the 
purchase of a mine are more exacting than heretofore. 
People, especially the clever people that control these 
mine-searching expeditions, know more than formerly; 
they will not buy a "pig in a poke" ; they refuse to put 
their money down until a careful investigation has been 
made by competent engineers. Moreover, even the public 
has gained wisdom in these matters — not a great deal, it 
may be, but enough to know a brick from a bar of gold. 
Therefore, it is no longer easy to "pass the buck," that 
is, to unload a disappointing mine upon the unwary. Un- 
doubtedly the whole business is no longer on the amateur 
footing that it used to be. If, in consequence, money is 
not made in chunks, at least it is not lost with the incon- 
sequence of a drunken sailor. However, we shall not 
try to discuss so broad a subject on this occasion ; our 
purpose is to touch on one particular aspect of it. With 
knowledge has come caution, sometimes of a paralyzing 
kind. Risk is inherent in a speculative business like min- 
ing. It is necessary to ascertain the facts as carefully as 
possible and then go ahead, not collect facts and then 
si aie at them helplessly. Yet this has been done on more 
than one occasion when the chances of a lifetime have 
been offered. We quote one case, on first-hand informa- 
tion. A Columbia student, taking a holiday in Canada, 
happens to go to Haileybury at the time of the Cobalt 
boom. The little hotel is crowded, but he is fortunate 
enough to get a bed. After dinner, sitting in the lobby, 
he enters into conversation with an elderly gentleman, of 
kindly disposition, but lacking a bed. He offers his own, 
saying that he is used to roughing it and can sleep on 
the floor. The offer is accepted gratefully. Next day 
he is taken by the elderly gentleman, whom we will call 
Colonel Tompkins, on a tour of the new district. Later, 
in parting, he is invited to ask for a job when he has 
graduated from the School of Mines. In the course of 
events, he does so and is sent as a scout to Nevada. He 
goes to Goldfield. There he meets another Columbia 
graduate (No. 2) who has just finished a sampling and 
mapping of the Mohawk mine, then a wonderful prospect. 
No. 2 tells him it is a good thing and that an option is 
obtainable. They examine the evidence. No. 1 gets an 
option on 351.000 shares, that is, the control, at $2 per 

Jul) 3, IMS 

MINING and Scieaoftc PRESS 

shnr.v Thereupon he Ulegrapha to the Oolooel, urging 
him. us representative of ■ well-known corporation, to 
take Mtion promptly. When tin- telegram arrivea, the 
quidnunea tl headqourten decide thai it is thsord •»• 
think of paying ^Tul'.ihki for a mere prospect They do 
not even take the trouble to make an examination. Thia 
miis in Jane 1906. A ft n months later the iharea of that 
mine sold al $20 per share, becanae one of the big boo- 
of the world had been uncovered. The Mohawk 
no enoominm now; it baa bean worked out for a 

yield Of miliums ami is tin- mi eleUS of a trig consolidation. 

still produetive. The mural is plain: don 'I aand a scout 
Duleas ymi ran trust his report Moreover, if you arc in 
the hiisim-ss, never lose a ahance merely to save the ax- 
penaeofaii investigation. AaJamea D. Segue said lung 

ago: "Mims are lik<- the saints, for many are called and 
few are chosen." The chosen wear a halo. 


This is a metallurgical BUbjeCl of such command- 
bag interest that we are glad to give our readers a 
critical description of one of its latest phases, in the 
form of an article on the experimental work preceding 
the construction of the Inspiration mill. Our contribu- 
tor gives a particularly lucid account of the work done 
at this important copper mine in Arizona. In his case, 
we believe, the knowledge of the subject is supple- 
mented by the ability to transfer that knowledge to 
others. We regret that the compliment must be im- 
personal, since the author of the article writes under the 
veil of anonymity. His foot-note makes humorous ref- 
erence to the shyness of a preceding writer on the same 
subject. Indeed the metallurgic art of flotation at the 
present time is characterized by a great deal of mystery, 
due, of course, to patent litigation. The hearing of the 
case between Minerals Separation and the Miami copper 
company has been proceeding for eight weeks before 
Judge Bradford of the U. S. District Court at Wilming- 
ton, Delaware. Incidentally, we may mention that a 
special cinema apparatus was designed by the plaintiff 
to illustrate the operations involved, and, in order to do 
this effectively, it was necessary to take 120 photographs 
per second (as against the 10 or 12 taken in the ordinary 
moving picture) with an exposure of one ten-thousandth 
of a second. Whatever the decision, an appeal is certain. 
That appeal, we understand, will come before the very 
Court that gave such a sweeping decision in the Moore- 
Butters filter case. Strategy appears as useful in legal 
battles as in those of a more lethal arena. If Minerals 
Separation loses, we presume that the secrecy beclouding 
the rapid advance of this branch of metallurgy will be 
thickened, while if the major patents are sustained it 
may be that the proprietors will give information with 
some freedom. Assuredly it is altogether to the interest 
of the profession and the industry of mining that infor- 
mation of the kind given in the Inspiration article should 
be published. It injures nobody; it helps many. We 
hope that other members of the profession will avail 
themselves of the opportunity to do likewise. 

Metal Prices 

The trail of the Great War eroaaea all thingi human 

It has I. ii its on th.- metal trade. In the early 
daya of the ooafUot, last year, quotationa for the baae 

metala Buffered collapse Even after a temporarj n « 

cry the affecta Lingered. In common with othera we were 
led to appreciate the artificial character of a market thai 
waa Hi the handa of a group of metal broken, competing, 
it may be, among themaelvee aa to the division of the 
protit, hut united in fixing quotationa thai suited their 

i sa This feature was helpful to the industry during 

the crisis last August, when the metal Belling agencies 
came to the rescue of the market by uniting in a refusal 
to sell copper at panicky prices. Thai much must be al- 
lowed in all fairness. Hut there is another aspect to 
which we must direct attention, in London, Melbourne, 
and New York, during the crisis, the same European 
names appeared behind the local brokerage houses and 
metal merchants. The combination was suggestive, if not 
suspicious. It boded ill for the mining industry that the 
sale of its metallic products should gravitate so nearly to 
one point, to what was practically one international or 
non-national group of speculators. We have made an 
effort to protect our own readers, at least, by changing the 
source of our metal quotations. It will interest the own- 
ers of mines to know that until recently the Engineering 
and Mining Journal and the Mining and Scientific 
Press both obtained their metal quotations from the same 
source, a source believed to be absolutely reliable, and 
The Mining Magazine obtained its quotations from the 
London correspondents of the same house, also believed 
to be absolutely reliable. No reason exists even now for 
suspecting that there was anything wrong, but the dis- 
closures made at Adelaide in the Snow trial indicated to 
us that the New York firm and its affiliated London house 
were both members of a group of brokers that exercised 
an unhealthy dominance over the metal trade, a domin- 
ance that might easily be misused. Therefore we decided 
to safeguard our readers by obtaining quotations from a 
source wholly independent ; in other words, to obtain not 
the metal-brokers' quotations but the consumers' prices. 
This we have done now for several weeks. The page en- 
titled 'Eastern Metal Markets' and the telegraphic quota- 
tions given each week may be accepted as reliable to the 
utmost degree possible. We commend the study of them 
to those having in charge the sale of the metals produced 
by mines on this continent. We give as accurate an ap- 
proximation as is possible of the actual prices that con- 
sumers are called upon to pay for the metal they pur- 
chase for use in their business. Such prices are called 
"approximate" because frequently there are deals put 
through at varying figures in the course of a single day, 
sometimes in the course of a single hour. Copper, for 
example is often quoted in certain trade publications, and 
therefrom in the daily and weekly press, at prices for 
which the metal cannot be bought, yet with them goes no 
explanation that the quotation is not for the consumer. 
The price is not real, for the metal cannot be had at the 
figure mentioned. Is it not absurd that when one sees a 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 3, 1915 

price quoted and asks a seller: "Will you sell copper in 
any quantity at that figure!" he should answer "No." 
If the question is then asked "Will you tell me where I 
can get copper at that figure?" and again the answer is 
"No." Finally, "Is it possible for anyone to get copper 
at the figure quoted ?" And the answer is still the same. 
Sometimes the selling agencies connected with producers 
will endeavor to encourage speculation by bulling prices. 
For instance, on a recent day the Wall Street papers that 
get their information from the big agencies said that pro- 
ducers were holding copper at 19 cents full terms for 
electrolytic, with some offerings at 18.875c, while a buyer 
for export stated that he could get copper in almost any 
quantity between 18.50 and 18.62A full terms, or 30 days, 
delivered. In an intricate business such as that of metal- 
selling there are many ways that are dark and tricks that 
are not in vain. The operators of a small mine, and even 
those controlling the bigger ones, are rarely in a position 
to protect themselves. We offer them one measure of 
protection by giving them the prices that the consumers 
are paying for copper, lead, and zinc. On the earnest- 
ness of our effort to secure absolute trustworthiness of the 
figures we pledge our honor. 


Bismuth is one of the metals that command a high 
price merely because they do not occur in abundance; 
the price of it is based on the demand and not on the 
cost of production, which is probably only one-eighth of 
the selling-price. Not uncommonly bismuth is found as 
native metal, as in the famous mining district of Schnee- 
berg, in Saxony, and in other places in Bohemia and 
Saxony. It is also found in Chile, Bolivia, Sweden, Nor- 
way, and Australia, usually in association with ores of 
cobalt, nickel, silver, lead, zinc, and gold. Another im- 
portant mineral frequently associated with the native 
metal is bismutite, the hydrous carbonate, and with it is 
often found bismuthinite, the sulphide. Bismite, the 
trioxide, is also the source of some bismuth ; the three 
closely similar names being somewhat confusing. Tet- 
radymite, the telluride, which looks like graphite, is also 
not uncommon. No bismuth is mined in this country, 
the entire domestic production is recovered as a by- 
product in the electrolytic refining of lead from the 
anode slime. The plant of the United States Smelting, 
Refining & Mining Co., at Grasselli, Indiana, and that of 
the American Smelting & Refining Co., at Omaha, yield 
175,000 to 200,000 pounds of the metal yearly. Bismuth 
also occurs in copper ores, but most of it escapes through 
the stack in smelting. Blister copper sometimes contains 
as much as 25 lb. bismuth per ton, but, so far as we know, 
none is recovered from this source. About an equal 
amount is imported from Europe, chiefly from Germany, 
where the European and South American ores are treat- 
ed, and from England, where ore from South America 
and Australia is reduced. The ore of the Suan mine, 
Korea, contains 1.7 lb. bismuth per ton. In Saxony the 
ores are first roasted, to free them from sulphur and 
arsenic, and are then smelted in crucibles with iron and 

charcoal, the bismuth thus reduced collecting on the bot- 
tom of the crucible. The metal may also be recovered in 
the wet way by treatment with hydrochloric acid, taking 
the bismuth into solution, from which it can be precipi- 
tated by dilution as the oxychloride. This must be re- 
dissolved and precipitated several times in order to free 
it from lead ;«it is then reduced to the metal by fusion 
witli lime and charcoal. Gold and silver can be separ- 
ated from the bismuth by the use of zinc, by the process 
used for de-silverizing lead. A great variety of methods 
have been employed in the metallurgy of bismuth ; they 
are described in detail in Schnabel's 'Handbook of 
Metallurgy. ' 

Bismuth has a melting-point of 260° C, but it forms 
with other metal alloys of much lower melting-point. 
Thus Lipowitz's metal, consisting of 50% bismuth, 26.9% 
lead, 12.78% tin, and 10.4% cadmium, melts consider- 
ably below the boiling-point of water. In cooling from 
the molten state this alloy contracts after solidifying 
until a temperature of 100°F. is reached and then ex- 
pands until 77°F. is reached, when it again contracts so 
that at 32°F. it has the same volume that it had at 115°F. 
This property of expanding on cooling is characteristic 
of bismuth alloys and makes them desirable for a number 
of purposes. Thus bismuth is added to the alloy from 
which stereotype plates are cast in order that a clear im- 
pression of the type may be taken. Soap-makers also 
make their molds from a bismuth alloy. Alloys of bis- 
muth have been used as fusible safety-plugs for boilers, 
but the continued action of heat changes their melting- 
points, so that they cannot be relied upon. The ready 
fusibility of its alloys makes them useful as fuses in 
electrical construction, and considerable quantities of the 
metal are probably consumed in this way each year. It 
is also a component of the alloy used for silvering mir- 
ors, and as no secondary metal is ever recovered in either 
of these two uses, this is a true consumption. 

No large deposits of bismuth ores have been found in 
this country, but several small high-grade deposits are 
known. The Highland Mary mine, at Leadville, has pro- 
duced some 15% bismuth ore; the Comstock mine, in the 
La Plata mountains, Colorado, has produced ore contain- 
ing 18% bismuth ; and the Indiana mine, near Ouray, 
also in Colorado, has produced small lots of ore contain- 
ing 25% bismuth. It is interesting to note that to none 
of these mines was anything paid by the smelters for the 
bismuth content of the ore, but in fairness it should be 
added that probably none of the bismuth was recovered 
in smelting, because the use of electrolytic refining, in 
which the bismuth is saved, has only recently been adopt- 
ed by the two plants mentioned. Presumably a fair price 
would now be paid for the bismuth content of ores, and 
there seems no reason why the domestic output should 
not increase sufficiently to take care of domestic con- 
sumption at least. It is generally believed in this country 
that the price of bismuth is strictly controlled by a Euro- 
pean syndicate that boycotts any producer found guilty 
of selling below the established price. If this is the case, 
it becomes all the more desirable that domestic consump- 
tion should be supplied by our own producers. 

July 'I 101, 

MINING .uul ScNoufic PRESS 

II rcadora ar« Invited to uan thla drum in,, nl for lha dlacuaalon of tr.-lm. 
UUM pertalnln« to mlnlnc and metallurgy The. K.IIL.r valeoniM Uu r M . ,.-„»(. »u,l "ll.-r 
try to hl« own. believing that careful orlUotno l» mora vaulable than caauul rot vlewe 


The Spelter Situation 
The Editor: 

Su- When the tame mixture and oopper are sold at 
prices teas tlum thai of spot spelter, it can truly be said 
that the metal market is decidedly oat of joint and that 
the abnormal oondition is not one having any degree of 
permanence. This mushroom growth is an unhealthy 

One and thus.- who have become temporarily unbalanced 
by the recent pyrotechnics ba the zinc trade and have 
abandoned former standards in the rating of metals 
may well consider their steps before treading upon what 
appears to be solid ground, but in reality is a quagmire. 
I do not mean by this that real zinc property today is an 
unsafe investment. However, the prospective investor 
should not in any way correlate the present spelter 
prices with the value of blende-producing properties, as 
some would ask us to do. 

The European demand for munitions has created mar- 
ket conditions previously unknown in the spelter trade. 
To meet these exigencies, the smelter capacity of this 
country has been greatly taxed. Concentrate, or the im- 
mediate product of the mines, however, is to be had in 
abundance and until increased smelting facilities make 
possible the treatment of greatly increased tonnage 
there will not be any such market for the mine-product 
as many producers believe there rightly should be. The 
proposed investigation of a 'zinc trust,' which does not 
and never has existed, by the Attorney-General of Mis- 
souri is a misguided movement on the part of the zinc 
miners to ascertain the reason for the high price of 
spelter and the relative low price of concentrate. The 
formation of an association of the zinc producers of Utah 
and Nevada, as discussed in your issue of June 5, is a 
well-purposed movement to better the status of the pro- 
ducer, but it seems almost equally inexpedient. While 
I am not cognizant of the plans of this organization, 
although wishing them well, I see but little hope of im- 
proving their present position without great and un- 
warranted expenditures in smelter construction. It 
would be no less than foolhardy to erect smelters in face 
of the present uncertain assurance that their period of 
profitable operation would not be limited by the present 
abnormal market demands. To lease and rejuvenate the 
old abandoned works of the Middle "West might be a 
possible solution, but even such an undertaking would 
be fraught with difficulties. The plethora of ore and 
lack of retort-capacity presents a knotty problem, the 
solution of which must necessarily be a difficult one 
under existing conditions. 

It has been estimated that the annual OOnsumptid) 
OHO, as alloyed in braaa for cartridges alone, by eithet 
side in the present European straggle is something over 
50,000 tons. The local European smelters an- in no way 
able to meet their demand. It is known that with the 
beginning of the present conflict, in August of last year, 
there were large stores of spelter in Europe, but these 
have been depleted and the output of the English zinc 
smelters, that at Budel in Holland, the Vieille Montague 
plant at Viviez. and the Malfidano plant at Moyelle- 
Godault are unable to meet the present requirements of 
the Allies. The Germans are also making plans to regu- 
late economically the supply of spelter to the needs of the 
armies and have organized the Zinkhiittenvercinigung 
for this purpose. The price of spelter in Germany has 
advanced materially, although zinc is supposed to be 
finding its way thither from the plants of Norway and 
Sweden, and the smelter at Angleur in Belgium is re- 
ported to be producing. 

In normal times the consumption of primary spelter 
in the United States is about 340,000 tons, while the an- 
nual secondary consumption is about 50,000 tons. The 
estimated total spelter consumption of this country in 
1914 was about 375,000 tons, and as such there was but 
a small margin to meet an increased export trade. While 
the American smelters have been forcing their output 
and some companies like the American Zinc & Chemical 
Co., the Hegeler Zinc Co., the Tulsa Spelter Co., the 
Granby Mining & Smelting Co., the Illinois Zinc Co., 
and the Matthiesson & Hegeler Co. will add materially 
to last year's production by reason of the increased re- 
tort-capacity, even this has not been sufficient to meet 
the demand for all purposes. The present smelter-ca- 
pacity of the United States is possibly 600,000 tons of 
spelter annually. Of this output in normal times about 
200,000 tons is consumed by the domestic galvanizing 
industry, and herein may he said to be the controlling 
factor in the present market. Substitutes for galvanized 
products have been finding a place in the American mar- 
ket for a number of years. Galvanized structural ma- 
terials, pipe, wire, plates, and the like, are not as essen- 
tial as formerly deemed by engineers and builders, and 
protective paints and coatings have proved in most in- 
stances to be satisfactory substitutes. With the advance 
in the price of spelter and galvanized products the pro- 
tective paints and coatings have found an increased ap- 
plication. This has resulted in many of the former 
manufacturers of galvanized products abandoning the 
use of spelter. With the buyers for these companies out 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 3, 1915 


r the 200,000 tons formerly 
of the market a great part n ^ available for the Bu . 
required for galvanizing^ ^ ^ hom thg price of 
ropean munition-conj ary i mportance 
spelter is of but se that tlle present pr ; ce f spe lter is 
I do not oey at j ve f tne supp iy an( j demand; not 
completely fa j s being manipulated, but that a com- 
that the jUS tment of the trade in spelter is taking place, 
plete fil the new status of the industry is established 
antet the requirements of the "War, the balance will 
iitinue to fluctuate. For the present, the swing be- 
tween supply and demand and the corresponding varia- 
tions in price may be wide and a complete collapse of 
the market before it reaches its final balance is not with- 
out the range of possibility. Even after comparative 
stability is established, it cannot be considered of more 
than temporary importance, for with the cessation of 
the European demand, another readjustment must neces- 
sarily follow, and the position of spelter will again gravi- 
tate to conform with the ordinary channels of trade. 

Chicago, June 24. E. H. Leslie. 


The Editor: 

Sir — I wish to offer a somewhat belated criticism of a 
statement which I noted in re-reading the discussion of 
the subject of undercurrents in your columns. In your 
editorial comment on Mr. Ulrich's interesting letter in 
the issue of June 5, you make the statement that "the 
alluvial miner has been living in a fool's paradise, de- 
luding himself into an idea that he was making a high 
extraction because nobody could prove that he was not 
saving all the precious metal." 

As a member of the class designated in your somewhat 
inclusive term, I wish to state that the average alluvial 
miner is very far from living in such a beatific state of 
ignorance. He knows perfectly well that if he is making 
a 75% extraction he is doing well. The fact that he per- 
sists in being satisfied with this is in itself evidence that 
there is some reason for it. 

The great bulk of gold won from hydraulic mining 
comes from small mines, for the most part, mines in 
which probably the total amount of capital invested is 
less than $100,000. The average gold-content is not very 
high — running from 10 to 20 cents per cubic yard — and 
in many cases the water season is not more than four 
months long. In this short time the water must be used 
to its utmost capacity to pay the fixed charges and in- 
terest, the expense of fitting up, and a small profit on 
the investment. The only way in which this can be done 
is to get the utmost capacity out of the sluices ; and it is 
for this reason that the small operator looks askance at 
any complication of gold-saving devices that threatens 
to cut-down capacity. 

When a man is handling a material whose total yield — ■ 
if complete extraction were made — would only be about 
12 cents per ton, his viewpoint is considerably different 
from that of the man who gains, by a complete extrac- 
tion, as in the case of quartz mining, 40 to 50 times as 

much, and more. His only salvation is to get his 'over- 
head' distributed over as much yardage as possible. If 
he finds that he can increase his extraction 20%, but 
in order to do it he has to cut-down his capacity 25%, 
he is not inclined to make any changes. The conditions 
that prevail in the average hydraulic mine are prac- 
tically prohibitive of maintaining a constant feed in the 
sluices, for instance ; and alternate flooding and choking 
of any complicated gold-saving device will result in hav- 
ing to turn off the water until it can be cleaned out. 
This is ruinous, of course, to capacity. Conditions are 
not at all analogous to those of any other form of min- 
ing, even dredging. 

This is perhaps one of the main reasons why hydraulic 
mining is today in the same primitive condition that it 
was forty years ago. It is better economy to let some 
gold go over the dump than to lose time and water. The 
bump of the bounding boulder through the sluices is 
about the only guide that the average operator trusts 
himself to follow. 

Of course, where the black sand contains gems or semi- 
precious metals in sufficient quantity to justify their 
concentration and subsequent extraction, the case is, as 
Abe Potash would say, "something else again, yet." 
For this reason the articles by Mr. Nicol have a special 
interest; and as he seems to have avoided most of the 
reefs that have strewn the black-sand shores with so 
many wrecks, it is possible that our friend, the mis- 
guided alluvial miner, may be led to the adoption of 
some of the methods he advocates, provided, as he wisely 
says, that there is anything in the sand. The great ma- 
jority of Californian hydraulic mines, however, in my 
opinion, belong to the class in which "only a mass of 
black sand with a little associated fine gold would be 

To return to your statement regarding "the weird 
discrepancies between drill-hole results and shaft-sam- 
pling," I am of the opinion that there lies therein a 
profitable field for discussion, and I hope to be able as 
soon as I have time to contribute another article which 
will give the results of my own experience with this. 

Chas. S. Haley. 
South Fork, Trinity river, June 23. 

Classification of Technical Literature 

The Editor: 

Sir — The Joint Committee on Classification of Tech- 
nical Literature is extremely desirous of obtaining the 
assistance of your readers in making a collection of clas- 
sifications of applied science which have been developed 
independently in the offices of manufacturing plants or 
engineering firms, especially those which exist in manu- 
script form, and have been used for filing or indexing 
data. The Committee would especially like to have 
copies of any extensions of present systems to cover any 
special industry or branch of engineering not now fully 
covered by the published classifications. 

W. P. Cutter, Secretary. 

29 West 39th St., New York, June 21. 

Jul) .;. 1916 

MINING and Sdtntuc PRESS 

Flotation at the Inspiration Mine, Arizona 


The Inspiration Consolidated Copper Co '■ mine near 

Miami, In Arizona, is estimated to contain 97,143,000 

opper ore, mostly in the form of onal- 

cocite. The on jii present being mined contains about 

metal in the form of carbonate and silicate 

Fur some time past the company has been experiment- 
ing with a vi.-w to finding the besl method of concentrat- 
ing the sulphide ore before smelting. The first teat-mill 

i stated of two sets of rolls, one Chilean mill, one 

Hardinge conical mill (i ft diam. by 12 in. cylinder, Rich- 
ards hindered-settling classifier, Deister tables, some kind 
of vanner, and a 50-ton Minerals Separation flotation 
machine of standard type (Hoover's single-level appa- 
ratus). This mill was situated dose to the Joe Hush 
shaft, on top of the orebody, and is now dismantled. It 
is understood that good results were obtained. 

On a change of management taking plaee. a new test- 
mill was erected near the old leaching plant of the Black 
Warrior Copper Co., ahout li miles from the new twin- 
shafts through which all ore will be hoisted when the 
large mill is running. This mill will he the largest, or 
rather will handle the largest tonnage, of any mill in the 
world, namely, 15,000 tons per day. It adjoins the test- 
mill as can be seen in the photograph published in the 
Mining and Scientific Press of May 29. The crushing 
and concentrating capacity of the test-mill is about 1000 
tons per day, but it is limited by the capacity of the 
classifiers, elevators, etc. 

The ore is at present hoisted through the Scorpion 
shaft and broken in a 'K' Gates crusher close to the 
shaft. From there it is conveyed to the 30,000-ton flat- 
bottomed steel and concrete bins attached to the crusher- 
station at the new shafts. It is then transported to the 
test-mill in Ingoldsby dump-cars (each having a capacity 
of 60 tons) drawn by steam-locomotives on a standard- 
gauge railway. A part of the new mill-bins (which are 
of steel and trough-shaped ) is set aside for the use of the 
test-mill. On leaving these bins the ore falls upon a tray- 
conveyor, then to an inclined rubber-belt conveyor, 
where it is automatically weighed. At the head of this 
conveyor there is a magnetic pulley that removes pieces 
of iron and steel which may have got mixed with the ore. 
At. this point there is a grizzly and a 36-in. Symons 
vertical-disc crusher. (This machine was described in 
the Press of May 22, page 820.) 

From here an incline-conveyor carries the ore to the 
top of the test-mill, where it is divided into two streams, 
one going to a shaking screen from which the oversize 
falls into a 48-in. Symons horizontal-disc crusher, where 
it is crushed dry, and the other to a 5 ft. 6 in. by 8 ft. 

•As this article deals with the subject of rival flotation pro- 
cesses, over which a thick veil of mystery is supposed to hang, 
the writer thinks it best to remain incognito. 

diam. Marcy baltanill, where it is crushed wel with- 
out previous screening. The product of the Symons 
machine is fed to pebble-mills without any classifi- 
cation, being distributed in varying proportions by 
a mechanical device, This consists of a fixed hori- 
zontal circular vessel 103 inches in circumference, 
divided into four sections by vertical sheet-iron parti- 
tions that can be adjusted to give segments Of any size, 
thus varying the Iced to each mill as desire, 1. By meas- 
uring the number of inches of circumference given to 
each division the proportion of feed going to each mill 
can be calculated. Above this i cptacle there IS 8 ver- 
tical crooked revolving iron pipe through which the feed 
comes from the Symons machine' alter being mixed with 

water. The revolution of the feed-pi| auses the pulp 

to be discharged into each division id' the distributer in 
turn. In the bottom of each division is a hole through 
which the feed passes to launders leading to the pebble- 

The following kinds of pebble-mills are installed: 

1. One 20 by 6-ft. Chalmers & Williams quick-dis- 
charge tube-mill with herring-bone gear engaging with 
pinion on a shaft directly driven through a flexible 
coupling by an electric motor. 

2. One Hardinge conical mill, 10 ft. diam., with cylin- 
drical part 28 in. long, driven through spur and pinion 
by two-belt transmission from motor. 

3. One Hardinge conical mill, 8 ft. diam., with cylin- 
der 72 in. long, with herring-bone gear engaging with 
pinion on shaft direct driven by motor. 

4. One Hardinge conical mill, 8 ft. diam., with cylin- 
der 36 in. long, driven in the same manner as No. 3. 

5. One Hardinge conical mill, 8 ft. diam., with cylin- 
der 44 in. long, driven in same way as No. 3 and 4. 

Both silex and El Oro linings were tried in the cylin- 
drical part, and pebbles set in cement in the conical part ; 
and, in one mill, steel plates, which, however, did not 
last long. 

Each pebble-mill has a drag-classifier attached, and the 
oversize in the product, except in the case of the tube- 
mill, is returned by a bucket-elevator to the mill from 
which it came. In the case of the tube-mill the oversize 
is returned to the mill by the drag-classifier, which is 
parallel with the mill. Both Danish and California!] 
pebbles have been tried. 

The product of the Marey ball-mill is classified in a 
Duplex Dorr classifier, and the oversize returned to the 
same mill. This mill has a capacity as a fine crusher of 
about 13 tons per hour. Of the final product only about 
1% remains on 48 mesh. This mill is simply a strongly 
built cylinder supported on trunnions, contains about 10 
tons of chrome steel or manganoid balls, and is revolved 
at 22 r.p.m. It was formerly fed through the trunnion, 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Julv 3, 1915 

then three scoops were attached, hut now one large seoop 
is used. It is lined with manganese-steel plates and 

driven through spur and pinion liy belting from a 200- 
hp. motor, using about 14o kilowatts. The discharge is 
at the opposite end to the t'eed-inlet and passes through 
grates composed of steel bars placed close together. The 
discharge area is more than half the entire end of the 
mill. It will thus !"■ seen that it differs essentially from 

tlie Krupp ball-mill, in which the screens are placed 

around the periphery and tin- pulp has to pass through 

tun screens before escaping. The pulp leaving the ball- 
mill contains about W' ', of moisture. This is diluted 

before entering the Dorr classifier. The overflow from 

the classifier consists of i\ to 3 parts of water to one 
of ore. 

The power required to drive these different mills, their 
capacity, consumption of halls, pebbles, and liners are. 
of course, known only to the management, but it is sig- 
nificant that in the new mill all crushing will he done by 
Ma rev mills. 

Among other crushing machines that have been tried 
aie the Bradley roller-mill, Symons roller-mill, Over- 

stroiu mill, and Allis-( 'halmers hammer-mill, Xo rolls 
or Chilean mills, Krupp mills, or Marathon mills were 
tried in this plant. 

The products of the Marry mill, and such of the peb- 
ble-mills as are running, are united and elevated suffi- 
ciently high to flow to all the flotation plants without 
undergoing any preliminary table or vannrr concentra- 
tion, 'flu- ifr<\ is distributed to the flotation plants in 
the following way: It flows into the centre of a horizon- 
tal, circular, revolving apparatus of sheet-iron divided 
into Sve concentric circles or rings. Each circle has 20 
boles in the bottom, and the proportion of feed to each 

flotation plant is regulated by opening the proper num- 
ber of holes and allowing the pulp to enter a launder 
along which it flows to the flotation plant. Thus if the 
ring that receives the feed intended for one particular 
plant has 15 holes plugged and 5 open, this plant is. of 
course, receiving 25',' of the total feed, and the actual 
tonnage passed through it can he calculated. 

Automatic samplers, worked by a water balance, are 
used throughout the mill. All assays are clone by the 
electrolytic method, using rotating anodes. 

Most of the flotation 'oil' is added to the pulp at the 
head of the mill, being fed from a tank by a small bucket- 
elevator driven by a shaft having a cone-step pulley, so 
that the speed of the elevator and the quantity of 'oil' 
can lie varied to suit the tonnage of ore being crushed. 
'Phis is much more satisfactory than letting the 'oil' 
drip from a can. Any additional reagent that may be re- 
quired is added at each flotation plant by dripping from 
a can. 

'flic following methods of flotation have been tried: ' 

1. An 8-compartment -Minerals Separation machine of 
standard type (as described in Hoover's book on flota- 
tion . having a nominal capacity of 600 tons per day. 
The agitation compartments are :S ft. square, and the 
flotation compartments or spMzkasten, 5 by 3 ft. The 

Spindles are driven through enclosed bevel-gearing by a 
pulley on a horizontal shaft. The overflow from the first 
Six compartments was sent to the concentrate-bins with- 
out 'cleaning' or further treatment designed to raise the 

grade by eliminating insoluble matter and the overflow 
from the last two compartments was returned to the 
head of the maflhine. This machine was discarded. 

2. A 12-COmpartment Minerals Separation machine of 
standard type, of the same capacity and driven in the 
same manner as No. 1. the additional compartments being 
intended to prolong the treatment. At first the concen- 
trate and middling were dealt with as in Xo. 1 machine, 
but afterward tin- overflow from all compartments was 
•cleaned' in (3), next described. 

3. An 8-compartment 50-ton Minerals Separation ma- 
chine of standard type, the spindles bring driven by half- 

d belts from pulleys on a horizontal shaft. The 
overflow from all compartments was sent to concent rate- 
bins, and the tailing was returned to the head of No. 2 
machine. This concentrate contained about 30$ copper. 
These two machines were in use until recently. 

4. An 8-compartment Minerals Separation machine of 
new type, known as a 'sub-aeration machine.' The agi- 
tation compartments were covered on top, and both me- 
chanical agitation and compressed air were used. The 

agitation compartments contained east-iron baffle-plates 

fixed to the sides, and the impellers were different from 
those used in the standard machine, but the spindles 
Were driven in the usual way. The discharge from the 
agitation compartments to the flotation compartments 
was high up. The air used for the aeration of the pulp 
was introduced through a hole in the bottom of each 
agitation compartment at a pressure of about 2 lb. per 
Square inch. It did not pass through any porous 
medium. This machine had the usual valves and suc- 
tion-pipes in the bottom, but was afterward altered to 
(5) a machine of the Ilebbard type, with agitation gear 
of the standard Minerals Separation pattern, but with 
horizontal discs in place of the usual screw-impellers. 
Each spindle makes about 300 r.p.m. In the Hebbard 
machine as used in Australia the agitators are driven 
from below. There are no spitzkasten, the overflow of 
concentrate-froth taking place from the agitation com- 
partments. Consequently there are no suction-pipes 
and valves in the bottom, and no plugs to draw and re- 
place when a stoppage takes place. The wooden parti- 
tions between the agitation compartments have been re- 
moval and cast-iron baffle-plates about 15 in. high sub- 
stituted. Air is blown through eight holes in the bottom 
as in X'o. 4 machine (described above » and water under 
pressure is used to prevent pulp from entering the air- 
pipe. On a feed of about 300 tons per day this machine 
has given good results, and is still in use. The low-grade 
concentrate made by this machine is 'cleaned' in another 
machine of standard type. 

6. A Towne-Flinn plant, or bubble-column concen- 
trator with a nominal capacity of 50 tons per day. This 
consisted of (1) Pachuca agitator in which the pulp was 
mixed with oil. (2) a cast-iron vertical cylinder with a 
bottom of carborundum. The oiled pulp is fed into the 

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MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Julv 3, 1915 

top of this cylinder through a pipe that delivers it below 
the surface. Air at a pressure of 5 lb. per square inch 
is blown through the carborundum. Bubbles are formed, 
that adhere to the oiled sulphide particles, forming a 
froth overflowing at the top of the cylinder into a laun- 
der, whence it flows to (3) a similar cylinder at a lower 
level, where it is 'cleaned.' The tailing from the first 
cylinder escapes through a hole in the middle of the car- 
borundum and flows through a goose-neck hose (by which 
the water-level in the first cylinder is regulated) to (4) 
another cylinder where it receives similar treatment and 
more concentrate overflows. This concentrate also is re- 
treated in the same cylinder as the concentrate from the 
first cylinder, and the tailing from this cylinder or 
'cleaner' is returned to the Pachuca agitator at the top 
of the building by a centrifugal pump. The air is fur- 
nished by a Roots blower. This plant was dismantled. 

7. A Callow plant consisting of (1) Pachuca agitator 
18 It. dee]) by 4 ft. diam.. (2 I five cells, each 8i ft. long 
by 2 ft. wide, with nominal capacity of 50 tons each per 
day, (3) one cleaner-cell 12 in. wide, (4) one air-com- 
pressor, i ."> i one receiver. (6) Connersvillc blower with a 
displacement of 3.3 eu. ft. of air per revolution. (7 i two 
3-in. centrifugal pumps, (8) 30-hp. motor. 

Mr. Callow's letter in the Press of May 20 fully de- 
scribes his process, so I need not go into further particu- 
lars, except to say that during the past few months the 
plant has been run without the Pachuca agitators; but 
this is by no means advisable. This plant has been run- 
ning for about nine months and has given better results 
than any other that has been tried here. Forty of these 
eells are being installed in the new mill. 

8. A machine invented by David Cole, of Morenci, 
Arizona, consisting of rectangular sheet-iron tanks with 
pipes laid horizontally in the bottom. The upper half of 
these pipes is composed of carborundum, and air from a 
blower is forced through them with the same effect as in 
the Callow, Towne-Flinn, and other pneumatic processes. 
Perforated wrought-iron pipes wrapped with flannel or 
canvas have also been used. The tailing from the first 
tank is re-treated, and the concentrate from all tanks is 
re-treated in a 'cleaner.' This plant is still running. A 
similar machine is in use at Morenci, and one is being 
built at Cananea. Sonora. 

9. The company's metallurgist has devised an appar- 
atus intended to combine the best points of the other 
machines but without infringing on any patents, except 
those of the Minerals Separation American Syndicate, 
from whom the company holds a license. It is called the 
Inspiration machine. At first it resembled a Callow 
apparatus with an almost flat bottom, the air being blown 
through canvas, but the froth overflowed at one side of 
the cell only, and there were partitions which, however, 
did not reach Hie bottom. It was twice as long as the 
ordinary Callow cell. The frrst concentrate was re- 

id in a smaller machine of the same type, and the 
tailing from this machine was. as usual, returned to 
the 'rougher' cell. Recently other porous media for false 
bottoms have been tried. The machine is still in the ex- 
perimental stage. 

It will thus be seen that the company has spared 
neither time nor money in endeavoring to find the best 
flotation process. The test-mill has been working since 
January 1914, and about 50 flow-sheets have been tried. 
In the laboratory there are 6 small flotation machines of 
the Minerals Separation type in almost constant use. 

The tailing from all the flotation plants is run over 
tables, those in use being Wilfley, Deister Machine Co. 's 
double-deck Simplex sand concentrator, Deister Machine 
Co. 's four-deck table, Deister slime-table, and Deister 
Concentrator Co.'s double-deck table. At one time the 
ore was concentrated on tables before going through the 
flotation process, but this was not found suitable for the 
Minerals Separation process, as it left too little mineral 
in the ore. and for this and other reasons it was dis- 
carded. The mineral saved on the tables is mostly pyrite. 
The 234 tables in the new mill are Deister Machine Co.'s 
double-deck type, the same as used in the Miami Copper 
Co.'s mill. No tests were made with any kind of vanner. 
The sand and slime were run over the same tables with- 
out classification, but this will be altered in the new mill. 

The tailing from the tables flows to the dam, the re- 
taining-wall being built by allowing the coarse sand to 
escape through cones or inverted pyramids attached to 
the tailing-launder. 

The concentrate from all flotation plants and the 
tables, containing about 28% copper, 16% iron, and 26% 
insoluble matter, goes to a drag-classifier. From there 
the coarse concentrate goes direct to an Oliver filter and 
the fine to a V-shaped settling-tank, thence to the filter. 
The concentrate, after filtering, still contains a good deal 
of moisture. It is trammed to a bin adjoining a branch 
of the standard-gauge railway and loaded into bottom- 
discharge steel cars belonging to the International Smelt- 
ing Co. Formerly it was sent to El Paso, Texas. 

Water for the mill and domestic purposes is obtained 
by pumping from wells in the flat country about three 
miles distant. A large concrete reservoir has been built 
on a hill near the mill. Electric power is obtained from 
the power-house at the Roosevelt dam about 40 miles dis- 
tant, belonging to the U. S. Reclamation Service, and the 
service is fairly satisfactory. The Inspiration company 
has an interest in the power-house at the International 
smelter near-by, where, in case of emergency, a supply 
of electricity can be generated by steam from waste heat 
from the reverberatories and from oil-fired Stirling 

As mentioned in the annual report of the company 
(a summary of which appeared in the Press of May 1. 
1915) 172.722 tons of ore was treated in this mill in 
1!)14. so. although only a test-mill, it handles a fairly 
large tonnage. During the month of February hist 
90.3% of the copper occurring in the form of sulphides 
was recovered. The mill has been visited by mining men 
from all parts of the world. 

C. E. Mills is general manager. Kenyon Burch is en- 
gineer. Rudolf Gahl is metallurgist, and G. E. Hunt is 
mill superintendent. 

A copy of the flow-sheet at present in use is appended 

MINING and l'KI .s.S 


Grass Valley Re- Visited— II 

H> T. A. RICKAftD 

North Star win 1ms been followed 1" 6800 ft.. 
which, mi the >lip of - : north, is equivalent to ■ vertical 
depth of 2400 ft Three of the four defined ore-shoots 
ilwl nut outcrop, l>ut tli«' discovery orebodj was rich for 
about Ton it. on the strike. The three ore-shoots that did 
nol apes at the aurface were found at 500, 1600, and 
1000 n.. respectively. The North Star win is remark- 
ably continuous. Owing t>> a small ivpairin the Central, 

rtical, shall I was taken underground on the truck 
thai nins down the old North Star shaft, which is an in- 
cline on the vein. This follows the vein for 6300 ft and 
gives a good opportunity to remark its extraordinary 
continuity. It may pinch or widen, it may be a thin 
quartz Beam or a mere parting, it may be a gouge-streak 
or si\ feel of solid quartz, but through all these vicissi- 
tudes the vein-fracture is continuous. 
The average of clean quartz is from 
12 to 18 inches. The dip varies from 
a maximum of 45 to flat, bul not in 

aft itself. Down to 4000 ft. the 
vein traverses diabase; below that it 
is enclosed within granodiorite. Here 
1 may mention that the vein exploited 
in the Empire mine has 1 n fol- 
lowed to 4800 ft. on the dip. or 2200 
ft. vertical; in diabase down to 1300 
it., and granodiorite below. The 
North Star has several branches, 
some of them highly productive; for 
example, on the 3400-ft. level at the 
presenl time two of these, with di- 
verse dip. are being explored and 
stoped. In places the fracturing in 
the diabase has produced a complex of 
veins requiring mining to he skillful 
in order that it may be economical. No 
marked cross-faulting is observable, but the lode-ehannel 
appears to follow an overthrust fault, causing overlaps 
and slips along which the healing mineral solutions have 
formed more than one duplication of quartz veins. Brec- 
cia and gouge are sufficiently plentiful to indicate that 
the vein follows a line of dislocation, as is further proved 
by the fact that the Nortb Star displaces another vein 
fully 4 ft. in the western workings. On the 6300-ft. level. 
a large cross-vein (now the subject of controversy i has 
I ecu cut and explored by a drift. It is most promising. 
The North Star vein has not yet been found or sought 
beyond this cross-vein, but it is proper to add that at 
3000 ft. the North Star looked as if it had 'quit.' but it 
was found again, strong and profitable, for 3000 ft. more. 
At the bottom station a quartz-porphyry dike, 12 to 15 
inches wide, is frozen to the granodiorite. This dike is 
cut-off by the North Star vein even where the latter looks 
feeble. Dikes of a similar character, but as much as 30 

ft. wide, have been cut in the eastern workings of the 
mine. The miners call the ipiart/ porpln ry 'marble' be 
cause K is smooth and hard looking, Some g I stopea 

wen! right through it; thai is. the gold bearing quartz 

WEB not interrupted by the dike, for the quart/ porphyry 
is pre mineral although post-diabase. 

Although large excavations have been made under the 

rather Mat hanging wall of the vein. DO extensive sub 

sidencea have ensued as yet, nor has the mine suffered 

from those sudden collapses of the overhang called 'air- 
blasts.' Something of the kind, however, must have hap- 
pened in July 1912 when an area of about three acres 
fell, to the accompaniment of thunderous noise that 

lasted for about live minutes. No rush of air was DO 

ticed ; indeed, the 'snuffs' left under the miners' dinner- 


buckets, heating the tea within, remained alight on the 
edge of the caved portion. The lights could be seen 
after the men had been extricated, but the buckets could 
not be recovered, the ground being too dangerous. A 
small hoisting-engine also had to be abandoned. 

The flatness of the stopes led to the invention, by the 
elder Mr. Poote, of a device for lowering ore along the 
foot-wall with the use of a gravity tram. This is the 'go- 
devil.' It consists of three sheaves on the same plane, 
one at each apex of an equilateral triangle, the wire rope 
passing round each in succession. The brake is applied 
by cramping a casting between the three sheaves, grip- 
ping all of them simultaneously. 

In a mine so well managed, I saw one thing unworthy 
of imitation, and I may be permitted to make a note of 
it, as it was to be seen only in old workings. Nothing of 
the kind was to be observed in the newer workings. I 
refer to the use of a pole, behind two posts, as a base for 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 3, 1915 

Btope-filling, the face of the till being upright instead of 
founded "n the foot-wall itself with a batter back- 
ward. The fill, being laid on a perishable timber, is 
bound to collapse when the timber mis. 

Ordinary sampling is considered impracticable in a 
win containing so large a part of its valuable content in 

whom; way TO FILL BT0PE8. 

the form of free gold. The development faces are sam- 
pled only if no gold is visible. Samples are not taken 
even if the showing of gold is intermittent from day to 
day, particularly if the quartz contains "good-looking 
mineral," that is. lend and pyrite. The better grade of 
ore shows gold together with a heavy sprinkling of sul- 
phides. I E the quartz is white, without sulphides or visi- 
ble gold, it is assumed to be poor — thai is. waste. Quartz 
thai is "white as a hound's tooth" is almost en-lain In 
be barren. The stope-l'aees likewise are judged by the 

eye; no samples are taken unless i he ground appears to 
be bo poor as to suggest discontinuance of stoping in any 
particular working. Instead of regular sampling it be- 

comes necessary to establish a thorough system of super- 
vision. Stope-bosses are employed to watch particular 
faces, nut only to prevent the breaking of excessive waste, 
but to minimize the stealing of eoarse gold. Usually 
of these are on the pay-roll, besides three more 
'specimen bosses,' one on each shift, whose duty it is to 
go through the workings and remove all patches of coarse 
gold, using a moil or hand-pick. They fill from 12 to 
20 small sacks, weighing from 50 to 75 lb. each, per 
month. This stuff is worth from .+500 to $2000 per 
month. Despite such precautions, there is a good deal 
of 'high-grading,' or theft. In addition to the six 
junior bosses mentioned, two special stope-bosses are 
supervising the 3400-ft. west workings, where a large 
crew is employed just now, so that. 8 shift-bosses of this 
kind are on the pay-roll. The whole system of under- 
ground supervision, including the ordinary foreman and 
shift-bosess, entails a cost of 18 cents per ton. on ore 
yielding $9.50 per ton. 

To break the gold-bearing quartz as clean as possible 
is the ideal, but it has to be adapted to economic condi- 
tions. At one time an effort was made to 'resue.' thai is. 
to strip the vein on its hanging-wall side, but it proved 
unsatisfactory. The vein shows an increasing propor- 
tion of stringers as the mine is deepened and it is a Eael 
thai more of these stringers are now included in the 
ground stoped. Nevertheless the profit per ton has been 
nearly constant throughout the life of the mine, as the 
dala in the table below indicate. 

In preparation for stoping in the deeper portion of 
the mine, a new plant, to cost $78,000. is being erected 
at the Central shaft. This includes a steel head-frame, 
a hoisting engine, and a sorting annex. The hoist will 

be a Nordberg simple duplex engine of 28 in. diameter 

and 48-in, stroke. It will raise 4 tons at a rate of 1200 
ft. per minute from 7300 ft. on the dip of the vein, that 
is. •_' 750 ft. vertical. The two drums will be 9 ft. diam. 

North Star Vein 

Aiva mined 
Tons square feet 
mined horizontal 
























f 1200 west 

[23Q0 west 









f 1100 east 

{ t0 
[ 2700 east 



683. '■ 







( Development 
| below 4000 

| 63,783 












Total vein 







Tens per 
Produe- square foot Yield 

tion ho izoiilnl Per ton Per sq ft. Remarks 

Lindgren. quoting Bean's Directory, 
Bays vein produced $250,000 from 1851 
to 1857. 

( Estimated from Silliman's articles in 
j Bean's Directory. 

f Compiled from Clayton's report and 
•! Raymond's '.Mineral Resources West of 
I the Rocky Mountains.' 

( This gives production prior to North 
j Star Mining Company. 

Production of North Star Mining 
► Company and North Star Mines 


MINING am! Scienlih. I'KI SS 

with . The engine will )»■ providi il 

«iih |m r heater, to heal the »ir up i" 370 I- 

ope «iii i«- l; null, made of plo« iteel. Tin 

itruetaral steel, lupplied by the 

Minneapolis Steel A Machini weigh) ia 

from the mine will be discharged upon 

- irting "in the fine, the remainder falling into 

- from which n will be fed to an oscillating 

picking table. Between the feeder and this table the 

irinkled to facilitate sorting. 

In the repair-shop I waa shown trie device invented 

by the machinist, W, l». Paynter, for testing the drills 

used in the mine, It iaa machine whereby the blow of a 

drill against a plunger is transmitted through oil to a 

diaphragm, the distension of which is amplified by a 

I. \. r, at one end «'t' which is ;i pencil thai registers the 

of the blow on paper laid around a revolving drum. 

For instance, .1 Waugh No. 50 drill on arrival from the 

factory was tested. Under an air-pressure of 95 lb., it 

struck 1932 blows, worth 25 fool pounds, per minute. 

This u;is on December 9, l!'l t. After being used for 45 

shifts i In- drill became ineffective underground and was 

brought to surface for testing by the Paynter machine. 










h J K l rK . 


DIAQBAU OF 1)1111. 1.-TKST. 

Under the Bame air-pressure it now struck 2040 blows 
per minute, but only 15 ft-lb. per minute. This was on 
.May 8, L915. After being repaired, and a new 'barrel,' 
or cylinder, supplied, it struck 2220 blows worth 27 ft-lb. 
per minute. This also was on May 8. Whereupon it was 
returned underground in a state of first-class efficiency. 

Another instance may be quoted. A year ago a new 
[ngersoll-Leyner No. 1* had been received at the Em- 
pire mine, where the men underground claimed that 
they could not get good service from it; it was con- 
demned after it bad been tried against an older drill. 
The discredited drill went to and fro from the mine to 
the repair-shop until finally it was sent for a test to 
Paynter, who endorsed its inefficiency. Whereupon a 
new drill, with a demonstrator, was sent by the manufac- 
turer. This gave a good record on the testing-machine. 
By changing parts successively, it was ascertained thai 
the valve-chest of the culprit was defective. When the 
valve-chest of the new machine was put on the old one, 
the results were as good as on the new one. The two 
cards are given above.* Thereupon the manager of 
the Empire bought one of the Paynter machines. 

Of course, the use of such a testing-machine prevents 
unfit drills from being sent into the mine; it serves to 

•See also Mixing and Scientific Press. August 2, 1913. and 
'Tests of Rock Drills at North Star Mine, California,' by 
Robert H. Bedford and William Hague, Trans. A. I. M. E., 1914. 

prompt ■ id re 

■ hi of worn p 'mt; drills, 

thai is. the labor of the driller, air for power, mainten 

• me. ,.i hjr-lines ami of tin- drills them* 1 

sumption, sharpening, and distribution, altogether 

amounts t" |100,000 per ai i or one third the total 

mining expense, which means th si ,,i breaking the 

ore and delivering it into the mill bins 

At the North Star the Water Leyner No. S (witl 
inch hollow steel) and the Waugh 12 A (with 1 1 inch 

G3 j>.«4«jt 

A TYl'Ii Al. SEI I hi . 

cross-steel i are ill general use. The latter is being dis- 
carded for the lugersoll No. 26, a hammer-machine of 

the coin -mounted type equipped with a butterfly 

valve and using hollow (f-in. hexagonal) steel. It is 
found thai the speed of drilling is more nearly propor- 
tional to the number of blows than to the for if tin- 
blow. With the big steel and a 2 Jin. bit the si effec- 
tive blow is one of 45 ft-lb. j beyond that point the effec- 
tiveness of the drill is not progressive. The Watcr- 
Leyner with a 2|-in. bit will drill 0.2 ft. per minute 

'// </,« ■l^ r T^r=^f^U77P7T/ irfYt'frr/, 


under 1300 blows of 45 ft-lb. each per minute, while the 
Ingcrsoll No. 26 will drill 0.25 ft. with a IJ-in. bit. 2200 
blows, and IS ft-lb. per minute. 

The old Cornish pump must not be overlooked. It has 
been running steadily since 1884. The rod is 2400 ft. 
long, made of wood spliced together at 20-ft. intervals 
with iron straps. The column starts with a diameter of 
16 inches and is reduced successively to 6 inches at the 
bottom. The 'bob' was made for the Potosi mine on the 
Comstoek, and was then used at the Scotia, before it 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 3, 1915 

came to the North Star. The pump-rod weighs 155,000 
lb. and is balanced, of course, by the bob. 

Of late there have been rumors, well founded, of a 
conflict of apex-rights over the vein cut on the bottom 
level of the North Star. This vein dips from the oppo- 
site side, thai is. from the direction of the Empire mine. 
Hence the possibility of litigation. It would not be 
proper for me to express any opinion on the matter. 

even if 1 were well informed concerning all the facts. 
which is far from being the case, but I do appreciate that 
I Im poor apex law' is again in danger of being stultified, 
for in tin- Grass Valley district the veins are so numer- 
ous, anil interlocking, and their apices on surface SO 
non-existent, that the adjudication of mining- 
is beyond the judgment of man. Having regard 
to the sagacity of the owners of both properties and the 
ability of their advisors, both legal and geological, I have 
every hope and expectation that litigation will be 
avoided. t It is true that a minor newspaper stated that 
the North Star had offered to buy the Empire for 
$5,000,000, but that the offer had been countered with 
a demand for $7,000,000. This little story may be dis- 
regarded. Each mine has ground enough, and equip- 
ment sufficient, to constitute a first-class economic unit. 
Leaving this delicate topic, let me close my notes by 
a reference to the amenities of the place to the piue 
woods, the pleasant houses that they shelter, and the 
earnest technical men, and their accomplished wives, who 
find a home there. At Grass Valley life has lost the 
uncouthness of a frontier settlement. The second growth 
of pine has clothed the bareness of the hills, from which 
the pioneers stripped the tall timber. Now an adult 
forest has risen among the old stumps. The ground is 
carpeted with the brown needles. A clearing gives a 
glimpse of the snowy peaks of the Sierra Buttes silhou- 
etted against the blue. Sunshine in golden lanes falls 
athwart the forest spaces. Quiet reigns. Only the 
muffled roar of the stamp-mill comes as a reminder of 
the resourceful energies that are ever at work in the 
depths underground. 

Tin: MISSOURI is the muddiest river in the Mississippi 
Valley : it carries more silt than any other large river in 
the United States except possibly the Rio Grande and 
the Colorado. For every square mile of country drained 
it carries downstream 381 tons of dissolved and sus- 
pended matter each year. In other words, the river 
gathers annually from the country that it drains more 
than 123.000.000 tons of silt and soluble matter, some of 
which it distributes over the flood plain below to form 
productive agricultural lands, but most of which finds 
its way at last to the Gulf of Mexico. It is by means of 
data of this kind that geologists compute the rate at 
which the lands are being eroded away. 

Terne Plates 

This item of manufacture has come into prominence 
as a substitute for galvanized iron in roofing and out- 
door protection. The terne plate is a sheet of iron 
Coated with a mixture of lead and tin. the proportion of 
these two metals varying from 15'/' 'in to 2~i<^' t . The 
tin is said to cause the lead to adhere to the black sheet 
of steel. Owing to its greater cost, the manufacturer 
uses as little till as possible. In regard to the merit of 
terne plates as compared with other coated sheets, it 
would appear that it depends upon the weight of the 
coating. As commonly quoted, this coating ranges from 
8 to 4ii lb. per box of 112 sheets, each of 20 by 28 inches. 
Thus the 8 lb. of alloy is spread over about 800 square 
feet. It follows that a mere scratch will expose the 
steel to corrosion. It is a curious fact, moreover, that 
0.15 to 0.25'; copper in the steel will increase the resis- 
tance to corrosion. The two metals form an alloy. Those 
in the trade say that a 30 or 40 lb. coating should be 
used if terne plates are to equal galvanized sheets in ef- 
ficiency. The best proof of the superiority of galvanized 
sheets is the growth in the use of them. Painted black 
sheets were widely used at one time, but they have not 
the vogue of a few years ago. On the whole, consumers 
are loath to use any substitute for galvanized iron and 
will pay the higher prices, provided they are not pro- 
hibitive. Probably the prejudice against the old-fashion- 
ed 'tin roof is due largely to the variable composition 
and quality of the coating used. In order to overcome 
this prejudice some organized effort toward standard- 
ization is necessary. 

Gold-Mining in Ssu-Chuan 

Gold is found in many places in the province of Ssu- 
chuan. China, and the upper reaches of the Yangtze are 
known by the natives as the Kin-ho, or gold river. Al- 
luvial gold workings may be seen along many streams; 
near Ta-chien-lu. for example. 500 or more men are at 
work. The most important lode mine so far found is at 
Maha, in the southwestern part of the province, about 
50 miles northwest of Niug-yuan-fu. Work on the mine 
was started some years ago, but on account of revolu- 
tionary disturbances not much has yet been accom- 
plished, although several large and productive veins have 
been found. Two Chinese engineers who have studied in 
Belgium are now in charge of the property, and some 
1200 men are employed. Funds for financing the work 
of development have been provided by the Government 
and it is the intention to purchase the necessary equip- 
ment in America. 

Talc and SOAPSTONE production in the United States 
in 1H14 was 151,088 and 21,208 tons respectively, valued 
at a total of $1,865,087. 

tThis anticipation has proved. I regret to say, optimistic. 
Legal proceedings are now pending. 

Drilling efficiency depends upon the following fac- 
tors: (1) knowledge of the rock; (2) the selection of a 
machine-drill that is suitable for the work in hand ; 
whose dead time in handling and mounting is low. and 
that is capable of keeping pace with the drill bit. and 
(3) a study of the suitability of drill-bit. 

Jul) !. 1 ! ' I • 

MINING and Scientific PK1 S> 

Mining in Utah 


Tin' recent tlurry in tin- lead market baa stimulated 
local inquiry as to the possibility of increasing the 
- production of this metal. Aside from the excel- 
lent position of oopper, a rise in the price of lead and 
silver evokes the greatest interest, inasmuch us the pro- 
duction "i" these metals eomea rrom a wider area, and as 
Utah is surpassed by bnt two Btatea in the production of 
lead and ii - ores, and by but one in lead silver ores 

.\n is well known, the major part of tin' lead-silver 
production is made by the mines of Bingham, Park City, 
Tintic, and Braver county, the first two contributing sul- 
phides ami the utter two shipping most of tin- carbonate 
tonnage of the state. Much of the ore from Park City 
ami Bingham is in tin' form of a concentrate, thai from 
tin- former, particularly, carrying considerable zinc 
most of which is lost in smelting, except in those ores or 
concentrates thai are amenable to electrostatic separa- 
tion, and which are so treated at one of tin- Salt Lake 
valley plants. 

As to the possibility of increasing the mine produc- 
tion, it is to lie expected that Bingham ami Park City 

ean largely increase their shipments, although the un- 
certainties of the market have operated to prevent a too 
hasty expansion of the scale of operations. In the near 
future we may look for a greater output of 1 1 ■ ■ • liner con- 
centrates from both districts, a large producer in each 
being on the point of installing a Dotation process. 

In the Tintic camp there has been some increase in the 
number of men employed and in the number of leases 
taken up. both underground and on old dumps. 

With lead under four cents, producers of sulphide ore 
have of necessity depended on the silver content of their 
ores for any appreciable profit and it can be easily un- 
derstood that a price for lead that would enable con- 
sistent profits to be won from thai metal would be most 
welcome. Producers rather prefer a price of five to six 
cents, justly believing that a higher price is likely to lead 
to later demoralization of the market, through discour- 
aging the use of lead where it is not essential. 

In considering the position of the smelters it is evi- 
dent that too high a price will operate to limit orc-pur- 
ehases to those made under contract or otherwise most 
desirable, since it would not be sound business to ac- 
cumulate any stock of ore in excess of smelting require- 
ments, in the face of a possible quick decline in the mar- 
ket So that the final limit to an increase in production 
will naturally depend on smelting capacities. 

It is always difficult to give accurately the capacity of 
lead-smelting works in terms either of lead ore or lead 
bullion, on account of the variable nature of the ma- 
terials charged, for a considerable portion of the charge 
may consist of ores valuable for their gold and silver 
content, with lead at a minimum ; and it may not be and 

is net likely to be practical to treat only or.-s high in 
had. in order to take advantage of temporary high 

prices. Put using as a basis of approximation the av- 
erage charge smelted and omitting consideration of any 

increases brought about by better tallurgieal prac 

lie,-, or other Favorable factors, an approximate estimate 

is possible, which will serve to point out at least the 
direction in which the limitation lies 

Fourteen Out of a total of l!l lead Stacks an- now in 

operation, treating approximately 3500 tons of charge 

daily, out of a possible furnace-capacity of about 47.10 
tons, or at about To', of Capacity. 

Inasmuch as fully two-thirds of the ore is roasted, it 
is evident that unless there was a large increase in re- 
ceipts of oxidized ores, tin- roasting equipment might 
determine the limit of capacity. This equipment could 
not be increased generally without increasing Hue- 
systems, bag-bouses, etc., and would not be considered 
while the market was unsettled. As near as can be esti- 
mated there are in operation the equivalent of 12 
Dwight-Lloyd sintering machines, out of an installation 
of 16. sintering about 181)11 tons of charge daily, out of 
a possible capacity under present operating conditions 
of about 3000 tons. There is also further sintering ca- 
pacity in the shape of Huntington & Heberlein pots, 
capable of treating an additional 400 tons of charge 
daily. Without making any arbitrary assumptions as 
to the amount of lead ore on the charge, the above figures 
give the relative proportions of present and possible ca- 
pacity, which is all I wish to emphasize in this review 
of conditions. 

Should furnace and roasting capacity be in harmony, 
the one or the other might be mentioned as marking the 
limit, but it happens that at one plant with furnaces 
idle, roasting equipment is all in operation while at 
another all blast-furnaces are operating while part of 
the roasting plant is not operated. This. then, limits 
the possible increase in the charge to a few hundred tons 
per day. and as higher prices call out lower-grade ores, 
it is questionable whether the lead on the charge would 
be greatly increased. 

A factor of no little moment in connection with the 
treatment of greater tonnages of sulphide ores is the 
limit placed on such increase by the Courts as a result 
of certain smoke suits against some of the smelters. 

Taken in all its aspects the threatened high price for 
lead has again emphasized the desirability of the pro- 
ducer selling his ore under contract. One clause favor- 
able to the smelters, which is generally lacking in lead 
contracts in this market, but is in frequent use in zinc 
contracts, is a provision that enables the smelter to share 
in increased profits from higher prices, through auto- 
matic increases in charges with increased prices. As it 

MINING and Scientific PRE5S 

July 3. 1915 

same smelting charge is maii 
of lead. A ten ie of this increased profit 

is manifest in the reported payment of only one-half the 
advance over 41 cents, on ore bought in the open market 
iy. This, of course, does not affect present eon- 
While smelters may anticipate enhanced profits 
from ore now in stock bought at low pri • s little 

to be hoped for in the way of extravagant profits on ore 
bought at high prices, as the decline following a rising 
market is usually rather sudden, while the effect of in- 
creasing prices is but slowly cumulative, as it rel. 

.nd it 
an attractive proposition to carry metal bought 
at high prices for ti. - -.ys that may be 

necessary to beneficiate it and market it. 

source of helpless grief to local smelters is the 
• intent of some of the ores in zinc. That this erief 
is not illu- lent in the present high ; 

product that these plants must waste. To throw away 
a metal worth in the neighborhood of 25 cents t - 

rth 5 or 6 cents sur _ -ise to a feeling 

that elicits our sympathy. 

:id not require, however, the stimulus of high 
prices to create a widespread spirit of research into 
methods that might save this zinc, in which effort Utah 
is not at all backward. A discussion of this phase of the 
subject must be postponed for the present. 

There is not much activity looking to the improvement 
of milling conditions. Operators are not slow to see the 
possible advantages in flotation processes, and. in spite 
of hampering litigation, substantial progress is being 
made. When the new Callow plant is installed at Park 
< ity. two of its four milling plants will be equipped 
with flotation apparatus, and the Utah-Apes at Bing- 
ham will mark the third installation of flotation in silver- 
lead-zinc mills, of which there are but five of any im- 
portance in Utah. Of importance also in the treatment 
of the silver-lead-zinc ores is the proposed large increase 
in the capacity of both the wet and dry i electro- 
mills of the United States smelting company at Midvale. 
_ into commission in the next sixty <! 
The favorable price for copper has brought about the 
eompi- t this business from the ear". 

- n of wartime, and has also aided to repair certain 
rous conditions that existed previously to that de- 
pression. There is not the same relative opportunity for 
betterment to the small producer of copper ores that 
exists for the lead producer, since, although there are 
some small producers of copper and several large pro- 
- of lead, the larger part of the copper production 
eomes from big-scale operations, while many smaller pro- 
ducers and lessees aid in swelling the lead output. 

The copper price, however, lends effective aid to the 
exploitation of the low-grade ores of the Ohio Copper 
Co.. which is to be undertaken Wy Salt Lake. Butte, and 
interests. The profit accruing to this eom- 
:'rom unsold copper, tied up some months ago when 
prices were low. has added a large amount to the assets 
of the company and it is hoped that the favorable eom- 

umstances will place the mine upon its 

?iee more. 

•y in the search for precious metal- 
lacking. Discoveries of rich specimens of gold ore in the 
Bull Valley district near Modena has lead to an in- 
creased output of interested boosting in the daily press, 
but in lieu of authentic and definite statements of foot- 
age and grade of ore. and demonstrated eontinu 
ore with depth, conservative men are withholding judg- 
ment. A fair sized boom is on.* Exceptional specimens 
have been found in fractures in the limestone. The 
high-grade ore is itself mineralogically remarkaK- 
curring in a well crystallized -irrade 

is found in or near porphyritic intrusions, so highly al- 
tered as to obscure their nature. The locality appears 
promising in so far as the milling of $5 to -_ 
concerned. There has been too little development, how- 

to permit a confident judgment as to its impor- 
tance. Only recently a piece of rock containing a large 
amount of free gold was reported to have been found 
near Quail Springs, some three or four miles from the 
pioneer prospect of the district, the Hamburg, where the 
first work was done about eight years ago. The miner- 
alized area may have an extent of six to seven m: 
three or four miles. One company is reported to be 
driving a cross-cut adit which will cut its vein at a depth 
of 800 ft. below the outcrop. 

At Park City some progress is being made in treating 
the low-grade silver-lead ores of the American Flag by 
the chlorination process used at the Park City Mills 
plant. A capacity of 30 tons per day has been r>-; 
with the new Holt-Dern roasting furnace, and it - 
pected that this can be doubled. At this capaci' 
penses are being cleared. The ore carries 18 oz. ed 
and $2 in gold, a little copper, and some lead, but not 
enough to be recognized by the smelters in settlement- 
sheets. Silver extraction is satisfactory and lead and 
copper are saved, but the gold extraction has n- 
come up to expectations, and a lot of pioneer work has 
been necessary, since the original plant applying this 
process on the Ontario stope-fillings did not have to ex- 
tract the gold. This latter mill is being dismantled and 
will be re-erected in place of the Knight-Christensen 
mill in the Tintic district which was destroyed by 
before reaching wholly satisfactory operating conditions. 
With the opportunity to erect a plant to suit the process, 
rather than being under the necessity of adapting an 
old plant, interesting results are expected. The plant as 
finally operated at Park City earned a profit, but the 
new arrangement promises a better ore-supply. 

One of the first steps looking to the utilization of the 
potash alunite deposits of Marysvale is the awarding 
by the Minerals Products Co. (said to be affiliated with 

-mour interests I of a contract for a portion of its 
aerial tram from the deposits to the railroad. So the 
addition of another to Utah's already diverse mineral 
industries seems to be well under way. 

•References to this discovery appeared in our issnes of 
June 5 and June 12. — Editor. 


MINING and Stimuli, I'Kl SS 

Speculation in Mines 


is a lopio iluii may be viewed in many different 
ecu la t ion or gambling is a primitive instinct, 
inn! in ita erudeal forms is .1 common practice among 
nan may check and cloak bis primi- 
tive impulses, but the world of todaj is painfully aware, 

aa perhaps never before in modern ti a, bow little pro 

the white race has actually made in tins respect. 
The word 'speculation' is thus defined in the Century 
dictionary: "To invest money for profit upon uncer- 
tainty; take the risk of lnss in view of possible gain." 
An. I 'gambling' is stated to mean; "To play any game 

Of hazard for a slake; risk money or anything of value 

on the issue of a game of chance, by either playing or 
betting on the play of others; hence t" engage in lin- 
ancial transactions or speculation dependent for su 
chiefly upon chance or unknown contingencies." It is 
evident that there is uo great difference between the one 
meaning of the two words. 

Alining, especially metal mining, is usually regarded as 
speculation. It is certain]] nol often a proper sphere in 
which to invest the widow's mite or the orphan's portion. 
l>ut it is surely an attractive and proper field for the 
vigorous man with plenty of red blood in his body. 

Now in one conception a mine never produces any- 
thing: it creates nothing in the sense of a farm yielding 
crops. It is the storehouse, if you please, containing an 
undefined and unknown amount of treasure, or what may 
he siii'h it' it does not cost more to take out than the 
product is worth in the market. In other words, a mine 
is what actuaries term a liquidating or wasting asset. 
Every pound of ore taken from a mine makes it just that 

much leas valuable. Actually the taking of ore from a 

mine might make it more valuable because the act of do- 
ing this may develop the property and show resources 
theretofore unsuspected. Indeed it is seldom possible to 
be sure when a mine is completely exhausted, and what 
is waste-rock today may be ore tomorrow by reason of 
changed conditions. We certainly cannot expect the in- 
vestor to view and understand such matters in the same 
way as an experienced mining engineer; the trouble is, 
the investor often thinks he knows as much, or even more, 
than the engineer. 

When tin' Tonopah mine was discovered in the early 
part of 1901, Nevada as a mining region was as dead as 
Herod. Probably if the exploration companies that are 
today advertising for mining properties, but never ap- 
pear to purchase any, had been then in existence, they 
would have appended to their advertisement "nothing 
wanted in Nevada." I well remember when the Tonopah 
mine was first brought to Philadelphia. The chief hacker 
of it offered me some stock at a very low price, and when 
I asked him who was their engineer, he replied that they 
had, and needed, none. For that reason the proposition 
did not appeal to me ; I failed to purchase the stock, and 

i getting a good thing. My p< rition in ill, matter 
tvas "holly logical and sound; moat companies that un 

dertake to mine without an engineer e • i,, grief, hut 

in this instai an engineer was reallj not absolutely 

jsary, tor the mine at that time was too rich to be 
spoiled by any amount of hail management It was m 
tact. ;i rank gamble, hut successful; and it subsequently 

had a host of neighboring imitations, most of which 
ended iii disaster. 

The effect Upon the public 11)1 Ml I of such loll: 

ventures is on the "hole distinctly had; a crop ..' 
Sponsible promoters springs up ami almost any old hole 
in the ground may be financed if presented with suffici- 

ently alluring statements and literature. The eternally 

young old game of getting something for nothing I . 
irresistible effect upon the human mind at such periods. 
It is a Species of insanity, and we have had many in- 
stances of it in the history of the country since the days 
of the California gold rush in 1849. The psychology of 
public opinion is often inscrutable, but on the whole "hen 
allowed free and unhampered expression is generally 
right, if not perverted by greed, suspicion, and misin- 
formation — a trio of faults one might suppose modern 

civilization had done much to dispel. It is perhaps n 1- 

less to expatiate further upon human frailties; we all 
have our share of them. 

The important thing in mining ventures is to discount 
the inherent risk and in doing this the public should be 
brought to recognize that mining, especially metal min- 
ing, is a highly technical business, and that to place such 
a business in untrained hands is to court disaster. The 
fact that there are not a few instances in the history of 
the country where men perfectly ignorant of minerals. 
rocks, and mining have discovered valuable ore deposits 
and become rich thereby, is no argument to the contrary. 
Mere chance or fortuitous circumstance is no proof of 
knowledge or skill. These remarks are so self-evident 
and trite, one almost hesitates to make them, but they 
contain homely truths that cannot he too often reiterated. 

The cardinal principle in mining is to consider that 
such a venture or investment is never perfectly safe until 
the original amount involved has been equalled by the 
total dividends received. Moreover, it should be clearly 
understood that until this stage is reached the dividends 
do not. represent profit but a proportionate return of the 
principal invested. A disregard of this precept is a 
common error, especially with women. It cannot be too 
often repeated that a mine is a wasting asset that neces- 
sarily becomes less and less valuable as it is worked. It 
is, of course, ordinarily impossible for an investor to 
know when the mine is likely to he exhausted. The en- 
gineers in charge may be able to approximate closely the 
period when this may be expected, and through them, 
of course, the information should reach the directors, but 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 3, 1915 

the directors do not always shaii- their knowledge with 
the stockholders. A surprising thing about the mining 
business is the tenacity of life of some old properties, 
times they are supposed to be completely worked 
out. when new orebodies are found : or. in other instances. 

on- previously too lean to be worked may later bei le 

a valuable asset by virtue of improved mining and mill- 
ing met hoils. Then again, old tailing-dumps may be re- 

wi rked ti> yield a substantia] profit or the mining com- 
pany may have accumulated a substantia] surplus thai 

can be invested in a new mine, thus maintaining the 
value of the stock. These observations tend to show that 

the mining investor is nearly always at the mercy of the 

managers of the property unless he be himself a skilled 

miner and has opportunities of examining the property, 

In theory at least a mining company should not issue 
mortgage-bonds on its mines, or at any rate their term 
should be so short as to lie well within the probable life 
of the mine. 

The most important factor in financing a mining enter- 
prise is one rarely given sufficient weight, that is. estab- 
lishing me reserves. It goes against human nature to 
See thousands of dollars put into the ground when not 
one cent is coming out; the average investor can seldom 
appreciate the logic and soundness of such a course of 
procedure. Herein, thus expressed in simple terms, lies 
the essential difference between absolute speculation and 
investment : obviously money spent on a mine when then- 
is no definite and certain knowledge as to what amount 
of ore may be taken out. is speculation : whereas, suppose 
we have a million dollars worth of ore blocked out in a 
mine and we know for a fact that it can be taken out. 
milled, and turned into money for a cost of say $600,000, 
yielding a net profit of $400,000. It is evident that any 
amount put into the mine not to exceed ^4110.(10(1 is an in- 
vestment, and as a speculation it is logical to suppose 
that this same mine which produced a million dollars of 
ore will very likely yield considerably more. 

I am convinced that we can never hope to persuade 
the general public to accept this view of mining. Men 
in general regard metal mining as a gamble and business 
people who are absolutely sane in their everyday affairs 
are ready in 'good times." when money is plentiful, to 
listen to the tales of the irresponsible promoter, the fake 
'mining expert' and the irresistible lure of getting rich 
quickly. When times are 'hard.' as at present, the pro- 
moter of this class with his bedfellow 'the expert' are 
hibernating somewhere, patiently waiting Eor better 
■ lays to come when lie- tradesman will have a little spare 
Cash t" throw his way. Anyone who has not hail actual 
experience with such matters could hardly believe the 
credulity and crass stupidity of many seasoned business 
men when carried away by the delusive blandishments of 
these fantastic schemers. 

Far be it for us to discredit and discourage the honest 
and decent man who seeks capital to promote a meritori- 
ous anil attractive mining proposition. He has a hard 
row to hoi- at the best of times because he hesitates t" 
distort the truth or minimize the risk, and if he fails to 
sing a sufficiently alluring song the money will be shy. 

but once let him pipe the right tune, the dollars become 
nimble and flock like sheep to be led where and when 
he pleases. If the promoter can once convince a man he 

may get something for nothing, there seems to be no limit 
to the folly of which human beings may be guilty. 

No business depends more upon accuracy of judgment 
and sound technical knowledge than that of mining in 
all its branches. The mining engineer must not only be 
well versed in the intricacies of his profession, but amply 
endowed with imagination, 'bat he may lie equally able 
lo determine what is based upon fact and what is mere 
fancy, and. what is more important, the limits to which 
it is safe to let imagination carry him. 

Honesty and frankness are absolutely essential in the 
engineer; the would-be investor must be neither dis- 
couraged by pessimism, nor allow optimism to lead him 
astray; yet. if the picture be painted in too dark Colors 
we may be sure the capitalist will button up his pocket 
and no risk be taken. The subject, therefore, resolves 
itself down to a dependence upon the engineer's sound 
judgment and technical accuracy. With large invest - 
ments in unproved properties one engineer should be 
used to check another, no one man's judgment may 
be wholly trusted, and a careful engineer will himself 
seldom desire or permit such a thing to happen. But the 
capitalist should do bis part also with the facts before 
him and bis knowledge of the character of the men who 
have gathered them. The final decision must rest with 
him, he must weigh and consider most carefully the 
Speculative elements free from cupidity, because in nine 
cases out of ten it is the lure of avarice that gets the 
better of his judgment. 

It is pertinent in this connection to observe that the 
whole Structure w call modern civilization rests upon 
the use of metals and they cannot be obtained except by 
mining. That the earth will continue to yield them 
indefinitely at the present rate no mining engineer of 
wide and mature experience will venture to assert. Rich 
deposits are becoming more and more rare. In the days 
of the Roman empire the streams and gravel-beds of 
Central Europe yielded considerable gold and at the 
same period the alluvial deposits of Cornwall produce. 1 
the tin that made Tyre famous. The first historical fact 
has long since been forgotten, the lode mines of Cornwall 
many years ago eclipsed the Stannaries of the ancients 
and now in turn these lodes have about been exhausted. 

I cite these cases to show what we may expect in this 
country, large as it is. ever bearing in mind that the rate 
of production and consequent exhaustion is now vastly 
quicker than in Roman times. It is true the modern 
mechanical and chemical methods of ore treatment en- 
able us profitably to mine low-grade ores thai twenty, or 
even ten. years ago were of no value whatever. But it is 
doubtful if the limits in this respect are not now nearly 
in sight, unless the market-price of most metals mater- 
ially increases. 

The world's production of gold between 1012 and 1913 
decreased $17,000,000, and in the year following $7.- 

Soetbeer computes the total production of gold in the 

Julj ; i'i ■ 

MINING and Scientific PRI SS 


world m Hi. ..M Miu.iiiiit 

ai«Mit <mly one third ill.- estimated OOSl "I the War in 
Europe n mi from August, I'M i * 

I'll Dsumption ..I the gold in the art* is steadily in 

ting, mi. I the demand for n-> u~' in eommeroe si ■ 

standard of nine kn..«* do limit The logioal oonclu- 

■ion from this review >.r general facta i> that the price ol 

.nil l v advance; of eonrae, there will be 

fluctuations, bul the average level must tend to bee e 

higher as an inevitable result of the ever increasing de- 

mini. I ami the r\liaiisli..n of rich deposits with Ini new 

diacoveriea to take their place, The general tendency 
will be indeed, it ie already evident for mining of all 

deacriptiona to segregate into the banda of large ■ i 

paniea on the principle of large production upon small 
margins of profit but with an aggregate sufficient to yield 
.. steady but relatively moderate return upon great in- 
vestments of capital. 'Pin- operations of such large com- 
paniee are usually so diversified and distributed over a 
number of properties that the failure of one does not 
narily seriously affect the general business of the 
operating company as a whole. Hence the purchase of 

shares at reasonable prices in SUCh organizations tends to 

b ie more of an investment than speculation. There 

is ie. doubt the segregation of mining operations into the 
han. Is of large corporations is a distinct advantage to the 
conservation of national resources, a large company, as 

a rule, is less wasteful than a small operator. It can 
afford to set aside its low-grade ores until such times as 
they may he worked at a profit, whereas the individual 
operator or small company can seldom do it. as he must 
look for immediate profit and pick out the rich spots, 
abandoning the rest as worthless, and often leave the 
mine in sueh condition that it cannot he re-opened. 

As a cheek upon individuality, these tendencies are 
unfortunate. No country in the world has ever offered 
sueh opportunities for the development of the individual 
as has the United States and Canada. The time was, 
and not long ago, when the individual might discover an 
orebody, develop it into a mine, and become rich thereby. 
Sueh a possibility was obviously predicated upon the ore 
being rich and the operator having some small amount of 
capital; but we all know these opportunities are becom- 
ing more and more rare and are largely responsible for 
the cry "what is the matter with prospecting?" 

The theme suggests other reflections, but I have said 
enough to show my own views concerning the specula- 
tive side of mining. The problems now- presented to the 
young mining engineer are materially different from 
those we had to meet in our younger days 25 years ago. 
The fundamental principles of life do not conspicuously 
change, but the adjustment of the individual to shifting 
conditions demands constant attention, and the man who 
fails to adapt himself and blend gracefully with the cur- 
rent of events is not likely to achieve much or make him- 
self a useful member of society. 

Before concluding these few remarks some reference 

•See Report of Director of U. S. Mint, 1914, page 2r,s. 
•Edgar Cramniond. Secretary Liverpool Stock Exchange, 
quoted in 77ie Outlook. New York. April 28, 1915. page 972. 

is appropriate to a few facts ..i timely and fondan 

■ue, rii.- m. tui producing industry of the world 
is chiefly in Anglo-Celtic bands Germany, the gr< 
manufacturing nation of modern times, extracts from her 
own territory but ■ rery small amount of the metals and 

depend upon importation to meet the rapidly n. 

creasing demand of metals for her industries 
Germany's metal requirements are met in two general 

ways: by importation of raw ores for Ireatmeiil in h.-r 

tallurgical establishments and by the purchase in out 

side markets of tl rude metal itself, li seems curious 

that sueh a strong virile people as the Germans should 

evince so little interest in mining enterprises outside own country, especially in new of the fact that an 
abundant supply of tie- m.-tals is absolutely necessary to 
their continued prosperity. The only way I .-an account 

for this fact is thai the Teuton is not a ■_' I sport, the 

mining game does not appeal tO him as does tr.-nle and 

manufacturing, in which he no doubt opines the element 
of chance is a leas important consideration, In South 
America and also in China one is forcibly struek by this 
view of German The Teuton has been making 

tremendous strides in trade and his ships follow his 
trade, but seldom do we find him investing his money 

outside bis own country in enterprises that are develop. 
ing the natural resources of the places in which he is 
doing business, such as mines, railroads, power-plants, 
and the like. Trade is safer and the German has a ruth- 
less genius for it. 

As investors or speculators in mining enterprises the 
English are pre-eminent, they are ready to take more 
risks than even Americans, but at the same time they are 
prone to minimize these risks by employing good engi- 
neers whom they do not appear to hesitate in compensat- 
ing generously. This fact, I believe, accounts in a large 
measure for the considerable number of American min- 
ing engineers who have been for years making their 
headquarters in London. Indeed since the early golden 
days on the 'Rand,' in South Africa, American mining 
engineers have been largely employed by British com- 
panies. But these conditions may not endure. Heme if 
we are to compete and continue to hold abroad the great 
reputation that American engineers have achieved, we 
must induce American capital to venture outside the 
borders of this country. Most Americans seem to have a 
notion that because a mine, or other investment, may 1»- 
in a remote place, it is necessarily a precarious venture. 
There certainly is an indisposition on the part of Amer- 
ican investors to incur the heavy expense of Bending an 
efficient and responsible engineer to such places. The 
promoler is well aware of this weakness ami works on it. 
Experienced mining concerns, of course, are not ordin- 
arily guilty of the folly of sueh false economy, but tin- 
small syndicate, "our little crowd at the nub." once the 
plausible promoter gets the proper introduction, is very 
likely to succumb to the "practical miner" and believe 
his contemptuous references to the engineer, or what he 
usually prefers to denominate him. the "expert" or 
"professor." terms of approbrium of an ignorant i nd 
suspicious mind. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Julv 3. 1915 

Mining Machinery Salesmen 

By p. b. Mcdonald 

Every mining man knows several of them: intermit- 
tent callers keen to sell a new variety of rock-drill, an air- 
compressor, a hoist, a pump or two. Some of them the 
mining man is glad to gee; he enjoys talking with them; 

others he dodges as adroitly as lie can. All sorts and 
shapes they are. lean, bronzed, hatchet-faced fellows, fat, 
sle •!;. cigar-smoking men. young ones, old ones, wise ones, 
bold ours; grizzled veterans who have handled mining 
machinery all their lives, and who look upon the mar- 
vellous new drills, sharpeners, etc., as only incidents in a 

mere or less changeable field, a natural enough develop- 
ment that is to he occasionally expected; enthusiastic 
young pushers who are overflowing witli a professional 
argot and one-sided data concerning the wonderful de- 
vices that their company is bringing out. and who eon- 
tide to yon in a whisper that such-and-such a machine is 
ii"! being advertised yet. because the demand is so over- 
whelming that the factory is flooded with orders, hut 
that, as a special favor, they e.-m get you a few of them. 

Then, there is the 'expert ' type. Slow-talking, ponder- 
ous dignified men, who lei you see that they are straining 
a point or two to visit your old mine and advise you about 
your poor little bunch of machinery. This special type 
usually Only COmeS accompanied by the regular district- 
salesman, being sent out li i the head-office or factory 

for assisting on large installations or to clinch a much 
desired order. Some of them are impressive and in- 
teresting men to meet, who leave behind a feeling of I- 

tidence and satisfaction, men who tell you just the 
things you have long wanted to know in .just the right 
manner to stick them in your mind. Others are great 

In the main, there are two sorts of salemen that the 
staff at the mine is glad to see. The elderly man who is 
a 'personality,' that rare, magnetic style of character 
which is less common now than a generation ago, men of 
known principles and acknowledged position who are 
good salesmen because they are likable and square. The 
other style of salesman that is universally welcome is the 
young or middle-aged man who really has something to 
say. One who informs, jokes, and understands condi- 
tions, but who does not bluster or bluff. This latter 
type o an may lie a college man or he may not. 

Primarily he understands the machinery he sells and 
the men to whom he sells it. He knows how to explain to 
a mine superintendent or manager what they ought to 
know about the machinery they buy, without boring them 
or becoming tiresome. And he tells them other things 
that they are glad to hear, bits of this and that picked 
up in extensive traveling. 

Some mining districts are found using almost exclus- 
ively one make of rock-drills, or pumps, or drill-sharpen- 
ers, due partly to the goods having merit suited to the 
requirements of the district, and partly to the person- 
ality of the district sales-manager. 

In the copper country of Lake Superior, there was a 
salesman who got into a fist-fight with a miner as a result 
of a rock-drill demonstration: there arc two or three 
who are famous for their 'Cousin Jack' dialed st.uies 
and are invariably invited to all banquets and festivals: 
there is one who is so generally liked on the Iron Ranges 
that mine managers and foremen in three states call him 
by his first name: and there is the usual sprinkling of 
Irishmen, some with this peculiarity and Some with that. 

In general it may be stated that machinery -salesmen 
are a younger class of men than formerly. With the ad- 
vent of efficiency methods in mining, machinery is not 
bought so off-handedly as in the past, and the merits and 
demerits of different mechanical features are given care- 
ful consideration. At the same time, there are some 
mechanical features of which their principal advantage 
is that they give something to talk about or an excuse for 
tacking on an extra item in the price. Mechanical im- 
provements and accessories can be overdone, particu- 
larly where the class of labor available for mining is of 
the temperament that believes that when a rock-drill 
refuses to operate the only remedy is to hit it with a 
hammer. Thus, young men introducing improved ma- 
chinery and trusting principally to the attractiveness of 
the improved parts, will not always take business away 
from the older proved machines that, while perhaps less 
up-to-date, are quite satisfactory because they have been 
giving good results through varying conditions. There 
arc yet miners and foremen who claim that the "old 
Rand slugger is the best drill of them all." in spite of its 
having been superseded years ago by drills that, in turn. 
have had their day. to be replaced by still later and 
faster models. 

Anil personality is not yet dead. A mine superinten- 
dent is a very human individual; offered two machines 
of approximately equal merit, he will buy from the sales- 
man who best typifies his idea of what a salesman should 
be. The personal qualities that count in the case of 
salesmen for groceries or dry-goods do not apply to the 
field of mining machinery, nor would the average success- 
ful hardware-drummer necessarily make a good man to 
sell in the mining trade. Mine superintendents, used to 
the peculiar exigencies of handling such balky and ex- 
traordinary problems as are involved in daily conflict 
with hard rock, ignorant laborers, and intermittent 
catastrophes, are little influenced by the arguments of 
men who may be excellent salesmen but know nothing 
of mining. A mining-machinery salesman should know 
something about mines as well as about machinery, and 
he should know about superintendents, foremen, and 
miners as well as understanding about warehouses and 
offices. He should be able to talk equally well a thousand 
feet underground with water dripping down his neck as 
in the manager's private office, and should get accus- 
tomed to conversations carried on while the other man is 
attending to such necessary duties as changing his boots. 
paying off drunken miners, or washing his face. Some- 
times it is important to listen well; for knowing when to 
keep still may be more efficacious than much talking. 

Jul* I. 1915 

MI\|V. ..nd Nirrilil,. I'KI SS 


Geology of Gold Road District 


Having recently examined ■ e i 

called field lion, | Tom Reed mining diatricl south wi it of 
Kingman, Arixoua, I again reviewed, and this time with 
than ordinary interest, P, C. Schrader'a report, 
'Mineral Deposits of the I'erbal Range, Black Mountains 
and Grand Wash Cliffs, Mohave County, Arizona,' which 
report is known as Bulletin Numb* the United 
igical Survey, and was published al Washing- 
ton in 1909, Mr. Schroder is to l ngratulated upon 

the large area traversed by him on his r mnaissance in 

view of tli.- shori time at Ins disposal; and the detailed 
study which he gave to many of the properties is worthy 
of especial commendation. 

Having had an opportunity to examine bul a few 
properties within the area covered by Mr. Schrader'a 
reconnaissance I shall confine my remarks more particu- 
larly i" the geological conditions existing in the Gold 
Road and Vivian districts, within which are situated two 
well-known properties and about which there is centring 
a renewed interest because of the encouraging develop- 
ments on ih>' United Eastern ground. 

The entire object of this brief contribution is to help in 
clearing up, it' possible, the rather hazy and Bomewhal 
diverse interpretations resulting from Mr. Schroder's 
none too lucid expression of opinion regarding the geo- 
logical relationships and the influei on the productive 

portions of mines within the district of the formation 
termed by him "green chloritic andesite." 

To begin with, the first porti f Mr. Schroder's state- 

in. ni mi page 1S1, "Sn far as learned, the older andesite 
as a rule does not contain workable mineral deposits, ex- 
cept along lines where the latite has erupted through it." 
Beems to have been more carefully studied and persist- 
ently quoted than the latter part of the sentence in which 
he ,■ lea is up the w lii ile situation by writing "except along 
lues where the latite has erupted through it." This 
statement is clear enough to anyone who has become 
thoroughly familiar with the fact that Mr. Sehrader uses 
the terms 'latite' and 'green chloritic andesite' indis- 
criminately, and explains on page 1 * • * • that the green 
chloritic andesite | or latite | is probably an intrusive into 
the older andesite. whereas on page :!4 he refers to the 

formation as a flow. This, of course, is rathci nfusing, 

and takes some detailed study to interpret his conclu- 
sions, especially in view of the following sweeping state- 
ment, on page 4s : ■•The must favorable ore horizon 
seems to be formed by the green chloritic andesite. and 
in the underlying older andesite the veins are barren." 

A study of Mr. Schrader's generalized section across 
the Black Mountains, on page 35, would lead one to the 
belief that he considered the green chloritic andesite as 
being primarily a flow. This may or not be so as regards 
the formation as a whole. However, in the vicinity of 
the mines that I examined, in localities rather widely 
scattered. I found undoubted evidence of the intrusive 
nature of this formation, and the orebodies are largely 

formed within tin- iittrui ntly, tie 

mum thickness Mi • allows tic- formation, 

mi I>. BOO ft . is nut going t.. I..- tin- limiting depth !■• 

which the mines within intrusive masses of this unit, rial 
can be w.uked. 

Nor f this is trary t.. certain statements made by 

Mr. Sehrader. However, it lakes mure than a I 

study of his report to arrive at tin ilusion that he is 

not hopelessly itradiotory in his atatements. It i 

gestcd that if the Operators had made a seriiiiis study of 

the report, followed by detail.-. I geological work in the 

vicinity of the mines in which they were interested, the 

fear attending the sinking of each bucc ling level 

might have been entirely eliminated and a mure exten- 

si\,- development of the deposits, which are so evidently 


within the intrusive masses of the green chloritic ande- 
site, would doubtless have been accomplished ere this. 
It is to be remarked that in the Gold Road- Vivian dis- 
tricts there are only two properties that have been devel- 
oped to a depth of over 1000 ft., below which zone both 
mines are reported to be yielding commercial ore. 

To summarize: Many of the veins in this district have 
been formed within the intrusive phase of the green 
chloritic andesite or at the contact of rocks which this 
formation has penetrated. The limiting factor to their 
productive depth is not going to be the maximum thick- 
ness Mr. Sehrader ascribes to this formation. I do not 
intend to imply that all of the veins in this formation 
will be productive, or if productive, will remain so 
throughout their course in this formation ; simply that 
the "thickness" of the green chloritic andesite has no 
apparent connection with the productiveness of the veins. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 3, 1915 


showed a total increase in the wind of from 9 miles when 
the fire started to a maximum of 15 miles per hour. 

Readers of the Mining and Scientific Press are Invited to 
ask questions and give Information dealing with technical and 
other matters pertaining to the practice of mining, milling, and 

Wad is an earthy mixture of manganese oxides. 

Wrought-iron pipe filled with good concrete makes 
good mine props. A disadvantage lies in the weight and 
placing in position. 

The first stamp-milling in America was done in 
Georgia, which borrowed its practice from Hungary. 
Hungary borrowed from Egypt. 

Dynamite freezes at a temperature several degrees 
higher than that of melting snow. A temperature of 
35°F. is low enough to spoil its efficiency. 

Antimonul lead commonly contains 15 to 18% of 
antimony, less than 1% arsenic, and less than 0.5% 
copper, these being the specifications imposed by the 

Metal that is to be embedded in concrete should be 
coated with a protective paint to prevent possible dam- 
age by electrolysis, otherwise rusting starts, aided by 
stray electric currents. 

Slaking lime produces temperatures up to 400°C., 
depending on the quality of the lime. At this point it 
is possible for wood to catch fire during slaking. Lime 
6hould not be shipped in contact with wood. 

Springing a hole is an operation whereby a few sticks 
of high-grade dynamite are detonated in the bottom of 
the hole, producing an enlarged and pear-shaped open- 
ing, which can then be filled with explosive powder as 

A crystal of calc-spar consists of carbonate of lime, 
it is true, if we only mean that it can be resolved into 
carbonic acid and quicklime ; but if the same carbonic 
acid is passed over the same quicklime, the result is lime 
carbonate, but not calc-spar. 

Explosion-proof is a term applied by the U. S. Bu- 
reau of Mines to motors constructed so as to prevent the 
ignition of gas surrounding the motor by any sparks, 
flashes, or explosions of gas or of gas and coal-dust that 
may occur within the motor-casing. 

To face the glare of a furnace or to protect the eyes 
from excessive light, it is not necessary to use colored 
spectacles or smoked glass. Protection can be obtained 
by making a small hole in a, sheet of paper or card- 
board, when inspecting the furnace. 

Forest and city" fires create wind. During the fire at 
Colon, on the Canal Zone, in April, when 194 acres of 
buildings was burned, the official meteorologist's records 

Nodulizing of flotation concentrate from copper ores 
makes pyritic smelting of the nodules possible. The cost 
of reverberatory smelting has been reduced to such a 
low figure that the introduction of this extra operation 
is not usually worth while. 

Aluminum, when used to precipitate silver from cya- 
nide solution, requires the addition of caustic soda just 
prior to precipitation. As aluminum does not even tem- 
porarily combine with cyanogen, all the cyanide thus 
regenerated can be at once determined by the ordinary 
Liebig titration. 

Supposed vanadium oxide, described by Teschemaker, 
from the Lake Superior region, has proved to consist of 
Cu.O upon careful study by W. T. Schaller. It occurs 
in felted masses of minute prismatic crystals, so thin 
that under the highest magnification the black border of 
total reflection covers the entire crystal. 

Zinc, as much as 5 or 6% in the slag, gives no trouble 
in lead smelting if the lead content of the charge is low. 
but if the lead reaches 30 or 40% of the charge trouble 
is experienced. Lead smelters in Colorado and Utah 
average 8 to 15% lead on the charge, but at East Helena, 
Montana, the lead content is as much as 40%. 

Explosion-dust combustion in mines is possible only 
when the following essential factors are present to par- 
ticipate in its production: (1) flame, (2) combustible 
dust, and (3) an air-current or draft toward the source 
of heat, to bring the dust and air in contact with the 
flame. The fineness and dryness of the dust partly de- 
termine its inflammability and ease of ignition. 

The most recent improvement in connection with the 
utilization of blast-furnace gases consists in using the 
heat contained in the exhaust of the gas-engines for 
raising steam. In spite of the circulation of cold water 
in the casing of the cylinder, the exhaust gases emerge 
at a high temperature, and the heat contained in them 
may be estimated at 650 calories per horse-power hour. 

Belts and ropes for power transmission are decreas- 
ing in use as direct motor-driven machinery increases. 
It seems that the only movement that might seriously 
affect the future of belts will be the general adoption of 
the all-electric drive with an individual motor to each 
machine, but this is hardly within measurable distance 
of realization, being too expensive an ideal. All experi- 
ence seems to indicate that the system of the future will 
be that of grouping machines and machine-tools, the 
group itself being motor-driven, but the individuals 
operated by belting. Mistakes often occur in conse- 
quence of making the application of particular deduc- 
tions general ; and because individual motor-driving has 
been adopted with success in certain instances, the in- 
ference is not warranted that it is suitable for universal 
or even for general application. 

Jul) t. 191S 

MINING and Scientific PKKSS 

Mmiiim. l >i -> i Kit t Mi mm. — uit> iIiim.i Hunt Investigations. 
— H >n Tuuauu w v-i- Nm _■ Pnrm Bisuaboi it> 

-i «i. I II LDWOOO n> mi 

isbl) the moat Important Item "f mining newa, and thai 
■ I wiiii ih. .it popular Interest, was the 

announcement that development was i" be resumed at the 
North Homeatake property, at Maitland, attar a luspeni 

years. With thai end In view, work of dewaterlng tin- 
shaft was Immedlatel] started under the BuperrlBlon ol 
Intciiili nt Fountain. The workings mi the 200-ft, level, from 
which upward of 11,000,000 of ore was extracted from ore- 
bodies lying on the iiuartzite, have been kept drained ev< r 
since work was suspended, and the dewaterlng only included 
openings below that point. Here several veins ol Quartz were 
encountered In the schists, and although no Information was 
over made public regarding their value, the present activity is 
taken tu Indicate that results were encouraging. 

Another property at Maitland that resinned active mining 
In the past few days was the Echo, where the miners were 
flooded In the shaft on April 29. At that time the water was 
removed entirely by bailing, and the flow proving too great to 
be handled by thai method, work was suspended until arrange- 
ments could he made to install a sinking-pump, and inciden- 
tally to await drier weather, when ii might reasonably be ex- 
pert. .1 that less water would he found. In the meanwhile a 
'--in. single-stage compressor, driven by a 30-hp. motor. 
has been installed. Air from this will be used to operate a 
No. 5 Cameron sinking -pump. It was also necessary to prac- 
tically re-build the power transmission-line from the North 
Homestake transformer-house of the Consolidated Power & 
Light Co. It was necessary to cut off and re-set nearly all of 
the poles, owing to rotted butts, and also to place several new 
poles. Additional copper was also strung to carry the extra 
power demanded by the new compressor. The shaft will now 
be pushed to 200 ft., where a station will be cut and an electric 
station-pump installed. The shaft will probably be continued 
to 300 ft. before lateral work is commenced. 

The Minnesota company, at Maitland. has closed a contract 
with Burns & Sanford to continue the adit on the Unionville 
claim. This adit was driven some years ago to prospect the 
downward continuation of a promising surface outcrop. Paral- 
leling the formation, it reached a point almost vertically under 
the outcrop, but did not intersect the ore-shoot, which prob- 
ably is pitching in the direction the adit was driven. This 
work is being watched with interest, as it may result in the 
company being able to resume milling. 

In sinking the Oro Hondo shaft, which work is in charge 
of E. W. Talbot, some extremely hard ore has been encountered 
between the 1500 and 1600-ft. levels. This has caused some 
delay in sinking. The greatest difficulty was to find steel for 
the .Tackhamers which would stand in good shape: various 
kinds of bits and makes of steel were tested, with the result 
that the Crucible Steel Co.'s product was finally adopted. On 
this steel are forged chisel-bits, similar to the ordinary bit 
used for drilling by hand; cross-bits and rose-bits of various 
kinds would not hold up so that a hole cou'd be drilled to the 
required depth. With the chisel-bit it is possible to get the 
maximum stock just where it is needed, behind the bit, as well 
as making the edges of the bit of substantial size, so that the 
gauge does not wear off too quickly. Mr. Talbot also says 

iiiut iir hi tutor than any others triad, ■ 

to forge, and aaeier to handle In nearlj sverj «a On lbs 

11 it. Isval, » ii'-iv tin- auxiliary -hoist u plaoad which 

tin- mi n win. are sinking, c r oss cuts are being advanoad In 
both directions from the shaft in this work water i 
drills an ii linking Hull Mouse' .1,11 khann is, the 

aeavteal type ol sinker made by the [ngersoll-Rand ('•>.. are 
used. The machines weigh 105 lb, This exploratory work is 
being done with the hope of (biding the Homeatake o 
mi lis pitch m the southeast. The shaft Is hair a milt 
the Ellison shaft ot the rlomeetake company; its collar la ap- 
proximately 31111 ft. below the collar of the Kllismi. The work 

is being financed bj J, T. Mllllken, who racentl) 

ilden Cycle property, at Cripple Creek, for a large run 

sub ration. 

To secure the services of the beat mechanics In the Black 
Hills, the Hidden Treasure company, operating on lieadwood 
gulch, had the 60-hp. gasoline engine which drives the Imist 
and compressor, taken to the Homestake machine-shop, where 
it was thoroughly overhauled. It has been returned to the 
lliilil n Treasure in excellent condition. From now on it is 
thought that better progress will he made with the cross-cuts 
being run on the 200-ft. level, or bottom of the shaft. 

With the declaration of a dividend of lc. per share on June 
15, the Wasp No. 2 Mining Co. made its second distribution 
for the current year. The previous dividend was paid In 
May. It was at the rate of '-<■. per share. During the winter 
months operations at the Wasp are usually curtailed and some- 
times suspended altogether. During the past winter no nighl 
shift was employed in the mine; this resulted in reducing the 
tonnage handled practically 50%, although the yield was more 
than half of normal, indicating a slightly better grade of ore 
and a better mill recovery. Since the night shift has again 
been employed the capacity has been raised nearly to the 
maximum of 500 tons per day. It is expected that the usual 
monthly dividends will be paid during the balance of the year. 

Arrangements are being perfected for starting the Bismarck 
mine and mill at full capacity. The property recently reverted 
to the owner. J. A. Sandholm, of Des Moines. Iowa, the Bis- 
marck Consolidated Mines Co. failing to make the payments 
on the purchase price specified in the deed and contract. The 
mill, which was erected by the Bismarck company, and under 
the contract now belongs to Mr. Sandholm. is one of the best 
dry-crushing plants in the Black Hills. The mine adjoins the 
Wasp No. 2. and contains ore practically identical in character 
with that property; however, it appears to be slightly lower 
in value. Under the direction of James Hall preliminary steps 
are being taken. The first work will be the construction of a 
skipway from the mill to the railway tracks below, over which 
supplies can be hauled to the mine and mill at a moderate cost. 
When this is completed other work will be accelerated. 

At the annual meeting of the Deadwood-Heidelberg Mining 
Co.. held at Deadwood, the superintendent, A. T. Roos, made an 
elaborate report covering operations at the mine during the 
year. Practically all work was in the nature of development, 
only 48 ft. being driven along the ore. in the course of which 
2S tons was removed and shipped to the Golden Reward mill. 
This lot assayed $16.40 per ton. The shaft was completed to 
a depth of 193 ft.; it connects with the main adit at 135 ft. 
Work in the shaft was suspended until machinery could be 
secured and erected. Exploratory work resulted in finding a 
second 'vertical' in the shale, parallel with the main vertical 
and 65 ft. from it. At a point on the opposite side of the gulch 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Julv 3, L915 

and about 500 ft. distant a vertical was uncovered. Since it 
is on the strike of the main vertical, it is believed to be a 
continuation of it. Good assays were gotten. During the year 
J4080 was realized from the sale of treasury slock. This and 
the proceeds of the ore shipment was all used to defray oper- 
ating expenses. The directors have started a campaign to 
raise (6000 for the present year's operations. Shares are being 
quite liberally taken by residents of Deadwood and Lead. It 
is planned to spend the money on the upper ore horizon, to 
ae\elop the verticals already in sight, and cross-cut in a search 
for others. No further shaft work will be attempted at the 
present time. 

The value of the gold, silver, and lead produced in South 
Dakota in 1914 from 30 productive mines. 10 of which were 
placers, amounted to 17,481,343, compared with $7,424,333 in 
1913. as reported by Charles W. Henderson, of the U. S. Geolog- 
ical Survey. The gold output in 1914 was 354. 75S oz. fine, 
valued at $7,333,508, compared with 354.071 oz.. valued at $7,- 
319,294. in 1913. an increase of $14,214. The production of 
silver increased from 172.702 to 176,642 oz. The production 
of lead was only 3,897 lb. The placer-gold output amounted 
to only 68 oz. South Dakota has produced in 38 years from 
1876 to 1914. inclusive. $185.2S7.640 gold and 5.S32.669 oz. 
silver, with a commercial value of $4,213,674. a total of $189,- 
501,814. A total of 2.019.262 short tons of ore was mined and 
treated in 1914. compared with 1,899.167 tons in 191::. Of Ibis 
total. 2.IH7.SV2 Ions was treated in the mills in the State, 
yielding $7,273,702 in gold and 172.574 oz. silver, with an aver- 
age of $3,605 in gold and 0.086 oz. silver. The output of smelt- 
ing ore (1880 tons I averaged 2.047 oz. gold and 2.94 oz. of 
silver to the ton. The Homestake mine and mills were oper- 
ated continuously throughout the year and yielded 1,587,774 
tons, which yielded bullion of the value of $6,160,161. averaging 
$3.88 per ton, compared with 1.540.961 tons of ore. $6,186,652 
In bullion, and an average of $4.01 a ton in 1913. 

Trail Development. — U. S. Redaction & Refikino Co. — Port- 
la x». — Independence. 

The Trail mine, on the south side of Bull hill, is one of the 
most discussed properties in the district at present. The 
development on the 1200-ft. level, made by Boy & Co. a short 
time ago. is reported as yielding ore from a vein six feet wide. 
Settlements so far have averaged about $20 per ton. A night 
shift was recently put on. 

It is reported that on June 19 an adverse decision for R. E. 
McDonnell and associates was delivered by the Judge of the 
U. S. District Court in Denver. This affected the suit in- 
volving the control ol the 1'nited States Reduction & Refining 
Co.. of Colorado Springs. Mr. McDonnell was ruled against 
on every point of his complaint. Arthur Connell. of Colorado 
Springs, was made permanent receiver of the company. He 
has power to dispose of all property owned by it. It seems 
probable that the plant near Colorado Springs will be sold in 
the near future to the Golden Cycle Mining & Reduction Co. 
The cash from the sale of property, together with the money 
in the treasury, will probably go to the bondholders. The Re- 
duction and Refining Co. will then go out of existence. 

The air about the district seems charged with excitement, 
cm account of the transfer of the Independence mine and mill 
to the Portland company. The actual transfer is to take place 
on July 1. Ii is generally expected that the new owners will 
commence an extensive system of mine development. The 
present leases in the Independence mine will be completed by 
the first of the month. Most of these lessees and many others 
have applied to the Portland company for blocks of ground 
under the regime. The Portland plan will furnish an inter- 
esting comparison between the split-Check system of leasing 
and the straight royalty basis, with an added charge for 
profits above a stated amount. The latter system has been de- 

veloped by Stratton's, while the former has been in force at 
the Portland mine. 

Renewed activity is apparent at the C. O. D. mine. Three 
sets of lessees are working, two more are ready, while the 
new owners of the property have had numerous applications 
for leases. The main shaft is down over 800 ft. A good ore- 
shoot has beenarut on No. 10 level. A 1500-ft. capacity hoist 
has been ordered to facilitate development and ore extraction. 

Operations of the Cripple Creek Deep Leasing Co. are being 
followed with interest. At present it is working in the Jerry 
Johnson mine, which has yielded about $1,750,000 down to 650 
ft. Development will be done below this point. The new 100- 
ton mill and cyanide plant will soon be ready. 

Oro Developments. 

The Jumbo Extension has continued shipping 100 tons daily, 
the product averaging $58 per ton. After July 1 the produc- 
tion will be at the rate of 75 tons daily. Ore of shipping grade 
has been exposed in drifts that have been started from the 
526-A raise, the most southerly point at which the ore-channel 
has been penetrated. This further established the trend of the 
ore to the south, toward the St. Ives claim of the Merger Co. 
From the dip of the shale, it is apparent that the south drift 
following the fissure within the shale will reach the contact 
of shale and latite near the southern boundary line of the 
Paloverde claim. Raise 524-A. driven from a point near the 
centre of the rich 524 drift, has advanced in good ore, on the 
dip of the shale, for over 100 ft., and a drift to the east on the 
contact has exposed ore from 2 to 3 ft. wide, assaying over 
$200 per ton. 

An interesting discovery has been made in ground belong- 
ing to the New Goldfield Simmerone company, within 2'.j ft. of 
the old incline shaft from which early operations produced 
exceedingly rich ore. Superintendent Knickerbocker shot into 
the supposed foot-wall, 5 ft. below the surface, and exposed IS 
in. of ore panning freely and estimated to assay $50 to $100 
per ton. Good pannings are also being obtained on the 100-ft. 
level, and work on the 250-ft. level is nearing the same point 
of intersection of two lodes. 

On the 800-ft. level of the Goldfield Oro a new water-channel 
has just been opened, where the appearance of the quartz is 
said to be encouraging. The Sandstone-Kendall Consolidated 
is making good progress in sinking its winze from the 500 ft. 
level, following the vein, and will shortly cross-cut to the 
hanging wall. On the 500-ft. level of the Booth, the foot-wall 
drift continues in low-grade free-milling ore that should ulti- 
mately be handled at a profit. Raises in the Kewanas are fol- 
lowing seams of $10 ore from the shale-contact drifts at a 
depth "I 840 ft. The Great Bend main-shaft is being un- 
watered rapidly and the old platform at the 300-ft. level, upon 
which a large quantity of refuse had accumulated, has now 
been removed. 

The final report of the Goldfield Consolidated for May shows 
that 32.2S0 tons of ore yielded $161,653 net. All expenses were 
$5.27 per ton. Development totaled 3194 ft., at $6.56 per foot. 
Lessees extracted 1148 tons worth $132,2S3. Of this the com- 
pany received $66,256, less transportation and treatment 

Dp to June 26 the Florence had shipped 350 tons of ore for 
the month. The stope recently started on a new vein at 250 
ft. in the old Florence Consolidated lease continues to give 
good results. A raise north of the stope shows 4 ft. of 
$20 ore. 

On July 19 the Jumbo Extension company will bold its 
annual meeting at Phoenix, Arizona. The report for the year 
will soon be distributed. 

A drilling contest will take place at Goldfield on July 4. A 
large number of miners will compete. 


MINING .nil S.,rnlilK I'RKSS 


iii ihf Foirbanlu ireefcty / > ol Maj H wsj ■ 

on what it tiTins Tin- Quarti Question' ol the dlatrlcl 

1st' argued thai it was already a rich quart/ camp, with 

a good future. PlaMI mining will pass out in three years. 

mist' thought lliat Fairbanks would DO) make a quarti 

oamp, thi experience, of olne years' work. 'Impartial Ob- 
server* conaldera tin- centre has ezcellenl quarti prospects, 
It has not had a proper teat Batter roads and milling facili- 
ties would stimulate Quarts mining. The various properties 
ar. brleflj described, showing the work nnder way at the 
Rhoads Hail. Teddy it . Crltee and Feldman, Tyndall and Finn. 
Stevens, Mlspah, and others A Lane mill from Los Angeles 
Is to be installed on Fairbanks creek by C. K. Helllg. It will 
work with a HuntlnKton mill. 

Fairlianks business nun returned from a study of the Tol- 
ovana dlatrlcl "ti May 88. They were confldent that the dis- 
trict would turn out to be fairly good. A Ian:, number of men 
are busy on the creeks, 

It is reported that crops of interior Alaska, especially in the 
Tanana valley, will be larger than ever. Potatoes look ex- 
tremely well. 

.1 I MM 

The Alaska Gastineau company has 180 men employed at 

On i • 19 the .rank -ban ,,i the great bolsi al the Central 

shaft of the Treadwell mlnai broke. Thi ccurred 

between ti>>- drum and dis*- on the led side, The shall is 4o 
it. long, |9 in diameter, weighing 16 ions. About ■ month 
win lie required t" make and install a new one, it probablj 

coming tr Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, As a result of this 

accident the '800,' '840,' and Mexican mills are closed, and the 
■"00' Is at less than hair capacity, The Treadwell and Mexican 
hoists an- being overhauled fur work, 


Cii \ Ooi It I l 
Last week the Old Dominion company disbursed bonuses to 
salaried employees. Starting at $150 per month the bonus 
was $ln. $15 for $200. and $20 for over $200, 

McillAV 1 I 'ill \ IV 

The vein cut at 565 ft. in the United Eastern Is proving to l» 
of considerable extent. It is 37 ft. wide, 22 ft. of which assays 

$36.60 per ton. Gold is visible In parts of It. At 300 ft. in 

the Pittsburg the west drift is in formation similar to the 

United Eastern. Extensive development Is to continue al 

the Black Range, in charge of D. P. Wright. A hoist, en- 
gine and compressor, and other equipment for sinking from 

155 to 300 ft. is to be installed. Kingman people are in 

terested In the Carter mine which is opening well at 150 ft. 

I'HIS|,.\ IJHM'E MINK. .11 MAI. 

the Annex power scheme. A 1350-ft. tunnel is to be driven 
to tap Annex lake 100 ft. below water-level. An incline tram- 
way 3000 ft. long has been completed, rising 700 ft. above the 
beach. The top end connects with a railway 401)0 ft. long 
going to the tunnel mentioned. 

.May gold returns of the mines on Douglas island were as 

Details of operation Mexican Treadwell United 

Development, feet 359 767 1360 

Lowest level, feet 1.750 2,100 2.200 

Broken ore stock, tons -16.164 -47.S15 -19.87S 

Stamps dropping 120 540 270 

Ore crushed, tons 19,320 79,832 46,179 

Gold by amalgamation $16,0S6 $85,676 $47,421 

Gold from concentrate 13.966 83.19S 4S.021 

Concentrate, tons 451 1,700 1,046 

Average per ton ore $1.56 $2.12 $2.04 

Profit $6.25S $77,192 $22,133 

The shaft is to be sunk to 300 ft. The Telluride is a prom- 
ising property. Cross-cutting is underway at 400 ft. depth. 


The development company that was working at t lie World's 
Fair mine at Harshaw has turned it over to the owner. 
Frank Powers. Under his management sinking and driving 

Yavapai Counts 

In the Yavapai for June the Chamber of Commerce at Pres- 
cott publishes a list of mining properties desiring capital to 
assist in their development. The Chamber does not know the 
merits of these mines. On some of them a good deal of work 
has been done, and equipment erected. 


Mining men in this state have formed the Zinc Ore Pro- 
ducers' Association of Arkansas. E. Zimmerman is president. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July •!, 1015 

and G. \V. Chase ,s secretary at Yellville. The idea ot the 
organization is to protect producers in the sale of their ore. 


In connection with Assembly Bill No. 4S7. known as the 
'semi-monthly pay-day bill.' the attorney-general. V. S. Webb, 
states that if the wages earned prior to the 16th day of the 
month are paid on the last day of the month, they clearly come 
within the terms of the statute; and if the wages earned sub- 
Bequi nt to the 15th day of the month, and prior to the 1st 
day of the following month are paid on the last day of the 
month in which they are earned, they are paid 15 days before 
the statute requires them to be paid. 

Oil production statistics in May are as follows: rigs com- 
pleted. 14: wells drilling. 138: completed. 41; abandoned. 38; 
producing. 5943; and yield. 7,686.517 bbl., according to the 
Independent Oil Producers' Agency. There was no surplus. 
stocks. 80.820,315 bbl. at the end of the month, being drawn 
on by 74,075 bbl. Figures compiled by the Standard Oil Co. 
vary slightly from the above. They indicate an output of 7.630.- 
743 bbl.. and a surplus of 5294 bbl. Well details also show a 

Butts County 

The- El Oro Dredging Co. has finished dredging its area at 
Oroville. The last boat is being dismantled. From 1904 to 
1913 N'o. 1 boat dug 5.015.416 cu. yd. of gravel, and from 1908 
to May 1915. No. 2 moved 3.7S9.S19 cu. yd., a total of $S.S05,235 

Inyo County 

A 21-page report with plan and illustrations has been issued 
by the Reward Gold Mines Co., operating in the Russ district, 
east of Mt. Whitney. The company is incorporated in Arizona 
with 1.000.000 shares at $1 each. The area is 180 acres. The 
mine is opened on five different levels. Approximately $270,- 
337 in gold ore is blocked out. Reports on this ore were made 
by W. H. Landers. A. Burnett, and F. N. Fletcher. They es- 
timated the gross value of positive ore at $317,046, $228,048, 
and $265,917 respectively. An average of the three estimates 
gives $270,337. The ore varies from $11.79 to $13.70 per ton. 
The total cost of operations is estimated at $6 per ton. The 
equipment and buildings, including a 20-stamp mill and con- 
centrating plant, compressor, motors, houses, etc., originally 
cost $100,000. Recovery has been low, and a cyanide plant is 
necessary. Tests show that 90' J , can be recovered. 
Nevada County 

Considerable interest was shown in Grass Valley on June 
23. when the crank shaft for the new hoist at the North Star 
central shaft was hauled to the mine. Twenty-four horses 
pulled the 23 tons of machinery, aided at one point by an 
electric street car. 

Shasta County 

Three furnaces are in blast at the Kennett smelter pf the 
Mammoth company. A fourth is to be blown-in. Over 700 men 
are employed at the mine and plant. At the California mineral 
exhibit in the Palace of Mines at the Exposition, the Mammoth 
company displays ores, matte, blister copper, photographs of 
its works, and an excellent glass model of the mine. 

It is reported that the Balaklala Copper Co.'s smelter at 
Coram will resume work at an early date. A court injunction 
closed it in July 1911. It has since been re-modeled to lessen 
the fume. 

Lake County (Leaoville) 

The Valley adit at Prospect motintain, mentioned in the 
Pai 3E last week, is in 1150 ft. This work is of considerable 

importance. Lessees at the Lalla Rookh and Forest City in 

Big Evans gulch are opening a wide vein. A new hoist and 

other equipment are to be installed at the Fortune, which is 

to work through the Yak tunnel. Lessees at the Humboldt 

and other properties are getting good results. 

Mineral County 

I Special Correspondence.) — It Is reported that the Bachelor 
company at Creede is contemplating the erection of a mill to 
treat its low-grade ore by the chloridizing process now being 
successfully used in Park City. I'tah. The idea is to build a 
mill below Creede. The ore will be brought through the Com- 
modore No. 4 tufinel, then over the Commodore tram and to 
the mill in railroad cars over the D. & R. G. tracks. The 
Bachelor has not shipped anything for some time. 

It is rumored that a plan for several of the companies to get 
together and pump out the ground below the Wooster tunnel, 
which drains the principal mines of the district is about to be 
consumated. They have tried to do something of this sort be- 
fore, but nothing resulted. 

The Creede United Mines Co. is now running the Hum- 
phreys concentrator on ore from its properties, the Happy 
Thought. Park Regent, etc., and is shipping lead and zinc con- 
centrate, as well as some crude lead ore that is sorted out at 
the head of the mill. 

The Del Monte-Chance is shipping about 4000 tons per month. 

The Commodore is being worked in a small way by lessees 

who make small shipments from time to time. The Equity. 

which is at the head of West Willow creek, seven or eight 
miles from Creede. is developing a good body of ore in an east 
aud west vein. It is handicapped by being so far away from 

the town and railroad. The other mines of the district are 

shut down and the place is pretty quiet. 

The fluorspar mine at Wagon Wheel Gap is still shut down, 
but may be re-opened this summer. The only market for its 
product, which is said to be of remarkably good quality, is 
the C. F. & I. steel-works at Pueblo, which has not been doing 
a great deal lately. 

Creede. June 20. 

San Miguel County 

( Special Correspondence.) — Bulkeley Wells, manager of the 
Smuggler-Union mines, at Telluride, and associates have 
taken over the Humboldt. Sailor's Fortune, and Tom Payne 
claims, on the northerly extension of the Smuggler-Union vein 
on the Ouray side of the range, besides other claims in the im- 
mediate neighborhood. John B. Farish controlled the Hum- 
boldt properties for a long period, and the last operations con- 
sisted of considerable development work, for which it is under- 
stood that Pat Calhoun of San Francisco provided the money. 
A connection with the Smuggler-Union workings on the Mar- 
shall Basin side of the range can conveniently be made by 
extending the old Sheridan adit a short distance to the Hum- 
bordt workings. It is understood that arrangements will be 
made to treat the Humboldt ore in the Smuggler-Union com- 
pany's mill at Pandora. The value of the Humboldt ore is 
mainly in silver, and the vein is generally quite narrow, as 
now exposed in the workings. In Purington's report on the 
Telluride Quadrangle, the Humboldt workings in their re- 
lation to those of the Smuggler-Union are shown about 200 ft. 
too low. H. C. Lay's name is attached to the section, but he 
disclaimed responsibility for the error. 

Telluride, June 23. 


Blaine County 

Forty-eight tons of lead-silver concentrate from the Wilbert 
mine. Dome district, netted $2957. The product assayed 6.55 
oz. silver and 56.65% lead. The output from now on will be 
600 tons per month. 

Bonner County 

Caterpillar tractors with 10-ton capacity trailers have proved 
successful in hauling ore from the Idaho-Continental mine to 
Porthill on the railroad, a distance of 26 miles. Three more 
engines are to be ordered. Regular shipments of ore are to be 
made to Salt Lake City. The mine is well opened for produc- 

Jul.v : 19] , 

MINING I Scientini I 'HI SS 

A* a rmult of the h Itch prl illaban 

lad ions i 

...n( rate asssyln 
,.i..| 100 tons ..( .. hi dlvtdand i* III . 

Aukuhi. wax ii tli 

<■■•■ Hercules 
i ihi v s * i; i -i.i m Spokane •>» June 

Nothing wan agreed upon 

iih inn. u, ii K Bamuel ■ ami general manager 

of Ihi- sold Ills 11,100,000 sli.u.s i I. n.. I 

rapltal shares! to liuluih people fur about $1 |» i 

share. cash. J. I". Ilowunh ami I' ] demon of Wallace 
iie<mia'i.i the transaction. Tha nine is at Nina Mile, near 
the intarstata-Callahan, a 100-ton mill is treating lead-tlnc 

Dividends are being paid, tha total being 11,060, 

On Jane .':: the inah balanc. 986 There Is also on 

hand son tons of sine eoneantrata worth llOO.iiii" 

Tin: OoFFi i Ootnrrar 
The White Pine Extension Copper Co. has been formed by 

Detroit people headed l.v S I. Smith, with a rapltal of 150,000 
than s The mine Is said to he opened by 6000 ft. of workings, 

I. y n ital<. ||| i 

mio foi 

II |H llhlu 

mine '»" « ■ 



.i 1 1 n 

1 orraapondi 

lei mill »iii in' started on tailing that haa 
lain there fi rears Bampllng and teating hai bean 

ii la probable thai ■ Dotation proceai win bi 
This is working at the old mill al Baalu, 

Little is being done al Elkhorn siiin- tha Umgmald inter 
aata suspended work on the old Blkhorn sllTer mine. The 
dlatrlcl offers a choice ol ores to anil ail minora, Though 
no small amount <>< attention has bean given tha place by 
engineers during the past two or three years, financial con- 
ditions have 1 n nunlnst completion of the several trans- 

under consideration, 
Boulder, June 10. 

I.I \V1> AMI Cl AUK C"l K IV 

The Helena mining region Is more active than for years. 
Work of the Helena Mining Bu- 
r. an is greatly responsible for this. 
The Bureau has spent $10,819 in 13 

months in its promotion work. On 
.lime 1 it had a balance of $2928. 
As nearly as can be ascertained the 
number of men employed In Marys- 
ville. Bald Butte, Scratch Gravel. 
Helena, Unionville, Rimini, Wkkes- 
Corbin. Lump gulch, Clancy. Win- 
ston, York, and other districts ag- 
gregates 700, and is on the increase. 
A new furnace of i;T.i-ton capacity 
has been blown-ln at the East 
Helena smelter. Seventy-five addi- 
tional men are employed. A fourth 
furnace may be started In August. 
Three furnaces are now treating 
750 tons per day. 


/van- .w/yr 


proving the lode extension from the White Pine, which is now 
producing copper. Drilling in the Extension has given very 
uniform results. 

Drilling at Cliff has been resumed by the Calumet & Hecla. 
Rich amygdaloid formation has been opened at 900 ft. In the 
New Arcadian. 


Jasper County 

On June 24 three new mining laws became effective in this 
state. One provides that every mine employing 10 or more 
men must have water handy for laying dust. The other two 
enforce sanitary drinking devices and sanitary change-houses. 

From the top price of $135 per ton paid for 60% zinc con- 
centrate in the previous week, the price last week varied from 
J 11^ to $90. the widest range on record. Calamine was quoted 
at $55 to $65 per ton. Lead was unchanged, $72, basis of 80' % 
metal. The averages were $110.32, $61.69, and $71.61 re- 
spectively. The output was 9.83L360 lb. blende. 1,003.120 lb. 
calamine, and 1,290,240 lb. lead, having a total value of $629,- 
355. Last week the value was $1,048,349. 

Illinois people have decided to in- 
vest $50,000 to $75,000 in the Butte 
and Great Falls mine in Dixie 
gulch. The shaft is down 350 ft. 
Water at 300 ft. forced the suspen- 
sion of work. This level is to be 

unwatered. the shaft deepened, and a hoist and compressor. 

etc.. installed. B. Green is in charge. 
At the Butte-Ballaklava 90 men are employed. The output 

is up to 200 tons per day, going to the Washoe smelter. 

Yellowstone County 

About 15 teams from Montana mines will compete at the 
first-aid contests to be held at Billings on July 23 and 24. 

Humboldt Cihstv 
The Friedman adit, being driven in Nenzel hill at Rochester 

to cut the veins at a depth of 1200 ft., is in L50 ft. At the 

La Tosca mine, six miles from Rochester, the Humboldt Con- 
solidated has its adit in 2000 ft. This is expected to cut the 
veins at 1000 ft. depth. Important developments will prob- 
ably occur shortly. 

Lincoln County 
On July 6 the 100-hp. electric plant at the Prince Consoli- 
dated at Pioche will be started. The winze below the 550-ft. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

.lul\ ::. 1915 

- down 100 n. High-grade shoots were cut. Ore extrac- 
tion and loading ore on trains at Pioche costs $1.21 per ton. 
)Iim:i:m. COUNTY 

The Nevada-Regent Mines Co., backed by .lesse Knight and 
others of (jtah and Nevada, has been formed with a capital of 

JlOO.t The company has secured L8 claims in the Regent 

district, now worked by lessees. A shaft is down 100 ft. on a 
in. wide at the surface. At 60 ft. it is 15 It. wide. 
ing $25 per ton in silver. The lessees have stoped 1000 
tons above 60 ft., and expect 4000 from there to 100 ft. The 
company will sink a shaft to cut the vein on its dip at 250 ft. 

A correspondent in the Western Nevada Miner, of Mina. 
that well known engineers have been examining the 
Rand district. Three properties have already shipped ore 
worth $60,000. Estimates place the reserves in the mines at 
$100,000. and several thousand tons on dumps. Down to 250 
ft. the Last Hope has produced $30,000. The Golden Pen is 
down 200 ft. The last car of ore assayed $600 per ton. Pros- 
pects are excellent. Tonopah people are negotiating for this 
mine. The Queen Regent is in the centre of the district. A 
wide vein has been cut at 70 ft. depth. A hoist has been 
erected, and sinking will continue to 500 ft. This and the Last 
Hope company contemplate erecting a mill. The Minis claims 
have been acquired by J. E. Kerr of San Francisco. 


Last week's output of companies and lessees at Tonopah 

totaled 10.642 tons worth $217,570. The Belmont shipped 

bullion and concentrate valued at $145.000. On July 21 the 

Tonopah company will pay $250,000. In May the Extension 

made a profit of $43.223. The Tonopah East End Develop- 
ment Co. has issued a report for the year ended May 81, 1915. 
The shaft is down 440 ft. Water lately has flowed up to 30,000 
gal. per day. Motor-driven pumps have been ordered. Cash 
amounted to $250. To continue operations the company will 
sell 300.000 shares. 

On June 24 hydraulicking started at the Round Mountain 
company's deposit at Round Mountain. It took 2 hours 50 
minutes for the water to fill the S miles of pipe. The line Is 
holding well. There were no leaks. 

At Volcano last week, miners in a shaft at the McCarthy 
and Mooney lease broke into a fissure at 55 ft. It is from IS 
in. to 12 or 14 ft. wide, while its depth is unknown yet. The 
shaft is in porphyry and andesite. The walls of the cave are 
carbonate of lime. 

The new 200-ton mill at the Monitor-Belmont at Belmont. 50 
miles north of Tonopah, will be complete early in August. It 
is being erected next to a dump of 50.000 tons of 16 to 18-oz. 
silver ore. The plant includes ten 1600-lb. stamps and a 6 by 
10-ft. tube-mill. Concentration will be done by flotation. 
Norman E. Smith is superintendent. Three shafts are down 
600, 750, and 1100 ft. respectively; also two adits 1000 ft. each. 
The formation is mainly slate-granite contact. The ore is 

Storey Count* 

According to Charles Butters, the plant at Six-Mile canyon 
is to be re-started in charge of C. Morris. The tailing near the 
mill is to be treated. 

A dredge is to be erected by H. E. Ray of Dayton on ground 
between Dayton and Virginia City. A large yardage of rich 
gravel is said to be available. 


Juab County 

Shipments from Tintic last week totaled 1S5 cars of ore. 

The formation of a company to treat custom ore at Tintic 
has been mentioned in this journal. The Tintic Milling Co. 
has been organized with a capital of $30,000. It will purchase 
the assets of the Knight-Christensen Metallurgical Co. at 
Silver City and the Mines Operating Co. at Park City, and 

construct a chlorination plant at the site of the old Knight 
r at Silver City. The officers of the Tintic Milling Co. 
are Jesse Knight, president; George H. Dern, vice-president 
and general manager; \v. Lester Mangum, secretary and treas- 
urer, and Theodore P. Holt, general superintendent. I 
taking ovtr what is left of the Knight-Christensen plant which 
was burned several months ago, the oew concern also takes 
over the contracts that the company has for treating ores of 
the Knight mines, including the Beck Tunnel, Colorado. Black 
Jack. Iron Blossom, Salvadore. and Dragon Consolidated. The 
Knight interests will own practically ,",!', of the new company 
and George H. Dern 49';. although the management will be 
retained by the later. The construction of the plant has al- 
ready started and it will begin operations with a capacity of 
300 tons of low-grade ore a day. This will probably be in- 
creased later. The Mines Operating plant will be dismantled 
at once and moved to Tintic. 

Electric power is gradually displacing steam in this district, 
especially for hoists. The Utah Power Co. supplies the 

Summit County 

The Silver King Consolidated is shipping 100 tons of ore 
daily. It averages 50.4 oz. silver. 0.0514 oz. gold. 28'i lead, 
and 1.291% copper. Development, especially at 1700 ft., con- 
tinues very satisfactory. 

The Ontario Silver Mining Co. has issued a statement for 
1914. Little was done during the year. Work was resumed 
in May of 1915. The present output of ore is about 600 tons 
per month. Some of it is high in silver, up to 100 oz. per ton, 
and '.i to 10', lead. The revenue was $33,712. Cash and in- 
vestments total $323,379. Ernest Bamberger is general man- 

Utah County 

Machinery, rails, cars, lumber, etc.. has been hauled to the 
Pittsburg Mining Co.'s mine at the head of American Fork 
canyon. A good deal of zinc and lead-silver ore has been 


Ferry County 

In the intermediate and lower level of'the Knob Hill mine 
at Republic, 4 and 7 ft. of $20 and $50 ore respectively has 
been opened. A year ago 11 cars of ore from near this point 
were worth $55,000. The weekly output at present is two cars, 
returning $2100 per car. Sixteen men are employed. The 
company has paid oft its debt, and is building up a surplus. 

Stevens COUNTY 

The first unit of the new stamp-mill at the United Co 
mine in the Chewelah district, 60 miles north of Spokane, was 
started last week. It is treating 150 tons of ore per day and 
producing about 10 tons of high-grade concentrate, according 
to Conrad Wolfe, the manager. The mill is giving satisfactory 
results. Work is progressing well toward the completion of the 
additional unit, which will bring the capacity up to 350 tons 
per day. About 125 tons of crude ore and 25 tons of tailing 
is handled every day. A station is being cut at the 1000-ft. 
level in the shaft. Hoist equipment will be installed of suf- 
ficient capacity to sink the shaft another 1000 ft. making a 
depth of 2000 ft. Sinking will continue as soon as the power 
company is able to deliver additional power from its plant 
at Meyers Falls. This will be about September 1. 

Norfolk County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Virginia Smelting Co., which 
operates a plant at West Norfolk. Virginia, is making a 
number of alterations. Under guidance of Utley Wedge, a 
chloridizing plant is being built for treatment of Eustis fine 
cinder and other pyrite cinder that has been sintered. The 
product from the Wedge 5-hearth Rameu Bcskow furnaces 

I, 1915 

MIMV. tad Sciaotifa l'KI » 

Kill I 

- him' 
in blut-furi 


in \ 

i hi- Southern Oil Co 

oil in lat.' i depth hi 3B21 ft, 

mo mill's north of th«- IHiu-iuiui well mm Calgar] I 

will pin down ■ neond »«'il in the same neighborhood, 

Mil. I 

ill.- contract! between theTImle- 
learning and tnpanles and the Northern Ontario Light, 

for supply ol electric power expired on June 

1. Ti- ompany submitted aew rut. -. Increasing the 

The companies hate refnaed to accept these 

terms and the question is in dispute. The Tlmlakamlng & 

Hudson Ba) compan] has lei a contract to David ('rain for COO 
ft of driving ai tin' :::v ami 830 it. levels on its propertj south 
ol tin- McKlnley-Darragh. Tin- drift will he In the conglom- 
erate along the Coball Ijike fault. 

Shore mine, Kirkland Lake, the vein bat 
found 10 he very rich at the contact between porphyry and 
it the grade Is not maintained elsewhere. 
Development at the Gibson claim on Goodflsh lake, near 
Kirkland Lake, at 80 ft. shows two distinct veins. One is aliont 
24 in. and the other l- In, wide, showing some visible gold. 
The property is under option to a Mew York syndicate, with 
whom Frank Loring, now in charge, is associated. 
CobaU. June 20. 

In May the Pome mine produced 26.000 tons averaging 14.28 
per ton. 
On July 15 the Crown Reserve will distribute $53,004. raak- 
•::i to date. 


It Is reported that the American Smelting & Refining Co. 
will blOW-in its smelters at Monterey and Matihuala. At 
Chihuahua there are four furnaces in hlast. The Aguas- 
calientes plant is still shut down. 


For some time the Moctezuma Copper Co. at Nacozari, has 
sold food and supplies to small properties in the district. On 
acconnt of the railway to Douglas being stopped, the com- 
pany finds It cannot sell any more material. Regions south 
of Nacozari are very short of common necessities. 


During April the Philippine Dredges. Ltd., had the following 

Cubic Average per 

Boat. yards. yard, cents. 

No. 1 37,850 22 

No. 2 4S.897 26 

No. 3 58.569 1 8 

No. 4 60,000 12 

The total gold recovered was 1S68 oz., a record. 


I 1 1 Hi mm win ha;, u-llil li, d fTOI 

it. w \ii i'\u o \ in h, re front B. 

W I I ...hi -,,. has r,'tur I 

c W PtTBiNoTos in returning to lbs Lena goldfleld, B 

1 B I ii 1 1 ii »iis In San I' in. I bai gom to ML 

• ii 
li . w I'm mi j is consultlni to the Central Rhi 


\\ . S. HOPFKS WU III San I to llrltlsll 


\ CttCBTEB BKATTt has moved his nllii ■■• to U St.. 
\.« York. 

t;. it. Oabbr «as bare from New fork, on his waj to Tuol- 
umne count) . 

Paso C. Ai-iioiti Is in New York, but expects to leavi tot in 
Angelee shortly. 

B, C. Videos is now manager tor the Virginia Bmeltln 
Bl Wist Norfolk. 

\Y. II. Dawi has been elected president Ol the Transvaal 
Chamber of Alines. 

B. B. <ii. i isium, 1 1;, general manager for the Miami Copper 
Co., is on a fishing holiday in California. 

Crabi.ks !■'. Wiiiis lias lii'iti appointed director of the Ari- 
zona State Bureau of Mines. 

R. Oilman Brown, Deani P. Mitchell, and Leslii Ubqu- 
iiaiit were delayed in going to Siberia, but are starting now. 

E. F. Bi'Hcii.Min has been selected as geologist in charge of 
non-metals section of tin division ol Mineral Recources, U. S. 
Geological Survey. 

YV. L. Hon mm n has resigned his connection with the Brak- 
pan and Springs mines, at Johannesburg, and is returning to 
the United States. 

E u: Newhouse, C. \V. Whitley, h. a. Pbosseb, W. H. 

Howard, Willabd s. Morse, Roger Stbaubs, and William Loeb 
Of tlie A. S. & R. company are here on a tour of inspection. 

Schools and Societies 

The Utah section of the A. I. M. E. will have an excursion to 
the Tintic district on July 15. Several mines will be visited. 
Papers to be read are from G. W. Crane. 'Geology of Ore De- 
posits and Geological Methods Applied to Mining in the 
Tintic District, Utah,' and D. A. Lyon, 'The Zinc Problem in 
the Treatment of Low-Grade Zinc and Zinc-Lead Ores.' 

The Michigan College of Mines Theta Tav fraternity, an 
engineering association, principally mining, will hold a con- 
vention, the third biennial, at the University of California on 
September 8 to 11. 

The American Mining Congbesu announces from Its offices 
In Washington that Its next convention, which will bo the 
eighteenth, will be held at San Francisco on September 20, 
21, and 22, the meeting Immediately preceding that of the 
American Mine Safety Association which will take place on 
September 23 and 24, and following the International Engi- 
neebino Congress on September 20. The chief topics of dis- 
cussion of the Mining Congress will relate to the Western 
public-land problems and legislation, now so conspicuous In 
the legislation of the National Congress at Washington. 

The School of Mines of Western Australia, at Kalgoorlle, 
under the Government Department of Mines, has Issued Its 
syllabus for 1915, and annual report for the year ended De- 
cember 31, 1914. The publication covers 105 pages and Is 
well Illustrated with pictures of the Institution. The staff 
consists of nine instructors and Ave laboratory assistants. 
The attendance In the three terms of 1914 was 594, 514, and 
403, respectively. Thirty-nine, seventy-one, and eighty-eight 
students passed respectively the first, second, and third classes 
in 22 subjects at the examinations in November. The school 
Is excellently equipped for all practical Instruction. Good 
prizes and scholarships are offered. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July :i. 1915 


imary of Uetal Prices and Notes on the Markets. 

Metal Prices 

San Francisco, July 1. 

Antimony 35 — 359i 

Electrolytic copper 20 M — 20% 

Pig lead 6.00— 6.95 

Quicksilver (per Mask) $95 

22 — 22>A 

Tin 41 —42% 

Zinc-dust. 100-kg. zinc-lined cases 30 

Supplies of zinc-dust are small. 


(By wire from New York.) 
NEW YORK. July l. — Copper is quiet, the quotation Is nearly 
nominal; re-sale lots of lead are disappearing; the demand for 
spelter seems likely to Increase. 

Below are given the average New York quotations. In cents 
per ounce, of fine silver. 


June 2 1 18.7:1 Mai 

•' 25 18.50 

•' 26 18.62 June 

27 Sunday 

" 28 48.50 

■• 28 48.00 

•• 30 48.00 

Monthly averages 

Average week ending 

19.. 49.93 

26 49.77 

2 49.40 

9 49.35 

16 49.31 

28 48.97 

80 4S.40 




48 45 



July 54.90 

Aug 64.35 

Sept 53.75 

Oct 51.12 

Nov 49.12 

Dec 49.27 





Mch 58.01 

Apr 58 52 

May 68.21 

June 56.43 

The weakness In silver continues. On June 26 about 410,000 
ox. left San Francisco for China. On June :•: the Nlplsslng 
pany dispatch,, I 250,797 oz, to New York. To this flat,- of 1915 
this mine has sent 8,187.942 OS., Valued at $1,564 166 1" London. 

Some went direct, the remainder by way of New York. 

Writing on .lun,' la. Samuel Montagu & Co. say that selling 

,iu China a unts for depressed prices, Not much weight Is 

attached to advancing prices, when they are the outcome of a 
shrinkage In supplies. It has been rare for any silver to be 
offered for sale In the afternoon, and when the market is small, 
the close of each day is likely lo be accompanied with a harden- 
ing tendency. Inquiry has arisen from the Indian Bazaars, but 
ii i ol an extensive character. The Continental demand has 
also been slight. Buying at the present time Is not hearty 
enough to Insure an Impression of confidence whenever supplies 
become normal as to quantity. 


Zinc is quoted as spelter, standard Western brands, St. Louis 
delivery, In cents per pound. 

June 21 

18.60 Mav 


26 20.50 June 

27 Sunday 

28 21 an 

29 21.60 


Monthly averages. 

Average week ending 
19 15.08 

26 17 79 

2 82.10 

9 26.17 

16 22.83 

2:: 18.71 

30 20.58 













9 78 





4.8 1 



. 4.75 

. 4.45 

. 5.16 

. 4.75 

. 5.01 

. 5.40 





Ma y 


On .lull 7 the New Jersey Zinc Co. meets to increase its 
il from $10,000,000 to $35,000,000. 

Twenty-seven tons of 63. 5^ zinc concentrate sold at Joplin 
three weeks ago has been settled for at $139.90 per ton, the 
highest ever paid In the region. 

A London metal house, writing ut\der date of June 11. says; 
"The event of the week has been the announcement by the 
Munitions Committee that it contemplates Issuing Instruc- 
tions to commandeer all spelter other than that being used for 
cartridge making, and to prohibit Its use for galvanized sheets 
and work other than for war purposes. This official announce- 
ment caused some perturbation on 'change among dealers, who 

naturally wondered how they stood witti regard to existing con- 
trails. A little later, however, it was announced that business 
was to be carried on as usual in the metal, and It seems to us, 
therefore, that all contracts made will stand for the present." 


Prices of electrolytic In New York, In cents per pound. 


June :l 



26 20.00 

2; Sunday 

28 20.00 


30 20.00 

Average week ending 

Mav 19 18.68 

" 26 18.60 

June 2 18.67 

9 19.39 

" 16 20.12 

" 23 20.00 

" 30 20.00 


Jan 14.21 

Feb 14.46 

Mch 14.11 

Apr 14.19 

Mav 13.97 

June 13.60 

Monthly averages 



July 13.26 

Aug 12.34 

Sept 12.02 

Oct 11.10 

Nov 11.75 

Dec 12.75 


Exports during the week ended June 12 totaled 11.064,237 lb 
valued at $2,068,756. Of this, France took 7,121,938 lb.; England, 
2.809.347 lb.. Italy, 743.187 lb., and Russia, in Asia. 224,174 lb. 
Imports of all kinds of copper amounted to 3,252,341 lb., worth 

Prices In New York, In cents per pound. 
Monthly averages. 

1914. 1915. 

Jan 37.85 34.40 

Feb 39.76 37.23 

Mch 38.10 48.76 

Apr 36.10 48.25 

May 33.29 39.28 

June 30.72 40.26 


July 31.60 

Aug 50.20 

Sept 33.10 

Oct 30.40 

Nov 33.51 

Dec 33.60 


On June 30 tin was quoted at 39.50 to 41 cents. 

Bngland has placed an embargo on the exportation of tin- 
plate to Denmark, Norway. Holland, and Sweden. The purpose 
Is to shut off any outside supply to Germany. On receipt of the 
news In New York on June 25. the tin market was strengthened 
£c Important consumers of tin made Inquiry for both spot 
and future shipments of tin. 


Lead is quoted In cents per pound or dollars per hundred 
pounds. New York delivery. 


J lllle 24 

" 25 

" 26 

" 27 Sunday 






Average week ending 

4 .'a 
4 69 


Jan 4.11 

Feb 4 02 

Mch 3.94 

Apr 3.86 

May 3.90 

June 3.90 

Monthly averages 



July 3.80 

Aug 3.86 

Sept 3.82 

Oct 3.60 

Nov 3.68 

Dec 3.80 


The primary market for quicksilver Is San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia being the largest producer. The price Is fixed In the 
open market, and, as quoted weekly in this column, is that at 
which moderate quantities are sold. Buyers by the carload can 
usually obtain a slight reduction, and those wanting but a flask 
or two must expect to pay a slightly higher price. Average 
weekly and monthly quotations, In dollars per flask of 75 lb., 
are given below: 

Week ending 

June 2 so.nn 

9 90.00 

Monthly averages 

June 16 90.00 

" 23 95 00 

" 30 95.00 

1914. 1915. 

Jan 39.25 51.90 

Feb 39.00 60.00 

Mch 39 00 78.00 

Apr 38.90 77.50 

May 39 00 75.00 

June 38.60 90.00 


July 37.50 

Aug 80.00 

Sept 76.25 

Oct 53 00 

Nov 55.00 

Dec 53.10 


The market is strong at 31 to 32c. per pound. 

Julj I, 1915 

MINING .ml N.cntihc PRESS 

Eastern Metal Market 

N.» V.irk, Jun« 25. 

its brought about easier prl rlj til 

in ooppsr .in.) spelter the iltuatloo maj change 

raillriill> II an) moment Dasptti iin b) iiilnT* tilt 

li nil I > holding '■ 'la>s, 

be tMilni in that 'in- War demand 
win I"- r. nawed in (oral i» iin' near future After dropplnt 

spelter baa steadied, and gained « Uttla strength t i 

•sport demand. Bine axporti are thown, by OoTanuneni 

- to have Increased heavily. Thai] B Steel Corporation 
ha* contracted for a year's supply of Australian /in. ore tol 

a plant t" be bnlll al Donora, Pennsylvania. Lead baa 

declined, until offerings of 5.45c. or less, hare I n made, 

although Hi'- a s. \ R Co oontlnuea to quote 5.76< Con 
sumen who bought beyond their neada on the rlaa and later 
attempted to aall hare been disappointed. Tin haa been quiet. 
Antimony contlnuea strong and aalea are reported. Aluminum 
Is a little higher. 

The War demand contlnuea the dominating feature of bnsl- 
neas In the Bast For some classes of metal-working machin- 
ery, BUCh as turret-lathes, automatic screw-machines and 
engine-lathes, orders representing hundreds of thousands of 
dollars have been declined by the manufacturers, who are so 
loaded up with orders thai they cannot make the deliveries 
desired. Machinery for rolling hrass Is being ordered from 

The market has been quiet and a little weakness has devel- 
opad In prices as quoted by one or two smaller producers and 
by second-hands. The larger producers have held to 20.50c. 
30 days, delivered, or 20.87%C rash. New York, on the theory 
that the requirements of manufacturers of war munitions are 
i satisfied. As a matter of fact, good-sized inquiries 
have come out In the week which have not yet been con- 
sumated by sales. Throughout the week copper could be had 
at 20c. although any considerable buying would have quickly 
sent prices up. Prime grades of Lake are quoted at 22.50 to 
although brands suitable for many purposes can he 
had at 20 to 20.50c Not only the attitude of the producers, 
hut the general conditions indicate that the market is healthy. 
Exports up to .tune 25 totaled 13,890 tons. 
Dullness without interruption and a steady decline was the 
case with spelter for some days. The quotation reached 18c. 
June 22. It has since hovered there, indicating a growing 
steadiness. The situation was helped along by a moderate 
amount of export buying. The decline referred to was entirely 
In prime Western, the higher grades, or brass-mill special, 
holding their own in a nominal market. Justification for a 
strong market appears in the figures showing the April ex- 
ports and those of the 10 months ended April, as issued by the 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. In April the ex- 
ports of domestic spelter in pigs. bars, plates and shapes 
amounted to 17.6S3.173 lb. against 120.149 lb. in April, mil 
In the 10 months ended April 1915, the exports totaled 222.- 
478,162 lb., compared with 3,243, 41S lb. in the same period 
of 1914. and 4.997.680 lb. in 1913. It will be noticed that the 
10 months ended April, 1915. go back one month prior to the 
War. These figures are taken as a 'bull' influence, but the 
trade does not so construe the suggestion of the Munition 
Commission of England that it might prohibit the use of 
spelter for galvanizing in that country. The idea, of course, 
is to conserve the supply for war needs. The exports of 

-spelter of foreign origin in April totaled 153.561 lb., bringing 
the total for 10 months to 17,451.565 lb. The exports from 

.June 1 to 25 totaled 1569 long tons. 

1 1" '.a to build 

v Doi Pittsburg, li pronounced ■ wise one. Soma 

point '" the poaalblltt] m the corporation tailing tome ot Its 
outsiders Again, it i» tald that bj the time Utt 
Corporation hag the smelter in operation ii may Bnd thai n 
can buj spelter cheaper In the open market The entire matti i 
i" • "i conjecture. The Corporation brings tin tram the 

Par East In lis own ships, and Is largely Independent of the 

tli tin market and probably desires to i inally as 

free In the matter of (inc. Bines th itbreah ol the Wai a 

number of small smelting companies are reported t" have 
been formed, but it is a question bow they will fare after the 
present abnormal conditions pass. The Initial capacity of the 
new Corporation smelter will be about 40,000 tons per year, 
which is about the amount by which its present production of 
spelter would fall short were the galvanizing operations of 
the American Steel & Wire Co., the American Sheet & Tin 
Plate Co.. and the National Tube Co. to be run at full capacity. 
Through Its subsidiary, the Edgar Zinc Co.. which Is tribu- 
tary to the American Steel & Wire Co.. the Corporation is a 
producer of spelter. Contracts have been closed for a 12 
months' supply of Australian zinc ore for the new smelter. 

Sheet-zinc was reduced April 22, to 27c base, f.o.b. mill. 

The market has been demoralized, and the range of prices 
has been wide. On June 17, the largest interest was quoting 
6.25c, New York. On June 18, It dropped Its price to fie. and 
June 19, It came down to 5.75c, which It continued to quote 
for several days, despite the fact that outsiders were asking 
down to 5.45c It would have been natural for the high and 
low prices to have drawn more closely together, but they had 
not done so up to June 24. A peculiar phase of the market 
was the many offerings by consumers who had contracted for 
more than they needed in the panic which prevailed when 
prices went to over 7c. per lb. It is estimated that thousands 
of tons were taken at between G.50 and 7c Most of the would- 
be sellers found little or no acceptance for the metal they 
offered. It is now seen that consumers bid the market up on 
themselves and the producers took advantage of a situation 
most profitable to them. Independent producers were supposed 
to be sold up. but the market was too tempting for them to for- 
go selling. In the excitement of the rapidly advancing market, 
the independents asked and obtained higher prices than those 
of the Trust. Following the break, they asked lower prices, 
while still lower prices were asked by consumers, dealers and 
jobbers. Independent sellers of lead, June 25. advanced their 
asking price from 5.45 to 5.75c, New York, thereby putting 
their quotation on the same level as that of the A. S. & R. 

The exports of lead between June 1 and 25 totaled 6586 tons 
(tons of 2240 lb.) The exports of domestic lead in four months 
of this year totaled 33,292 tons, against none in the same 
period last year. The April exports totaled 17.755 tons. 
According to a cable from London, the A. S. & R. Co. has with- 
drawn from the English syndicate which regulated the sale of 
lead abroad. It is understood that the company will conduct 
its business independently of the syndicate. 

The week has been uninteresting in this metal. Trading 
has been dull, and the price declined until on June 23 it was 
41c. where it stood also the following day. The highest daily 
average reported in the week, June 16 to 23, was 41.50c The 
market was unquestionably affected by the slump in lead and 
spelter. The arrivals up to June 25 were only 2110 tons. 
There was afloat on that day 6502 tons, a good part of which 
was scheduled to arrive in the month. Meanwhile consumers 
are comfortably supplied. 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July :;. 1915 

Current Prices for Oils and Candles 

(Coi llthly by Standard OH Co.. California.) 

All prices are f.o.b. San Francisco except where ot tier wise 
i are subject to change without notice. 

Granite Mining 

6s-14 oz 
6s-10oz.-40s ... 

Granite Mining Per set. 

Candles. cents. 

6s-12 oz.-40s 8% 

6s-12 oz.-20s 9 

6s-14oz-40s 914 

Kxtra hard lc. per set higher than the above 
The following prices are for oils (Calol) 
gal.) 3c. per gallon higher. 
Per gal.. 

Compressor oil 40 

Amber gas engine oil 40 

Castor machine oil 20 

Dynamo and motor oil 24 

Engine oil 24 

Gas engine oil 26 

Heavy gas engine oil 45 

red engine oil 19 

Heavy red journal oil 21 

Ice machine oil 28 

Per set. 
.... ,9fc 

16 oz.-20s 10% 

n wood barrels; 

Per gal., 

Light gas engine oil 28 

Red compressor oil 26 

Red engine oil 17 

Turbine oil 30 

Turbine oil. heavy 30 

Diesel engine oil 40 

Cylinder oil 37 

High-pressure cylinder oil. 50 
Low-pressure cylinder oil. 37 
Valve oil 44 

The following prices are for oils In iron barrels, cases (2-5 
gol.) 7e. per gallon higher, except on Eocene, which Is 8c. per 
gallon higher. 

Per gal., 

Engine distillate 7 

Aroturps 18 

v M. ana P. Naphtha 10% 

Per gal., 

Pearl oil 9 

Headlight oil 10 

Eocene oil 11 

Red Crown gasoline 11% 

Per bbi 

Calol fuel oil, f.o.b. Richmond Refinery $0.85 

Per ton. 

'Stic cement X $13.00 

Petrolastic cement XX 12.00 

Aephaltum $5.50 to 12.50 

Current Prices for Ores and Minerals 

(Corrected monthly by Atkins. Kroll & Co.) 

The prices are approximate, subject to fluctuation, and to 
variation according to quantity, quality, and delivery required. 
They are quoted, except as noted, f.o.b. San Francisco. Buying 
!. ■ ■] ■ sub [eel Imnv dla te delivery, 

Mln. Max. 

Antimony ore, IS to 55%, per ton •$65. 00 $90.00 

Arsenic, white, refined, per lb 0.04 0.05 

Arsenic, red, refined, per lb 0.12 0.15 

Asbestos, chrysotlle 100.00 350.00 

Asbestos, amphibole 5.00 7.50 

Asphaltum, refined, per ton 11.50 20.00 

Barium chloride, commercial, per ton 50.00 60.00 

Barium sulphate (barytes). prepared, per ton. 20.00 30.00 

Bismuth ore, 15^r. per ton *250.00 upward 

China clay, English, levigated, per ton 15.00 20.00 

Chrome ore, according to quality, per ton.... 7.50 10.00 
Cobalt metal, refined, f.o.b. London, per lb... 1.90 .... 

Coke, foundry, per 2240 lb 12.00 15.00 

Diamonds (according to size and quality). 

Borts. per carat 2.00 15.00 

Carbons, per carat 55.00 80.00 

Feldspar, per ton 5.00 25.00 


Silica, per M 50.00 55.00 

Snowball, per M 40.00 45.00 

Flint pebbles for tube-mills, Danish, per 2240 

lb 21.00 24.00 

Fluorspar, per ton 10.00 15.00 

Fuller's earth, according to quality, per ton... 20.00 30.00 

Gllsonlte. per ton 35.00 40.00 


Amorphous, per lb 0.01 0.02% 

Crystalline, per lb 0.04 0.13 

Gypsum, per ton , 5.00 7.50 

Infusorial earth, per ton 10.00 15.00 

Iridium 55.00 

Magneslte, crude, per ton '. 5.00 , 7.50 

Magnesite, dead calcined, per ton 20.00 25.00 

Manganese ore. oxide, crude, per ton 10.00 15.00 

Manganese, prepared, according to quality. 

per ton 50.00 75.00 

Mica, according to Bin and quality, per lb.... $0.05 

Molybdi WoSfl, per ton | 

Monazlts Band i.v, tharla), per ton 150.00 

Nickel metal, refined, per lb 0.45 

Ochre, extra strength, levigated, per 100 lb.. 

ridlum, per oz 30.00 

Platinum, native, crude, per oz 30.00 

SUex lining for tube-mills, per 2240 lb 

Sulphur, crude, a^r ton 26.00 

Tale, prepared, according to quality, per ton.. 20.00 

Tin ore, 60%. per ton 425.00 

ten ore 65$ '450.00 

Uranium ore, 10% min 25.00 

Vanadium ore, 15% V9O& per ton 150.00 

Wolframite (see tungsten ore). 

Zinc ore, 50' I up, per ton buI 

M a x . 











per unit 

is tlon 

Current Prices for Chemicals 

(Corrected monthly by Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co.) 
Prices quoted are for ordinary quantities in packages as 
specified. For round lots lower prices may be expected, while 

In smaller quantities advanced prices are ordinarily charged. 
Prices named are f.o.b. San Francisco and subject to fluctuation. 
Other conditions govern Mexican and foreign business. 

Min. Max. 

Acid, sulphuric, com'l, 66°, drums, per 100 lb..$ 0.80 $ 1.10 

Acid, sulphuric, com'l, 66°, carboy, per 100 lb.. 1.25 2.00 

Acid, sulphuric, C. P., 9-lb. bottle. bbl„ per lb. 0.13 0.18 

Acid, sulphuric. C. P., bulk, carboy, per lb 0.09% 0.12 

Acid, muriatic, com'l. carboy, per 100 lb 1.60 3.00 

Acid, muriatic, C. P., 6-lb. bottle, bbl., per lb... 0.15 0.20 

Acid, muriatic, C. P., bulk, carboy, per lb 0.10% 0.15 

Acid, nitric, com'l, carboy, per 100 lb 6.00 6.50 

Acid, nitric, C. P.. 7-lb. bottle, bbl., per lb 0.16 0.22 

Acid, nitric. C. P., bulk, carboy, per lb* 0.12% 0.15 

Argols, ground, bbl., per lb 0.10 0.20 

Borax, cryst, and cone, bags, per 100 Lb L.76 5.63 

Borax, powdered, bbl., per 100 lb 5.25 6.10 

Borax glass, gd. 30 mesh, cases, tin lined, per 

100 lb 11:50 14.50 

Bone ash. 60 to 80 mesh, bbl.. per 100 lb 0.50 6.50 

Bromine, 1-lb. bottle, per lb 0.55 0.65 

Clay, domestic fire, sack, per 100 lb 1.50 2.00 

Cyanide, 98 to 100%, 100-lb. case, per lb No quotes 

Cyanide. 98 to 100%,, 200-lb. case, per lb 

Cyanide, 129%, 100-lb. case, per lb 

Cyanide, 129%,, 200-lb. case, per lb 

Lead acetate, brown broken, casks, per 100 Lb. 9.76 12.50 

Lead acetate, white broken, casks, per 100 lb. , L0.87 13.50 

Lead acetate, white, crystals, per 100 lb 12.50 13.25 

Lead, C. P., test., gran., per 100 lb 13.00 15.00 

Lead, C. P., sheet, per 100 lb 15.00 18.00 

Litharge, com'l, per 100 lb B.75 9.25 

Lltharg C P silver tree, per 100 Lb IS.OO 15.00 

Manganese ox., blk., dom. in bags, per ton 20.00 25.00 

Manganese ox., blk., Caucasian, in casks, per 

ton (S5% MnO.— *i %. Fe) 130.00 140.00 

Nitre, 1 , small cryst., bbl., per 100 lb. 15.00 16.00 

Mitre, double ref'd.. granular, bbl., per 100 lb., 15.00 16.00 

Nltrei double ref'd., powdered, bbl., per 100 Lb. 15.00 16.00 

Potassium bicarbonate, cryst., per 100 lb 22.00 25.00 

Potassium carbonate, calcined, per 100 lb 25.00 35.00 

Potassium permanganate, drum, per lit O.70 0.75 

Silica, powdered, bags, per lb 0.03 0.05 

Soda, carbonate (ash), bbl., per 100 lb 1.45 1.75 

Soda, bicarbonate, bbl.. per 100 lb 2.00 2.50 

Soda, caustic, ground. 9S%. bbl.. per 100 lb 3.00 3.25 

austlc, solid, 9896, drums, per 100 lb 2.80 3.00 

Zim- shavings, S60 line, bbl., per 100 lb 34.00 

Zinc sheet. No. 9 — 18 by 84, drum, per 100 lb.. No quotes 

•Extra charge for packing nitric acid for shipment to con- 
form to regulations 

The marketed production of phosphate rock In the United 
stairs In 1914 was 2,734,043 long tons, valued at ¥9.608.041, 
Compared with the production of vn'^. which was 3,111,22] tons. 
,i ■ ■■ 1 796,231, there was a decrease amounting In quan- 
tity to ::T7,i7^ tons, or 12%, and in value to $2,188,190, or nearly 
19%. As compared with 1912 also there was a decrease in 1914 
Of B9i in quantity and of neatly 18$ In value. The production 
of phosphate ropk has been steadily Increasing for many years. 
with an occasional exception, until 191 1. when, for causes 
chiefly outside' the country, a diminished output has to be 
roc irded. 

: V>\ I 

MINING tad «l SS 

I ! 


The Redwood Manufacturers Company, 1M1 Hobarl Building, San Francisco, 
is the largest maker oi REDWOOD Tanks and Pipe in the world, This com- 
pany is prepared to give you tanks and pipe that are uninfluenced by acid and 

alkaline solutions; that are not affected by dampness or by insects; that are 

huilt in a si.e and style to meet any requirement, and that are good for from 
fiftj to seventy-live years. Write tor particulars today. 


Bradley, Bruff & Labarthe 

Desire to announce the opening of offices for the purpose 
of giving special attention to General Engineering, Design, 
Construction, Operation, and Management relating to 
Mining, Milling, Smelting, and Power Installations. 

Mr. George O. Bradley, 

of late Consulting Engineer 
with Utah Copper Compa- 
ny, Ray Consolidated Cop- 
per Company, Chino Copper 
Company, Butte Superior 
Copper Company and Alas- 
ka Gold Mines Company. 

Mr. Charles E. Bruff, 

lately associated with 
Chino Copper Company 
and Alaska Gold Mines 
Company, in charge of 

Mr. Jules Labarthe, 

formerly identified with 
Consolidated Mining & 
Smelting Company of 
Canada, Ltd., and Mason 
Valley Mines Company. 

Correspondence Invited. 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Julv 3. 1915 



That's what Mr. John Tait Milliken, consulting 
engineer of the Golden Cycle Mining Co., Colo- 
rado Springs, Colo., says. And many other well 

known mines and mining men, assayers, etc , 

testify to the same effect. 
The McCool Pulverizer has many reasons for 
being so efficient and depend- 
able. Ball and socket joint. 
Double disc — one stationary, 
one having a double rotation. 
Simple, positive hand wheel ad- 
justment. Gears running in oil. 
Easily cleaned and sample 
quickly removable. Dust tight. 
And others. 

You will do well to get 
the fact* by writing for 
our special bulletins. 

The Mine and Smelter Supply Co. 


Concentrating Ores by Flotation 

Being a description and history of a recent metallurgical de- 
velopment together with a summary of patents and litigation. 



A. 71.. Letand Stanford Jr. University 

Member Institute of Mining and Metallurgy 

Member Soeiete llei<i>' dee Ingenieurt et dee Tnduetrieti 

Associate Member of American Institute of Mining Engineers 

Second Edition. 261 pages. 55 figures. Cloth. 6 x 9 in. $3.75 postpaid 

HpHIS is the only book on a subject of growing importance. It is written by 
* an engineer having unusual experience in this new branch of ore-dressing, 
besides wide influence in other departments of metallurgy. He explains the 
theory of the process in the light of his own research and application. No one 
engaged in the concentration of sulphide ores, especially lead, zinc, and 
copper, can afford to be without this book. 

Reclusive Agents for the V. S. A. 
MINING and Scientific PRESS 

420 Market St. 

San Francisco 

■1 it I v 3. 1915 



The adaptation of Parral Tanks for Oil Flotation is covered by U. S. Patents Nos. 1,116.303 and i,l.ll,tS90 
which contain 21 novel claims for the special apparatus used. All pulp contacts acid proof. 

Parral Tank System of Agitation 

{Bernard MacDonahl. M'g'r. 
633-1 I. W. Hullman Bldg., 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

You Will Make No Mistake 

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Merrick Conveyor Weightometer 



■ ft 

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It will automatically record, in any unit desired, 
the actual weight of material transported — with a 


Write today for descriptive catalog 
and further particulars. 



The Culebra Cut 

was dredged with Blue 
Center Dredging Rope. 

Because this has been the tough- 
est part of the work of building 
the canal and required the use of 
the toughest rope. 

Made with a blue hemp center. 

John A. Roebling's Sons 
Company of California 

San Francisco 

Los Angeles 
Portland. Ore. 

The largest stock of Wire Rope 
on the Pacific Coast. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July ::. 1915 


Built for every character of Mine Service 




10 H. P. 

We have kept pace with the rapid 
development of electric mine hoist 
practice. Our experience in building 
electric hoists insures their capacity, 
safety, and economy in operation. 

Lidgerwood standard practice in- 
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More than 37,000 Steam and Electric 
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Seattle Chicago Pittsburgh Philadelphia 

N. It. Livermore A < o. 
Sun Francisco and Los Angeles. < al. 

Mine Cars by the Carload 

Are an unusual occurrence except where 
Matteson Ore and Rock Cars are concerned. 
These Matteson Cars were manufactured for the 
Huckhorn Mines Co.. Buckhorn, Nevada. Sim- 
ilar orders have been filled for other large operating 

yatt" Holler Bearing Wheels and Axles 
iller Rearing Turntables 
i-Stage Dumping Hinge. 
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The Reasons: 

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San Francisco, Cal. 

Testing for Metallurgical Processes 

216 Pages — Illustrated — Indexed — $2 Postpaid 

nr»HIS BOOK is designed to assist in the selection of the process ot treatment for any 
*■ ore. The author describes the apparatus employed in making laboratory and small-lot 
tests. It is founded upon experimental work at the Michigan College of Mines, and the 
methods recommended have been tested in practice. It is brief and practical, equally val- 
uable to the student and the practicing engineer 


MINING and Scientific PRESS, 420 Market St., San Francisco 



MINING and Sc.cnlihc l'KI S> 




The Triumvirate in the Realm of Cyanidation 

These machines have been developed in practice to meet specific needs in 
the cyanide process. They have been proved and improved until they 
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are of special service also in concentration and flotation. 

Our knowledge and experience are at your service. 

T^I7A/fnMQTD A TTf^TVT • Dorr machines are in operation in the Bureau of 
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The Dorr Cyanide Machinery Company 

735 First National Bank Building, Denver, Colo., U. S. A. 

Cable Address: "Dorr." 
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i able Iddress: Dondass." Cod.-s: Hedford McNeill and Western Union Cable Address : "Cyandormuc.'' 


It is important to know what you get for your 
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The designing must be done with the utmost care 
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McCormick Building, Chicago, 111. A. Baldwin & Company, New Orleans, La. 

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Northwestern Equipment Company, Seattle, Wash., and Portland, Ore. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Julv 3, 1915 

n®irml Diirectoiry 

Eimgiini<g<gir§, Mdt&lkairgkfts &mi(dl % Gcg®l<o>gii§ft§ 

RATES i One-luilf Inch, *-.% per year, MubMcrlpllon Included. Combination rnte with THE MIM\(i MAGAZINE ll-ondon), 
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Blauvelt. Harrington. 
Bradley. D. H.. Jr. 
Burch, H. Kenyon. 
Collins, Edgar A. 
DeKalb. Courtenay. 
Eye, Clyde M. 
9mltfa & Ziesemer. 


Abbott. James W. 
Arnold, Ralph. 
Benjamin, Edward H. 
Bradley. Fred W. 
Burch, Albert. 
Burch, Caetani & 

Caetani. Gelasio. 
Carpenter, Alvin B. 
Chodzko, A. E. 
Clark, Baylies C. 
Clevenger. G. Howell. 
Cranston, Robert E. 
Dakin, Fred H., Jr. 
Dennis, Clifford G. 
Farrell, J. H. 
Folsom. D. M 
Gibson, Arthur. 
Grant, Wilbur H. 
Grunsky, C. E., Jr. 
Haley, Charles S. 
Hamilton, E. M. 
Hanson, Henry. 
Hartley. J. H. 
Harvey. F. H. 
Hoffmann. Ross B. 
Holland. L. F. S. 
Hunt & Co.. Robert W. 
Huston, H. L. 
Hyde. James M. 
Janln, Charles. 
Jenks, Arthur W, 
Johnson, Harry R. 
Jones. E. L. 
Keegel, P. A. 
Klnzle. Robert A. 
Lanagan. W. H. 

Dixon. Clement. 
Emery, A. B. 

McLaughlin. R. P. 
Merrill. Charles W. 
Herri II Metallurgical Co. 
Merrill. Frederick J. H. 
F L. 

Mudd. Seeley W, 
Munro. C. H. 
Myers, Desalx B. 
Nelll, James W. 
Newman, M. A. 
Nowland. Ralph C. 
Pepperberg, L. J. 
Pollak Co.. The A. J 
Prlchard, W. A. 
Probert. Frank H. 
Radford. William H. 
Ray. James C. 
Read, Thomas T. 
Rfckard, T. A. 
Rogers, Austin F. 
Ross. G. McM. 
Royer, Frank W. 
Scott, Robert 
Simonds. Ernest H. 
Sizer. F. L. 
Smith. Howard D. 
Stebblns. Elwyn W. 
Steel. Donald. 
Storms. William H. 
Thomas. E. G. 
Tlmmons. Colin. 
Tolman. Cyrus Fisher. Jr. 
Turner, H W. 
von Bernewltz. M. W. 
Wiseman, Philip. 


Allen & Colburn. 
Argall & Sons, Philip. 
Bancroft, Geo. J. 
Bancroft, Howland. 
Chase, Charles A. 
Collins. George E. 
Dorr, John V. N. 
Farlsh. John B. 
Finch. John Wellington 
Hills & Willis. 
Radford. Walter J. 
Rlckard. Forbes. 
Worcester, S. A. 


Anderson & Son. G. 

Easton. Stanly A. 
Hershey. Oscar H. 


Hollis. H. L. 

Hunt & Co.. Robert W. 

•M:iss. > Co.. G .: ■ i :. 


Stanford. Richard B. 


Keeney. Robert M. 


Dickerman. Alton L. 
Richards. Robert H. 
Rogers, Allen Hastings 


Dickerman. Alton L. 


Bowman. Frank A. 
Collins. Edwin James. 
Longyear Co . E. J, 
Winchell, Horace V. 


Conklin. H. R. 

Cope land. Durward. 

Hall. R. G. 

Hunt & Co., Robert W. 

Kirby. Edmund B. 

Malcoimson. Jns. W. 

Bard. D. C. 
Creden. William L. 
Green-?. Fred T. 

Valerius, McNutt & 


Bristol, J. J. 

Cutler. H. C. 
Ferguson. Donald. 
Lakenan. C. B. 
Symmes, Whitman. 


Aldridge. Walter H, 
Arnold, Ralph. 
Ball. Sydney H. 
Banks, John H. 
Beatty. A. Chester. 
Benedict, Wm. de L. 
Brodie, Walter M. 
Bulkley, J. Norman. 
Canadian Mining & Ex- 
ploration Co., Ltd. 
Channing. J. Parke. 
Cranston, Robert E. 
Dorr, John V. N. 
Dunster, Carl B. 
Dwight, Arthur S. 
Erdlets. J. F. B.. Jr. 
Farlsh. John B. 
Fearn, Percy L. 
Finch, John Wellington 
Finlay, J. R. 
Garrey. George H. 
Hassan, A. A. 
Henderson, H. P. 
Hendryx, Wilbur A. 
Herzig, Charles S. 
Hoffmann, Karl F. 
Hunt & Co., Robert W. 
Lloyd, R- L. 
Mercer, John W. 
Mtnard, Frederick H. 
Mines Management Co. 
Olcott & Corning. 
Perry. O. B. 
Poillon & Poirler. 
Raymond. Rossiter W. 
Riordan, D. M. 
Rogers. Allen Hastings. 
Rogers, Edwin M. 
Sharpless, Fred'k. F. 
Simonds & Burns. 
Spllsbury, E. Gybbon. 
Sussman, Otto. 
Thomas, E. G. 
Thomas, Kirby. 



Beadon. W. R. Coleridge. 
Cole. F. L. 
Collbran. Arthur H. 
Dickson. A. A. C. 

Eardley-WIlmot, S. 
Macnutt, C. H. 
Mills, Edwin W. 
Vallentine. E. J. 


Fraser, Colin. 

Grace, William Frank. 

Smith, J. D. Audley. 


Banks, Charles A. 

Brewer. Wm. M. 
Dodge. W. R. 
Ferrler, W. F. 
Fowler, Samuel S. 
Hardman. John E. 
Hughes, A. D. 
Hunt & Co.. Robert W. 
Kirby. A. G. 
Lamb, R. B. 
Levy, Ernest. 
Summerhayes, M. W. 
Thornhill, E. Bryant. 
Tyrrell. J. B. 


Hartley, J. H. 


Alexander Hill & 

Arnold, Ralph. 
Bach, William. 

Bain. H. Foster. 
Bayldon. H. C. 
Beadon. W. R. Coleridge. 
Botsford. Robert S. 
Brown. R. Gllman. 
Collins. Henry F. 
Curie. J. H. 

de Marny, E. N. Barbot 
Denny Bros. 
Drucker, A. E. 
Erdlets. J. F. B.. Jr. 
Fennel], John Howard. 
Geppert, R. M. 
Holloway, Geo. T. & Co.. 

Hoover, H. C. 
Hoover. Theodore J. 
Hunt & Co.. Robert W. 
Hutch Ins. John Power. 
Inder & Henderson. 
Insktpp & Bevan. 
Jones, Henry Ewer. 
Jones. T. J. 

Kuehn, A. F. 
bichtenberg & Mac- 

Loring, E. A. 
Loring, W. J. 
Mayreis, L. J. 
McCarthy, E. T. 
McDermott, E. D. 
Michell, George V. 
Mines Management Co. 
Payne & Co., F. W. 
Pearse. Arthur L. 
Perkins. Walter G., & Co. 
Purington, Chester W. 
Shaler. Millard K. 
Srnilh, Charles A. 
Smith. Reuben Edward. 
Stephenson, Geo. E. 
Stines, Norman C. 
Stockfeld. G. A. 
Thomas, E. G. 
Thome. W. E. 
Titcomb. H. A. 
Turner. Scott. 

Thomson. S. C. 

Von Rosenberg, Leo. 

Webber, Morton. 

Westervelt. William 

Yeatman, Pope. 


Hager, Dorsey. 

Valerius. McNutt 6 


Miller, Bernard P. 
Morse, Ed. C. 
Wilmot. H. C. 


Ayres, W. S. 
Chance. H. M. 
Clapp, Frederick G. 
DuBols, Mixer & Armas. 
Garrison, F. Lynwood. 
Hunt & Co.. Robert W. 
Myers, Desaix B. 
Spurr, J. Edward. 


Eye, Clyde M. 
Hanlon, Russell Yale. 


Kinnon, Wm. H. 
Nicholson, Francis. 


Jennings, E. P. 
Kirk & LeavelL 
Krumb, Henrv. 
Neil], James W. 
Schmidt. F. Sommer. 
Sears, Stanley C. 
Talmage, Sterling B. 
Wlnwood, Job H. 


Bellinger, H. C. 
Keffer & Johns. 
Mallhot, Charles. 

Weatherbe, D'Arcy. 
Welgall, Arthur R. 
Wright. Charles Will. 


Caldwell, Forest B. 
Denny Bros. 
Hoyle, Charles. 
Mines Management Co. 
Nahl, Arthur C. 
Raymond. Robert M. 
Royer, Frank W. 
Simpson, W. E. 
Stevens, Blarney. 
Tweedy, Geo., A. 


Chede & Davidson. 
Copeland. Durward. 
Couldrey. Paul S. 
Lamb, Mark R. 
I owls, H. Allman. 
McCOiin, Ferdinand. 
Strauss. Lester W. 

Jub :. I'M i 




ABBOTT, James W., 

•■ Mmm 

1SJ N. lirand A\ .• . i -.. Cal. 

ALDRIDGE. Walter H., 

Mining nn.l Mrtallurslrnl Knglnrrr. 

of Wm. B. 1 
ll Wan 81 , N.w Fork. 


t'uaxultlnK Knilarrn ami .1 . i it 1 1 u rt l.i. 

4 Broad St. Pin. 



Milling. Hydraulics, 

Mining. Irrigation. 
Ideal P.i: 

ANDERSON & SON, G. Scott, 

Consulting Mining Kiiulneer.. 
Coeur d'Alene Mines. 
Code: Bedford M.N. ill 

ARGALL & SONS, Philip, 

.Mining nnd MetnllurKlenl Engineer... 

First National Bunk Bdg.. Denver. 

Cable: Argnll. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

BARD, D. 0, 

'Hulas l.r.'l.iil.l. 
I- << Box S»7. Butt. 


Mining Enulut-rr. 

I'.'ii. No I, Sirdaronskj 

BEADON, H. R. Coleridge, 

'lining Bnjrtae«r. 

\ s '" tr *< MS KIukACo., 

Rangoon, iturma. : nhin 

Cable: Mentor. Rangoon. Londoi 

BEATTY, A. Chester 

OoamUttaB Mining i inglucrr. 

B6 Broad Street, Now Fork. 

1, London Wail Bdg . London. B.C 

Cable: Granitic, i ford McNeill, 


Metallurgical I '. ngl tifi-r. 

Spokane. Wash. 

BENEDICT, William de L., 

Mining Ijiujih'it, 
t9 Cedar St., New York. 

BROWN, R. Oilman, i.m.. 

I ■— UlM I "KlDrrr. 

43, Land) 


BULKLEY, J. Norman, 

< Mii-mitiitK iii-i tiitni. mi mill Blaetrleal 


Mining Work ii 
130 Broadway, N«-w V-ik < 

Burch. Caetanl A Herahoy. 
BURCH, Albert, 

Consulting Knitlnt-rr. 

i -.-,.. 

Cahl<«: Burch. Usunl Codea 

BURCH, H. Kenyon, 

UcohanleaJ and Metallurgical Engineer. 

Care Inspiration Consolidated 

Copper Co,, 

Miiinit. iiiiu County, Axl 

i ini eta, i leeta al A I [erahey, 
CAETANI, Gelasio, 

i otiiulllug Engineer. 

Crocker Bdg.. Sun Francisco. 
Cable: Caetanl. Usual Codes. 

CALDWELL, Forest B., 

Supt. Candelaria Land, Mining & Power 

Co.. Ltd.; Cons. Eng. Estaca Mtn. Co., 

San DImas, Durango, Mexi co. 

Code: M.'.WIIl 

ARNOLD, Ralph, Cable: Ralfamoll. 

Geologist and Petroleum Cm; lueer. 

Union Oil Bdg.. Los Angeles, Cal. 

239 Broadway, New Fork. 

No. 1. London Wall Rdgs.. London. EC. 

AYRES, W. S., 

Mining an. I Mechanical Engineer. 

Hazleton, Pa. 

Consultation. Exam., Reports. Many 

years' exp. as Mgr. Iron and Coal Mines 

BENJAMIN, Edward H., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 

805 Linden Street, Oakland, Cal. 

BLAUVELT, Harrington, 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 

Prescott, Arizona. 
Mines examined and reported upon. 




William Wallace Meln, 
Consulting Engineer. 

Mining Properties Purchased 
or Financed. 
43 Exchange Place, New York City. 
Cable: Cameco, New York. 

BACH, William, 

Placer Engineer. 

Glyngarth, Beechwood Rd., 

Sanderstead, Surrey, England. 

Code: McNeill. 19nS. 

BOTSFORD, Robert S., 

Mining Engineer. 

% F. Riches. 9th Line, No. 44. 

Basil Island, Petrograd, 



Mining Engineer. 

500 Union League Building. 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

BAIN, H. Foster, 

.Mining Geologist. 

Editor. The Mining Magazine. 

Salisbury House, London, E.C. 

No professional work undertaken. 

BOWMAN, Frank A., 

Mining Engineer. 

Plans, Surveys. Reports, Management. 
Gilbert. Minn. 







lug: Engineer. 

837 Drexel 




BALL, Sydney H., 

Mining Geologist, 

71 Broadway. New York. 
Cable: Sydball. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

BRADLEY, D. H., Jr., 

Mechanical Engineer. 

Specialty: Mining & Milling Machinery. 
Exam. & Equipment of Mexican Proper- 
ties. Prescott, Ariz, 

CHANNING, J. Parke, 

Consulting Engineer. 

61 Broadway, New York. 


Consulting Engineer. 

Mining, Metallurgy, Hydraulics. 
Bancroft Blk., 220 Broadway, Denver. 
Cable Address: Bancroft. 

BRADLEY, Fred W., 

Mining Engineer. 

Crocker Building:. San Francisco. 

Cable: Basalt. 

Code: Bedford McNeill. 

CHASE, Charles A., 

Mining Engineer. 

734 First Nat. Bank Bdg., Denver. 
Liberty Bell G. M. Co.. Tellurlde, Colo. 

BANCROFT, Howland, 

Consulting Mining Geologist. 

Suite 730 Symes Building, 

Denver, Colorado. 

Cable: Howban. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

BANKS, Charles A., 

Mining and Metallurgical Engineer. 

Jewel-Denero Mines, Ltd. 

P. O. Box 130, 
Greenwood, B. C. Canada. 

BREWER, Wm. M., 

Mining Engineer und Geologist. 

P. O. Box 701. Victoria, B. C. 
Cable: Brewer. Cods: Bedford McNeill. 


Mining Engineer. 

Reno, Nevada, U. S. A. 


Consulting Mining Engineers. 

Examinations and Reports. 

Representation and Management of 
Foreign Companies. 

Call, Rep. of Colombia, South America. 

Cable: Chedavl. 

Codes: Bed. McNeill, Lleber, A.B.C, 5th. 

BANKS, John H., 

(Formerly of the firm of 

Ricketts & Banks) 

Mining Engineer and Metallurgist. 

61 Broadway. New York. 

BRODIE, Walter M., 

Mining Engineer nnd Metallurgist. 

50 Broad St., New York, N. T. 

CH0DZK0, A. E., 

Consulting Mechanical Engineer, 

Specialty: Compressed Air. 
647 Phelan Bdg., San Francisco. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 3, 1915 


CLAPP, Frederick Q tt chutfQeoiogut 

A»*irHulrd (•ruhiKlcnl Kuglueera. 

: I .Mineral 
331 Fourth Ave.. Pittsburg. Pa. 




Milling Knulllt'iT. 






Bedford BfcNc 



Mining Engineer. 

10, Strand Road, Calcutta, India. 
Cable: Warble. Calcutta. 

Codes: Bedford McNeill; West T'nlon. 

CLARK, Baylies C, 

Mining and Mechanical Engineer. 

Sutter Creek. California 
Cable: Baclark. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

DAKIN, Fred H., Jr., 

Mining Engineer. 

110 Sutter St., San Francisco. 

EASTON, Stanly A., 

Mining Engineer. 

Manager Bunker Hill & Sullivan Min- 
ing & Concentrating Company. 

Kellogg. Idaho. 








Palo Alto. 


: Bedford McNeill. 

DE KALB, Courtenay, 

Consulting Engineer. Pacific Smelting 

& Mining Co. 

Tucson. Arizona. 

Cable: Dekalb. Code: Bedford McNeill 

EMERY, A. B., 

Mining Engineer. 

Management and Equipment of Mines. 

Messina. Northern Transvaal, 

South Africa. 

COLE, F. L. 


Cable: Haneo. 


ng Engineer. 

nghal. China. 

de MARNEY, E. N. Barbot, 

Mining Engineer. 

W. O. Stredny Prospect. 33 

Petrograd, Russia. 

Cable: Barbot de Marney. Code: McN.,'08. 

ERDLETS, J. F. B., Jr., 

Mining Engineer. 

No. 1, London Wall Bdgs.. London. E.C. 

45 Broadway, New York. 
Cable: Branderlet. Usual Codes. 

COLLBRAN, Arthur H., 

Mining Engineer. 

General Manager Seoul Mining Co., 
Pyeng Yang, Koi 

DENNIS, Clifford G., 

Mining Engineer. 

Crocker Bdg.. San Francisco, Cal. 
Cable: Sinned. Code: Bedford McNeill, 

EYE, Clyde M., 

Mining nnd Metallurgical Engineer. 

Supt. Benguet Consolidated Mining Co., 
Baguio, Benguet, P. I. 

COLLINS, Edgar A., 

Mining Engineer. 

Commonwealth Mine. 

Pearce. Arizona. 


Commit Ing Mining Engineer*. 

704, Salisbury House. London. E.C. 

Bancarla Bdg., Mexico City. 

Cable: Englcont, London and Mexico. 


Mining Engineer. 

25 Broad St., New York. 
315 Colorado Bdg., Denver. 
Cable: Parish. 

COLLINS, Edwin James, 

.Mining Engineer. 

Mine Examinations and Management. 
100S-1009 Torrey Bdg., Duluth. Minn. 


Consulting Mining Engineer. 

70 State St.. Boston. Mass. 
Temporary address: Houghton, Mich. 


Mining Geologist. 

Planning and Direction of Development. 
•; Yellow Aster M. & M. Co.. Rands- 
burg, Cal. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

COLLINS, George E., 

Mltilug Engineer. 

Mine Ehcamln | Management 

420 Boston Bdg., Den 
Cable: Colcomac. 

DICKSON, Archibald A. C, 

Mining Engineer. 

Kodarma, E. I. Ry., India. 
Cable: Dickson. Nawrula. Usual Code 

FEARN, Percy L., 

Mining Engineer. 

17 Battery Place. New York. 

COLLINS, Henry F., 

Mining Engineer. 

Huelva Copper & Sulphur Co.. Ltd.. 

yaldelamusa, Prov. de Huelva. Spain 

'-able: Huelvacop. Code: Broomhall 

DIXON, Clement, 

Mining Engineer. 

P. O. Box 305, Bulawayo, Rhodesia. 

Cable: Clement Dixon 

Usual Codes. 

FENNELL, John Howard, 

Mining Engineer. 

'Holmer,' Slough, Bucks. 


Mining and Electrlenl Engineer. 

Joplin, Mo. 

DODGE, W. R., 

Metnllurglcnl Engineer. 

Timmlns, Ont., Canada. 

FERGUSON, Donald, 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 
Cable: Ferg. Box 644. Goldfleld. Nev. 

Codes: Morelng& Neal: Bedford McNeill. 

COPELAND, Durward, 

Mefnllurgleal Engineer. 

Missouri School of Mines, Llallagua, 
Rolla, Mo. Bolivia. 

DORR, John V. N., 

Mefnllurgleal Engineer. 

First Nat'l. Bank Bdg.. Denver. 

50 Church St., New York. 

Cnhle: Dorr. Code: B«"I McN . West Un. 


Committing Mining Engineer nnd 

204 Lumsden Bdg., Toronto. Ont. 


Mining Engineer. 

Gen. Mining Supt. Cerro de Pasco Min- 
ing Co.. Cerro de Pasco, Peru, S. A 
Cable: Cerrocop. 


Meehanleal nnd Metallurgical Engineer. 

Ore Dressing, Cyaniding. and Copper 
Leaching. Teat in fir. Designing and Plant 
Construction. 62 London Wall. London. 

FINCH, John Wellington, 

Geolttglat nnd Engineer of Mines. 

71 Broadway, New York. 
730 Symes Bdg., Denver. 

CRANSTON, Robert E., 

Mining Engineer. 

437 Holbrook Bdg., San Francisco. 
Room 1408. No. 11 pine St.. New York. 
Cable: Recrann. Code: McNeill 

CREDEN, William L., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 

Mine Examination and Management. 
First National Bank BulldlngT 
Butte. Mont 

CURLE, J. H., 

Mine Vainer. 

62, London 'Wall, London. 

Dubois, mixer & armas, 

Consulting Mining Engineer**. 

302 Harriunn Bdg., Philadelphia. 

229 S.W. Temple St, Salt Lake City. 

48 Boul. Em ile Augier. Paris. France. 

DUNSTER, Carl B., 

Mining Engineer. 

11 Pine St.. New York. 

Marquette, Mich. 

Cable: Breitanco. Codes: McNeill's. 

DWIGHT, Arthur S., 

Mining Engineer nnd Metallurgist. 

29 Broadway. New York. 
Cable: Slnterer. 

Code: Bed. McNeill: Miners & Smelters. 


Mining Engineer. 
Room 802. 52 William St, 

New York. 


Mining Engineer. 

Stanford University, California. 

FOWLER, Samuel S., 

Mining Engineer nnd Metnllurglat. 

Nelson. British Columbia. 
Cable: Fowler. Usual Codes. 


MI\IV. .„»! Scientific PRI SS 


FKASER, Colin. 

illi.l.g l.rolwl.i 

■ > \\ 


HARDMAN, John E., 

i ■aaalllaa HIbIbi I :n t i„ 

111 St Jam. ^ . 

HOOVER, Theodore J., 

Mining lliiulnrrr. 


I, l^indon u ull 


GARREY, George H., 

• miivuIi Int Mining «..i.|f>k l»t nutl 
I n*i Inrrr. 

115 i N ■■« fork. 



' : 

Mil Webator 8l . Ii. ik. l.v 

HOYLE, Charles, 

Mlulim i:ni;liirrr. 

GARRISON, F. Lynwood, 

lllultiK i:tiKlu<rr, 

983 Draxal Big., Philadelphia 
Cable: Aurum. Coda: Bedford McNeill. 


Minim; l"iiiclorrr. 

Salisbury House. London, LG C 

Code: McNeill (Both Editions). 

GIBSON, Arthur, 

MIuIdk Knulnrer. 

Specialty: Placer Mining. 
11 Unlght St.. San Prani 


Mining nud I'.inMiiliing Knalnrrr. 
Gait. California. 

UAQOAM A A Mliii,iu< louUtnatl 

nnsaAn, A. A.,, nltlna Btejrlneer. 

Bjxamlnatlon. Management and Op 
lion of Mines. 
SJ Waldorf Court. Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Cable: Aaghar. . Any Code. 


m i 1 1 1 m i: Engineer. 
60 Broadway, New York. 


HlaJaa; i:nalm-«T. 

Atlln. I: 

R rt W. iiiini Jai 

Con« D, W .\i< .Viugher 

HUNT & CO., Robert W., 


Bureau of Inspi Itatl< m. 

New Vork-Plti I 
San Kranoti co i Kearny si. 

si. i oul Mom n al London. 

nd Bupervlsln ■ 

glneen . ' i pecti Railroad, Structural 

an 10 b.ei MaU rials and Equipment 
1 bt mlcal, Ph ■■ ilea I and < it menl i labora I ■ 

GRACE, William Frank, 

MlnltiK Knglnecr. 

Gen. Mgr. WaThl Grand Junction, 

Walhl, N. Z. 

Cable: Gracefully. Usual Codes. 

HENDRYX, Wilbur A., 


V.P. and Gen. Mgr. Jk-ndryx Cyanide 
Machy. Co., 107-109 William St., N. Y. 
Cable: Henelecy. 


Ml nine: Engineer. 
634 Mills Bag., San Francisco. 
Cable: Ilaruston. 

GRANT, Wilbur H, 

GeolOKlv nud ■Mining I '.nu ;tnocr. 
437 Holbrook Bdg., San Francisco. 
Code: Bedford McNeil 

Burch, Caetani «& Hershyy. 

HERSHEY, Oscar H., 

(. iiiisnli int Milling; GeologlM. 

Kellogg. Idaho. 

Cable: Hershey. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

HUTCHINS, John Power, 

MlnlnK Engineer. 

441, Salisbury House, London, E.C. 
Cable: Getchins. Code: McNeill, 1908. 

GREENE, Fred T., 

Mining Engineer and Geoluslnt. 

401-2-3 State Savings Bank Bdg., 
Butte, Montana. 

HERZIG, Charles S., 

Mining Engineer. 

48 West 25111 Street, 
New York. N. Y., U. S. A. 

HYDE, James M., 

Treatment of DlfBcult Ores. 
American Agent Murex Co., Ltd. 
634 Mills Bdg.. San Francisco. 
Cable: Jameshyde. 

GRUNSKY, C. E., Jr., 

Mining Engineer. 

American Engineering Corporation. 
57 Post St.. San Francisco. 

Victor G, Hills. Frank W. Willis. 


Mining Entfluui'M. 

Cripple Creek. 415 McPhee Bdg., Denver. 
Cable: Hlllwlll. Usual Codes. 


ConMultlng I'lnulnciTn. 

Dredging and Hydraullcklng. 
70, Gracechurch St., London. E.C. 
Ca ble: Inderdaad. 

HAGER, Dorsey, 

Petroleum GeologUt and Engineer 

Hotel Tulsa Building. 
Tulsa, Okla. 


Mining; Engl ih-it. 

2 Rector St., New York, N. Y. 

Code: McNeill, 130S. 

Dudley J. Inskipp. John A. Bevan. 


Mining Engineer*. 

1. Broad St. Place, London, E.C. 
Cable: Monazite. Usual Codes. 

HALEY, Charles S., 

Mining Engineer. 

Placer Drilling. 
521 Post St., San Francisco, California. 


Mining Engineer. 

228 Perry St., Oakland, Cal. 
Cable: Siberhof. 

JANIN, Charles, 

Mining Engineer. 

722 Kohl Bdg., San Francisco. 
Cable: Charjan. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

HALL, R. G., 

Metallurgical and Chemical Engineer. 

Gen. Mgr. United Zinc & Chemical Co., 
Kansas City, Mo. 


Mining Engineer and Metnllurg 1st. 

Examinations and Reports. 

601 H. W. Hellman Bdg., 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

JENKS, Arthur W., 

MlnlnK E uk! ueer. 

2533 Chilton Way. Berkeley, Cal. 
Cable: Jenksville. 



Specialty: Cyaniding Gold & Silver Ores. 

Room 90S, 625 Market St., 

San Francisco. 


Consulting Mining Engineer 
and Mctallurglitt. 

1025 Peoples Gas Bdg.. Chicago. II 


Mining Engineer. 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Cable: Chalcocite, Salt Lake. 

Code: Bedford McNeill. 

HANLON, Russell Yale, 

Mining Engineer- 
Manila, P. I. 
Cable: Nolnah. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

HOLLOWAY & CO., Geo. T., Ltd. 

Metallurgists and Metallurgical 

13 Emmett St., Limehouse, London, E. 
Cable: Neolithic. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

JOHNSON, Harry R., 

Consulting Geologist. 

Petroleum, Water Supply. 

805 H. W. Hellman Bdg., Los Angeles. 

Cable: Jopet. Usual Codes. 

HANSON, Henry, 

Metallurgical Engineer. 

Mechanics Institute Bdg., 
San Francisco. 
Code: McNeill (both editions'). 


Mining Engineer. 

1, London Wall Bdgs., London, E.C. 

No professional work entertained. 

Cable: Crevooh, London. 

JONES, E. L., 

Electrical and Mcclianlcnl Engineer. 

Formerly with U. S. Go/emment. 

Power, Lighting and Communication. 

53 N. Second St., San Jose. Cal. 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Julv 3, 1915 


JONES, Henry Ewer, 

Mining Engineer. 

Parliament Mansions, Victoria St.. 
Westminster, London. S.W. 

Cable :Ewerones. Code: Broom hall's Imp. 


Mining KuulnciT, 
1057 Monadnook Building, 
San Francisco. Cal. 
Code: McNe 111 (both editions) 

McCarthy, e. t., 

Mining I jmlnciT. 
10 Austin Friars, London. 

JONES, T. J., 

Mining EDeloeer. 

No. 1 Nevsky Prospect, 

Petrograd, Russia. 

LEVY, Ernest, 

Mining EnKlneer. 

Representing Alex. Hill & Stewart, 

Rossland. British Columbia. 

905 Old Natl Bk. Bdg. Spokane. Wash. 


MIdIuic Engineer. 

Zyrianovsk Roudnik, 

Tomsk Government. Siberia. 

Codes: McNeill. 1908: Morelng & Neal. 


Mining Engineer. 

Specialty: Cyanidation Plants Installed. 
310-314 E. Market St., Los Angeles, Cal. 

LEWIS, H. AllmaiL 

Munnglng Engineer. 

The Porco Tin Mines. Ltd. 

Casllla 52. Potosi, Bolivia. 

Cable: Porcorama. Code: McNeill (1908) 

Mclaughlin, r. p., 

Consulting Geologist und Eaglncer. 

Oil and Metal Mining. 
818 Mills Bdg.. San Francisco. 
Cable: Roylaugh. 

KEENEY, Robert M., 

Metallurgical Engineer. 

Specialty: Electrometallurgy. 

Magnesium Manufacturing Corporation. 

Rumford, Maine. 


Mining EnKlnfiTN. 
3 Great Winchester St., London, E.G. 
i !lovewort. Usual Codes. 

MERCER, John W., 

Mining Engineer. 

Gen. Mgr. South American Mines Co 
Mills Bdg.. Broad St.. New York. 


Mining Engineer*. 
Examinations, Reports and Manage- 
ment of Mining Properties. 
214 Hutton Bdg.. Spokane. Wash. 

LLOYD, R. L., 

Metallurgical Engineer. 
Specialty: Pyro Metallurgy of Copper 
and Associated Metals. Cable: Rlcloy. 
Code: Bed. McNeill. 29 Broadway. N. Y. 

MERRILL, Charles W., 


121 Second St., San Francisco. 
Cable: Lurco. Codes: Bedford McNeill 
and Morelng & Neal. 

KINNON, Wm. H., 

Mining Engineer nnd Metallurgist. 

307 San Francisco St., 
El Paso. Texas. 

KINZIE, Robert A., 

.Mining Engineer. 

First National Bank Building. 

San Francisco. 


Exploring Engineer)* nnd Geologists. 

Diamond Drill Contractors. 

Manufacturers of Diamond Drills 

and Supplies. 

General Office: 710-7:12 Security Bank 

Bdg., Minneapolis. Minn. 

Cable Address: Longco. Minneapolis. 

Code: Bedford McNeill. 



121 Second St., San Francisco. 
Cable: Lurco. Usual Codes. 

MERRILL, Frederick J. H., 

Mining Engineer and Geologist. 

(Late State Geologist of New York) 
631 Hlggins Bdg.. Los Angeles. Cal. 



Mill Designing and Construction. 

Specialty: Concentration & Cyanidation. 

Dominion Red. Co.. Cobalt. Ont. 


, Morn 


& Co. 



Mining 1 


62. London 



don. E 


Cable: Rtnglo. 



MICHELL, Geo. V., 

Mining Engineer. 

Specialty: Placer Mining. 
15 Great St. Helens. London. EC. 

KIRBY, Edmund B., 

Mining Engineer nnd Metallurgist. 

918 Security Bdg.. St. Louis. 

Specialty: The expert examination of 

mines and metallurgical enterprises. 

Bewick. Morelng & Co. 


Mining Engineer. 

62. London Wall, London. E. C. 

Cable: Wantoness. Usual Codes 

MILLER, Bernard P., 

Mining Engineer. 

63 V4 Sixth St., Portland, Oregon. 


Consulting Engineers. 

Examination, Management, and Opera- 
tion of Mines. Design Equipment. 
Newhouse Bdg.. Salt Lake City. Utah. 


Mining Engineer. 

Care Burma Mines. Ltd.. 

Namtu, Northern Shan States, 

Burma. India. 

MILLS, Edwin W., 

Mining Engineer. 

Supt. Tul Ml Chung Mine. 
The Seoul Mining Company, 
Holkol. Chosen (Korea). 

KRUMB, Henry, 

Mining Engineer. 

Felt Bdg.. Salt Lake City, Utah. 

MAILHOT, Charles, 

Hydrumetnllorgy of Copper 

Permanent address: E. 1707 Mission Ave., 
Spokane. Wash. 

MINARD, Frederick H., 

Mining Engineer. 
Trinity Bag.. Ill Broadway, New York. 
Cable: Frednard. Code: McNeill. 

KUEHN, A. F., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 
1, London Wall Buildings. 
London, E.C. 
Cable: Norlte. 


Mining Engineer. 

Ely, Nevada. 

MALC0LMS0N, Jas. W., 

Consulting Engineer. 

1012 Baltimore Avenue, 

Kansas City. Mo. 

MASSEY CO., George B., 

( 'tumuli lnu Excnvutlng Engineers. 

Advice on Equipment and Methods for 

Stripping. Open-Cut Mining, I m edging. 
Peoples Cus Bdg.. ('!ii'':iu'i. Illinois 


Consulting Mining Engineers and 
Mine Managers. 

60 Broadway, New Tork City. 


London, England. 

28 and 29 St. Swlthins Lane. 

Mexico, D. F., 

Avenida 16 de Septiembre, Num. 48. 

Cable: Minmanco. Code: Bed. McNeill. 

LAMB, Mark R., 


Mgr. Allis-Chalmers Co.. 
Santiago. Chile. 


Mining Engineer. 

Tanalyk-Baimok, Russia. 


Mining Engineer. 

1057 Monadnock Bdg., San Francisco. 
Cable: Fredmor. Code: Bed. McNeill. 

LAMB, R. B., 

Mining Engineer. 

Traders Bank Bdg., 

Toronto. Ontario. Canada. 

Cable: Boblam. Code: McNeill (both ed.) 

McCANN, Ferdinand, 

Consulting Mining and Metallurgical 

La Cotabamas Auraria. 
\. Calvo, Cuzco. Peru. S .A. 

MORSE, Ed. C, 


Cyaniding a Specialty. 
5303. 42nd Ave. S.E., Portland. Oregon. 

.Iiil.i : I'M • 

MIN'IV. and Scientifi, PRI SS 


MUDD, 8e«ley W., 

Ml..l.. to I n^lnrrr. 

h H. Hiding. 

l^i» AnSfl-'H. Cal 

-..r.l McNeill 


i • •ii*ulf ln« I'rlroh-iini I iiklurrn. 


ROGERS, Austin F., 

MlnerataBfat I IVtruK rnpbrr. 

MUNRO, C. H., 

MlulaK Knajlnrer. 
Uonadmnk H.lg . BU Franclaco. 
Ornam. Code: Bedfot.l McNeill 


Mlnluu inulnrrr, 
ROOD California 
Sun Francisco. 


ROGERS, Edwin M., 

( iiiimiiIHiiu lllnlnu I :uuiiiri*r. 
■ w Fork, 
Brorog Codi Bedford McNeill 

MYERS, Desaix B., 

Mlnltiic Kmlnrrr. 

311 Story Bdg.. Los Angeles. Cal. 

Philadelphia Address: 1521 Spruce St. 


* MtiiiilitiiK i:iiiilni'er 

Central Bdg.. ] 
Cable: Probert. 

Iiml MlnlnK 

galea, Col. 
Code: McNeill. 

ROSS, G. McM., 

MnlafJ ami I •uf.iiliii.u Engineer. 

iite Club. Btookton, California. 

NAHL, Arthur C, 

Mining Engineer. 
Trlunfo. Baja California. Mexico. 

PURINGTON, Chester W., 

Mlnlnii Engineer. 

62, London Wall. London. E.C. 
Cable: Olenek. Usual Codes. 

ROYER, Frank W.. 

Hliilnu Engineer. 
Conaoliilaii-.i Realty Bda., Los Angelee, 

I pai tado B06, M i ■ 

Cable: Royo. Code: Bedford MrN. Ill 

NEILL, James W., 

Metallurgist and Mining Engineer. 

159 Plerpont St.. Salt Lake. Utah. 
Pasadena. Cal. Sm-lllng. Cal. 

RADFORD, Walter J., 

Ill nine Engineer, 

Placer Testing a Specialty. 
Breckenridge, Colo. 
Cable: Waterford. 

SCHMIDT, F. Sommer, 

Mining Engineer. 

507 Newhouse Building, 

Salt Lake City. Utah, 


Mining Miitiincr. 
Vontrent, Placer Co., Cal. 

RADFORD, William H., 

Alluvial Mining. 

2360 Broadway. San Francisco. 
Cable: Bandan. 

SCOTT, Robert, 

InventO* and llullrtcr ol the 
Scott (antckellver Furnace. 

•198 S. Eleventh St.. 
' lose. California. 

NICHOLSON, Francis, 

Mining Engineer. 

Del Rio Ranch. P.O. Vinton. Texas. 
Cable: Nlckhop. Code: McNeill. 1908 

RAY, James C, 

Mining Geologist. 

Microscopic Examination of Ores. 
Palo Alto. Cal. 

SEARS, Stanley C, 

Mining Engineer. 

l:>'jitirtx. (.'ousultall nd Management 

VUS Walker Hank Building. 
Salt Lake City. Utah. Usual Codes. 

NOWLAND, Ralph C, 

Field Engineer. 

Exploration Department of 

D. C. Jackllng & Associates, 

1800 Hobart Bdg., San Francisco. 

RAYMOND, Robert M., 

Mining Engineer. 

The Exploration Co. of England and 

Mexico, Ltd. Mutual Life Bdg.. No. 523. 

Mexico. D. F. 

SHALER, Millard K., 

Mining Geologist and Engineer. 

4 BIsliopgate, London, E.C. 


(E. E. Olcott, C. R. Corning.) 
Mining nnd Metallurgical Engineers. 

36 Wall St.. New York. 

RAYMOND, Rossiter W., 

Mining Engineer and MetnllurgiNt. 

29 W. 39th St., New York, P. O. Box 223. 

SHARPLESS, Fredk. F., 

< tonsultlng Mining Engineer. 

52 Broadway, New York. 
Cable: Fresharp. Code: McNeill. 

PAYNE & CO., F. W., 

Dredging Engineers. 

62. London Wall, London, E.C. 
Cable: PanedreJ. Code: Bed. McNeill. 

READ, Thomas T., 

Associate Editor. 
The Mining and Scientific Press. 
420 Market St., San Francisco. 
Cable: Pertusola. 

SIMONDS, Ernest H., 

MctnllurglenI Engineer. 

05 Crocker Bdg., San Francisco. 

PEARSE, Arthur L. t 

Mining Engineer. 

Worcester House, Walbrook, 

London, E.C. 

Cable: Undermined. Usual Codes. 

RICHARDS, Robert H., 

Ore Dressing. 

Make careful concentrating tests for the 

design of flow sheets for difficult ores. 

491 Boylston St.. Boston, Mass. 


Mining Engineers. 

25 Madison Ave., New York. 


Mining Geologist. 

Examination of OH Land* a Specialty. 
651 Howard St., San Francisco. 

RICKARD, Forbes, 

Mining Engineer. 

Equitable Building, Denver, 


Mining engineer. 

Fundlcion de Los Arcos, 

via Tolca .Mexico. 

Cable: Losarcos. Code: Bed. McNeill. 




Metallurgical Engineers. 

62, London 


London, E.C, 



Editor, The Mining and Scientific Press. 
No professional work undertaken. 

SIZER, F. L., 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 

915 First Nat'l Bank Bdg.. 
San Francisco. 

PERRY, 0. B., 

Mining Engineer. 

120 Broadway, New York. 


Consulting Engineer. 

Mining investigations carefully made 
for responsible intending investors. 

165 Broadway. New York. 

SMITH, Charles A., 

Design and Construction Metallurgical 


% The Mining and Metallurgical Club, 

3. London Wall Bdgs., London, E.C. 

Howard Poillon. C. H. Poirier. 


Mining Engineers. 

63 Wall St., New York City. 

ROGERS, Alien Hastings, 

Consulting Mining Engineer. 

201 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 
71 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
Cable: Alhasters. 

SMITH, Howard D., 

Mining Engineer. 

Kohl Bdg., San Francisco. 
Cable: Diorlte. Code: Western Union. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 3, 1915 


SMITH, J. D. Audley, 

Mini hi; Kngliieer. 
P. O. Box lo57. 9, Bridge St.. 
i ney, Australia. 
Cable: Jadunand. All Codes. 


Minim; Engineer. 

61 Broadway, New York. 


Mining Engineer. 

Osborne & Chappel, Ipoh, Perak, 

Malay States. 

Code: McNeill (both editions) 

SMITH, Reuben Edward, 

Mining Engineer. 

% Lenskole G M7 Co.. Bodaibo, Siberia. 
UL-smlth. care Lenzoto. 

Code: McNeill. 1908. 


(Franklin W. Smith. Kalph A Ziesemer.) 

Mining KaKineera. 
Blsbee. Ariz. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

SYMMES, Whitman, 

Mining Engineer. 

Mgr. Mexican Mine, etc. 
Virginia City. Nevada. 

TALMAGE, Sterling B., 

Mining Geologlnt anil Engineer. 
Geologic Maps. Examinations, Reports. 

200 Vermont Bdg., 
___ Salt Lake Citv. Utah. 


GeologlntM and Mining Engineers. 

Examination. Purchase and Manage- 
ment of Petroleum and Mining Proper- 

Tulsa, Okla. 

Billings. Mont. 

SPILSBURY, E. Gybbon, 

ConHullIng, Mining null Metallurgical 

4 5 Broadway, New Tork. 
Cable: Spllroe. 


700 Union Oil Bdg.. Los Angeles. 

Ill Broadway. Now York. 

5, London Wall Bdgs.. London, EC. 

Cable: Duntho. Code: Bedford McNeill. 


Conttultlng Mining Engineer. 

42 Broadway, New York. 
Cable: Porphyry. 

SPURR, J. Edward, 

Mining Geologlnt. 

Bullitt Bdg., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Tonopah Mining Company of Nevada 

THOMAS, Kirby, 

Mining Engineer. 

Examination, Valuation and Explora- 
tion of Mining Properties. 
4.1 Exchange Place. New York. 


Mining Engineer. 

14 Copthall Ave., London, E.C. 
Cable:Natchekoo. Code:McNeill, both ed. 

STANFORD, Richard B., 

Mining Engineer. 

Room 206, Metropolitan Bank Bdg., 

New Orleans, La. 

Cable: Stanford. Code: Bedford McNeill. 


Consulting Mining Engineer. 

■ Broadway, New York. 

WEBBER, Morton, 

Mine Valuation and Development. 

39 Cortland St., New York. 
Cable: Orebacks. 

STEBBINS, Elwyn W., 

Mining Engineer. 

819 Mills Bdg., San Francisco. 

THORNE, W. E., Mining Engineer. 

r < Lenskoie Gold Mining Co., 
Nadezhdinsky, Irkoulsk Govt., Siberia. 
Cable: Wethorne, Bodaibo. 

Codes: McNeill (both editions). 

WEIGALL, Arthur R., 

Mining Engineer. 

% H. Collbran, 263 Caxton House, 
Westminster, London, S.W. 

STEEL, Donald, 

Mlnlug Engineer nnd Geologl.t. 
Palo Alto, Cal. 

THORNHILL, E. Bryant, 

Metallurgical Eiiglueer. 
Hydro-Metallurgy of Mercury 
Cobalt. Ontario, Canada. 

WESTERVELT, William Young, 

ConHultlng Mining Engineer. 

17 Madison Ave. (Madison Square East) 

New York. 
Cable: Casewest. Code: Bedford McNeill. 


Mining Engineer. 

% E. T. McCarthy, 
10, Austin Friars. London, EC. 

TIMMONS, Colin, 

Mining Engineer. 

Angels Camp, California. 


Mining Engineer. 

Baker, Oregon. 

STEVENS, Blarney, 

Mining Engineer. 

Temascaltepec, Est. de Mexico. 


c /r Lane Rlncon Mines, Inc. 


Salisbury House, 
London, E.C. 
Cable: Titcomb Code: Bedford McNeill 
(two editions.) 

WINCHELL, Horace V., 

Consulting Mining Geologlnt. 

826 First Natlonal-Soo Line Bdg.. 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Cable: Racewin. 

STINES, Norman C, £°£% r . 

Polefskoy, Mramorskaya Station, 
Perm Government. Rue 
Cable: Normstines, Ekaterinberg. 

Code: Bedford McNeill (both editions). 

TOLMAN, Cyrus Fisher, Jr., 

ConHultlng Eeonomle Geologlnt. 

P. O. Address: 
Stanford University, Cal. 


Mining Engineer, 

Continental Bank Bdg,, 
Salt Lake City. Utah. 


Consulting Engineer. 
Egypt House, 36-38 New Broad 
London. E.C. 



Mining Engineer. 

634 Mills Bdg., San Francisco. 
Cable: Latite. Code: Bedford McNeill. 

WISEMAN, Philip, 

Mining Engineer. 

1210 Hollingsivorth Bdg., Los Angeles. 
Codes: Weiern Union; Bed. McNeill. 
Cable: Filwlseman. 

STORMS, William H., 

Mining Geologlnt nnd Engineer. 

Mining Methods a Specialty. 
2437 Hilgard Ave.. Berkeley, Cal. 

TURNER, Scott, 

Mining Engineer. 

Tromso, Norway. 
Cable: Arcticcoal. Code: McNeill, 1908. 


Mechanical Mining Engineer. 

Mill Tests, Design, Constructing Man- 
agement. Special ore-handling Plants. 
Victor. Colorado 

STRAUSS, Lester W., 

Engineer of Mine.. 

Caslila 514. Valparaiso, Chile, S. A 
Cable: Lestra- Valparaiso. 

Code: Bedford McNeill 

TWEEDY, Geo. A., 

Mining Engineer. 

Rosario. Sinaloa, Mexico. 

Gen. Mgr. Minas del Tajo. Rosario. 

Mexican Mines Co., Bolanos. Jalisco. Mex. 

WRIGHT, Charles Will, 

Mining Engineer. 

Ingurtosu. Sardinia, Italy. 
CabIe:Wright, Arbus. Code:Bed. McNeill. 


Mining Engineer. 

Mgr. Porcupine Crown Min- 
Tlmmins, Ontario, Canada. 


Mining Engineer and Geologlnt. 

534 Confederation Life Bdg., 

Toronto, Canada. 

Cable: Tyrrell. Usual Codes. 


Mining Engineer. 

Room 3533, 120 Broadway, New York. 
Cable: Ikona. Code: Bedford McNeill. 


MINING and Sciontifi. PRI SS 



H»t and TV!. graph Amu*, Oakland. Cal. 
iblUbtd In HIT. 
1! montna' eoara* In PRA< n< ti WRING. 


1 for >'nln|i>itil« 


l.t.-.iilv lo iln». 

Compliir a Minim. Motallurry, and Ocolnti 

tttnloft* and Information nddreaa 
\\ M. o. mm ii \m. Goldra. Colo. 


LtMMtCd In tba l-ak- Superior mining illMrlrt. Mines and 
mills aeotMlbla for college work, For Tear Book and 
Booklet «'f Views, uo\ir«-s» President or Secretary, 
Houghton. Michigan. 


A department of the University of Missouri. Established 
In 1871. Four-year courses In Mining, ICnKlru-erlttK, M.-t- 
sllurKy. CWH Engineering, Qeneral Science, 
Address: Missouri School of Minos. Rolln. Missouri. 



in ti ii, \ i i mi ii.iii ( in HUB i> >ii \i m.. 

inldlnaT, afata 

lui ry. in iifiinK. sin 1 1 1 , k 
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An Institution of Taehnolonr and Bnarlnaarlnc rail 

I.. Win.- for ■ 

1111 III 1. IHM>. |-r.«l.l. mi. s.„„rr... >.-.> H« 


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Coal im.i Metal Mining, Ore Drawing, Metallurgy. Mining Men, January t>> April 


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Send your Specifications or Submit 
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Moore Kilter Company 

115 Broadway. New York City. V. S. A. 
Cable: Bedford McNeill or 

"Moreflltor" Now York any Standard Code 



Skips of Ail Kindt 

Ask for Catalog. 

The Watt Mining 
Car Wheel Co. 

Barnesville, - - Ohio 

Denver Office: 
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1 C Years Building 
1 D DIESEL Engines 

Send for Rulletins 

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Our Engines Oper- 
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Watch for our full 
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Pee our exhibit at the Panama-Pacific Exposition in the cenl 

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We are the largest exclusive manufacturers of Concentrat- 
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present table installations were made by us. Consult us before placing your order for table equipment. 



Office, Factory and Test Plant: 

1718 California Street 

Fort Wayne, Ind. 


75 Frrmont Street 

MINING and Scientific PRESS SERVICE is more than a name. It is a com- 
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every mining community in the world. M. P. SERVICE will go to infinite pains 
to secure anything for you anywhere. No obligation— just ask us. «s* & & J- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 3, 1915 



stock & Payne. 

Smith, Emery & Co. 



Drury, L. M. 

Alll/.DN V 

Gibson. Willter L. 
Hanks, Abbot A. 


Burton, Howard E. 
Frost. Oscar J. 
Richards, J. W. 

Ledoux & Co., Inc. 

Ogden, John. 

Bardwell, Alonzo F. 
Bird-Cowan Co. 

Cole & Co. 

James Co., The Geo. A. 

Petrological Laboratory. 

Coghlll. Will H. 

General Engineering 

CA 1.1 III 11 M V 

Luckhardt Co.. C. A. 


Co., The. 

Atkins & McRae. 

■re] A. 

Young. H. W 

Crltchett & Ferguson. 

Officer & Co.. R. H. 


Assay era, Chemists, and Metallurgists. 

Control and ■ aspire tkmmMTu, 

Careful Analytical Chemists. 

616 South Olive St., Los Angeles, CaJ 

BARDWELL, Alonzo F., 

(Successor to Bet ties ft Bardwell.) 
* ii-t Assayer nmi Chemist. 

158 S. W. Temph- St.. Suit Lake, Utah. 
is' Agent. 

GENERAL ENGINEERING CO., THE, J. m. callow, Pre.ide»t. 


159 Plerpont Avenue, Salt Lake City. Utah. 
Design and Erection of all Classes of Reduction Plants. 
The 3rd edition of our Ore Testing Bulletin is now ready for mailing. We shall 
be pleased to send It to you upon request. 


i miiiM rini ciiemiMtN nmi AseayeiVa 
Technical and Chem. Analyses of Ores. 
Minerals, and All Organic Materials, 
w First St., I^os Angeles. Cal. 



Supervision of Ore Sampling, Technical Analysis. Cement Testing. 
No. 28-32 Belden Place (off Bush near Kearny), San Francisco. 


Charles S. Cowan. Manager. 
CuNtftm Aasayers and ChemlstSe 

Agents for Ore Ship; 
160 S. W. Temple St., Salt Lake. Utah. 

LEDOUX & CO., Inc., 


Independent samplers at the port of New York. 

Representatives at all Refineries and Smelters on Atlantic Seaboard. 

Office and Laboratory: 99 John Street, New York. 

BURTON, Howard E., ^ES^" 1 

605 Harrison Ave . Leadvllle, I 'olorado. 
Specimen Prices: Gold, 50c.; Gold and 
Silver. 75c; Gold. Silver and Lead, |1; 
Gold. Silver and Copper. $1.50. 


(A. H. Ward. Harold C. Ward.) 


Sampling of Ores at Smelters. 53 Stevenson St.. San Francisco. 

Telephone, Kearny 5951. 

COGHILL, Will H., 

Ore Trsiini; Laboratory. 

3705 Hueco St.. EI Paso, Texas. 

SMITH, EMERY & CO., (Ore Testing Plant, Los Angele..) 


Represent Shippers at Smelters, Test Ores, and Design Mills. 
651 Howard Street. San Francisco. 245 So. Los Angeles Street, Los Angeles. 

COLE & CO., 

v^ihvitn, Chemist*, Ore Huyerw. 

Shippers' Representatives. 

Box BB, Douglas, Ariz. 


AsMiycri and ChemUtM. 

El Paso, Texas. 

Umpire and Controls a Specialty. 

HANKS, Abbot A., 

Chemist and AttHnyer. 

Established 1866. 

630 Sacramento St,, San Francisco. 

Control and Umpire Assays. Supervision 

of Sampling at Smelters. 
Cable: Hanx. Code: W. U. and Bed. McN. 


W. Harold Toinllntion, 

Swathmore, Pa. 

Petrographic work. Rock sections made. 

Microscopic examinations of rocks. 


A us oyer and Chemist. 

118 Nineteenth St., Denver. 
Ore Shippers' Agent. Write for terms. 
Representatives at all Colorado smelters.* 

DRURY, L. M., 

'I annua Assnv Office 

Fairbanks. Alaska. 

OGDEN, John, MctnlluriclMt, Chemist, 

(16 yrs. Mgr Ogden Assay Co., Denver.) 

Specialty: Platinum. Assays. Analyses. 

Rich Ores and Bullion Bought. 

906 Filbert St.. Philadelphia. Pa. 

YOUNG, H. W., 

CheiulMt and Aimnyer. 

Prompt attention to samples by mall. 
Box 348. Reno, Nev. 

FROST, Oscar J., 


420 18th St., Denver. 

PEREZ, Richard A., 

Ansoycr, ChemlHt and MetnllurglNt. 

(Established 1895.) 
120 N. Main St., Los Angeles. Cal. 


By T. A. Richard 

180 Pages. $1.00 Postpaid 

MINING and Scientilic PRESS 

GIBSON, Walter L., 

Successor to 

Falkenou Aaniaylng Co., 

Assay Office and Analytical Laboratory, 

School of Assaying. 

824 Washington St.. Oakland. 
Phone 8929. 
Umpire assays and supervision of sam- 
pling. Working tests Of ores, analyses. 
Investigations of metallurgical and 
technical processes. 

Professor L. Falkenau, General Man- 
ager and Consulting Specialist. 


Aaaarex* and Chemlata. 

169 South West Temple SI 
Salt Lake City, Utah. 

THE representative engineers of the mining pro- 
fession use these pages to keep their names and 
correct addresses before the public. It is the most 
effective means of obtaining publicity among metal 
miners and metallurgists and a dignified medium for 
the use of Engineers and Assayers. 

Put your name among those of the leaders. 

Jul} .;. 1915 

MINING .md Scirnlih. I'KI S.S 




»ll Cnektr lalMlnt. s.n rranrlwo] 
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'■ v I ' » M UMBO l> ill OOVB nin> 

"' aHU mull ullhoul rhariEr. on rrqurat, our llamllinok Bjaj 

I'atcafa. Tradriuarka. nod <•>!>> rli;lii<. it al ulna oirr loft 

"•"!• "I mot rinrnlN. 

inioup the patents recently obtained through us, the fol- 
lowing are worthy of svrciat Mutton: 

Oaunc iJeci ..r thla Invention is to provide a simple, 

practloal controlling awltoh for hlgh-tenalon circuits' which 
fa ao conalructed that u run ■, eonnaoted In rlrculi 

aus, for 
on a slnKlliiK flavlca, ate 

»..»» RRENT WATER METERS Adonlram J. 

Collar, on. ••! I ot this Invention Is to provide a 

i wiiii hinged outer paddle aectlona which will auto- 
matically rise or yield i" any rubbish, such aa sticks or 
travel, Unit may catch between the edge of the padilio and 
the bottom of the gateway. This permits the ruhi.lsh to 
through the wheel and also prevents the wheel from 
becoming Jammed or retarded In Any way 

1. 130.140.— HOSE COUPLINGS. Llovd H. Brubaker. It is 
an object of the present Invention to provide a hose coupler 
comprising male and female members respectively attach- 
able to fluid conductors, such as hose ends or a hose end and 
a pipe end. or at a hydrant discharge mouth, and particularly 
to provide un automatic lios.:- coupler with means for prelim- 
inarily and temporarily latching the separable coupler mem- 
bers together, said means being further operable by co- 
operation with an expansible portion of the conductor or 
hose for making a hermetically tight Joint between the 
coupling members. 

ICoplea of any of the above furnlahed for 10 cents each) 

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We are the sole licensees in America of this type of con- 
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Braun Muffle Furnaces 





Braun Muffle Furnace Mounted on Bland, with Vesta Oil Burner, 

Operated by a Combination Motor and Blower— (Low Pressure). 

w... also manufacture High Pressure Burners. 

The furnaces are constructed to deliver a 
uniform heat around the entire muffle. 

They are mounted at the correct height for 
convenient operation. 

The burner is simplicity itself — easily regu- 
lated to suit various requirements. 

The Patent Draft - Inducing Attachment 

connected with muffle insures perfect control 
of muffle temperatures. 

Four Sizes — Holding Muffles : 
8xl2x5J< — 10x16x6^ 
9x15x5^ — 14xl8x7X 

Catalog No. 50M describes the 
largest line of 

Laboratory Labor Saving Appliances 

Send for your copy. 



Manufacturers of Laboratory Labor Saving Machinery 

Specialists in Laboratory Equipment and Testing Apparatus 

Dealers in Laboratory Glassware and Chemicals 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Julv 3, 1915 

United States Smelting, 

Refining and Mining Co. 

55 Congress St., Boston, Mass. mimxg and smelting company 

Custom Lead and Copper Smelters and Custom 
Lead and Zinc Concentrator at Needles. Cal. Ad- 
dress Needles. Cal., and 908 W. P. Storey Building, 
Los Angeles, Cal. 


Custom Copper Smelter at Kennett, Cal. Address 
Kennett. Cal. 


Custom Lead and Copper Smelters at Midvale, Utah. 
Address. Salt Lake City, Utah. 


Custom Cyanide Mill at Gold Roads, Arizona. 


Custom Copper Smelter and Electrolytic Copper 
Refinery at Chrome. N. J. Electrolytic Lead Re- 
finery at Grasselli. Ind. Address, 4 2 Broadway, 
New York City, N. Y. 


Mines and Mills aL Pachuca and Real del Monte. 
Address, Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. 

For Examination and Purchase of Metal Mines. 
Address, 55 Congress St.. Boston, Mass.; 42 Broad- 
way. New York, N. Y ; 1504 Hobart Bldg.. 582 Market 
St., San Francisco, Cal.; Newhouse Bldg., Salt Lake 
City. Utah; Edificio La Mutua 411, Mexico. D. F. 

42 Broadway, New York City, N Y. 

Buyer* of 


Refiners of 




Ore*, Concentrate*, Cyanide Product 


Address correspondence to 



International Smelting Company 

New York Office : 42 Broad wa\ 

Purchasers of 

Gold, Silver, Copper and Lead Ores 

SMELTING WORKS— International. Utah. 


Rarltan Copper Works. Perth Amhoy, N. J. 

International Lead Refining Company, East Chicago. Indiana 

621 Kearns Building. Salt Lake City, Utah. 

The Consolidated Mining 

and Smelting Co., of 

Canada, Ltd. 

Smelters and Refiners. Purchasers of All 
Classes of Ores. Producers of Fine Gold 
and Silver, Base Bullion, Copper Matte, 
Pig Lead, Lead Pipe, Bluestone and Elec- 
trolytic Bearing Metal. 

Offices Smelting and Refining Dept, Trail, British Columbia 


Import Merchants. 






Stocks Carried. 

Buyers of Quicksilver and Platinum, also Ores of Antimony. 

Bismuth. Molybdenum, Tungsten. Vanadium. Zinc, etc. 

The Empire Zinc Company 

BuyS ZinC OreS Address our Office 

Or wriie to 

1019 Kcra.Bldj. 927 Old Nit'l Bunk Bids. 
S.ll Lsle City. Utah Spokane. Waih. 

703 Symes Bldg. 
Denver, Colo. 


61 Broadway, New York City 
Salt Lake City, Utah 

Rl IYFRS rvf Zinc Ores, Concentrates, 
U\J I LIVO VI Co pp er res, Matte, Bul- 
lion, Mixed Ores, Etc. 

RFl I FRS nf Spelter, Copper, Zinc Dust, 
OLLLLIVO Ul Q u i cks ii V er, Etc. 




General Agents 


Chicane, N, J., and Graselli, lnd. 

Sole Agenfs for Spelter of American Zinc Lead & Smelting Co. 

Smelters at Caney.Kan., and Dearinfr. Kan. 



Fourth Edition, Revised. 532 pages. Illustrated. Indexed. 
$4 Postpaid. 
A simple, comprehensive treatise on the metallurgy of gold, 
silver, copper, iron, lead, and zinc. An ideal book for one 
who desires to acquire a general knowledge of smelting 
operations. Published and for sale by 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

420 Market Street *nn Francisco, Cal. 

.Iul\ !. 191! 

MIXING ami Scientific PRESS 

Granby Mining and Smelting Company 

i Acid nun 
Unntq k.n. 

-i I. in. yi.^niri Addrtm— HfvTork N \ 

rd Sd'l Bank BM(. K..1.1 n tankUn. It* BroadTO 

"(■r«aby Brand" Pig 1 . n«! ami Sprltrr, and 
M.niil.. iiir. r, ol Sulphuric Acid. 
Hurrrs ■■( Blgb/OndaOjrboiiata. *iii<m<> mi. I sulphi.l.- EtneOn. 
Kt.r propositions on 

■gold dredges I 

Yuba Ball Tread Tractors Yuba Centrifugal Pumpi 


Warki : M«r> »>lllr . Cal. Sjk> OUIcc : 433 CalllornU St.. San FranclKO. CaL 


Close Regulation- High Kffli Iimhj— Mechanically Correct 


I 91 . 22SS Harrison St., 

SK\v Y< >i:K. n. v. 2 AH FRANCISCO, CAL. 


Our bulletin describes the successful solution 
of many materials-handling problems. Let 
them help you. 


New York, 12 Park Row Chicago. Old Colony Building 

San Francisco. The Griffin Co. Toronto. Gutta Percha & Rubber. Ltd. 

Spokane. United Iron Works. Sew Glasgow. Eastern Steel Co.. Ltd. 

London. E. C, Fraser .t i/lialmers. Ltd. 

Rock Breakers 

Blake Pattern — Dodge Pattern 
Manufactured by 


San Francisco, Cal. 
/ Send for Catalog. 





Most Practical, Durable, Efficient 

and Economical Mill Made. 

Convenient and easy to operate. 90* of 
amalgam retained inside of mill. Especially 
affective where concentration or cyanida- 
tion is part of process. Large capacity- 
low power. Guaranteed. 


Orovillc, California 

The Kelly Filter Press 


For All Filtration Requirements 

Write for Information. 


207 Felt Bder., Salt Lake City, Utah 

E. E. Lungwilz. 303-E Hudson Terminal BloV. New York. 



for Mmcs, sin. it. iv etc. 
I I. » trie Can 

S»ltthr%. i-nitf*. mill I- ijiitpcnrnt. 







Extensive Alaska and California Experience. 


H. G. PEAKE 604 Mission St.. San Francisco Cal. W. W. JOHNSON 


Pensacola Tar & Turpentine Company 

Gull Point, Fla. 

F. E. MARINER, President 

Frenier's Spiral Pump 



Allls-Chalmers Co. Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Chicago. 111. Denver, Colo. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone, San Francisco. Cal. 

Frank R. Perrot. Perth. W. Australia. 
FRENIER & SON, Rutland. Vt. 

McKiernan-Terry Drill Co. 

Manufacturers of 

Rock Drills, Hammer Drills, Core Drills 
Pile Hammers, Atlas Jacks 

232 Broadway, New York 





Minerals Separation American Syndicate, Ltd. 

Flotation Concentration of Sulphide Ores by means of 
the Minerals Separation Processes. 

Send inquiries to 

BEER. 80NDHEIMER & CO., Sole Agents 

42 Broadway 

New York City 

E. H. NUTTER, Chief Engineer 

Merchants Exchange Bdg. 

San Francisco 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 3, 1915 

Hydraulic Mining, Yukon Gold Co. 
Water Supplied Through 

Taylor Spiral Riveted Pipe 

"New York, Jan. 16. 1911. 
"Gentlemen: We beg to acknowledge yours of Jan. 9th. 
making Inquiry as to or experience with your Spiral Riveted 

"Our first use oP Spiral Riveted Pipe was in connection 
with our hydraulic mining operations as distributing lines 
from our main ditch system. The pipe was given severe 
service and proved entirely satisfactory. We are now using 
it in diameters up to 42 inches and heads up to 530 feet. 
We have found the pipe easy to lay and handle, strong for 
its weight and generally satisfactory. 
"Very truly yours, 

"(Signed) YUKON GOLD CO.. 

"O. B. Perry, Gen. Mgr." 
Catalogue and special prices on request. 

Chicago, 111. 


More Lane Mills were sold during the year 1914 than 
during any previous year. 

A large percentage of these sales were made after the 
work of the mill had been fully investigated. Several 
purchasers bad known of it for years, during which time 
they had utilized every opportunity to learn all they could 
about it. Several others had test runs made in order to 
be certain that it was adapted for their particular ore. 

The large increase in sales, and these made after such a 
thorough investigation, is undoubted proof that the Lane 

i sss»»«s»i^_: . . ■ ■ - - • „^assssMB»^( 

^ ^^^ ^m ' adapted for YOUR work. Send for our Catalog No. 7 and 
■ mmm *"^Jtf0im*t*-<*'^*IBtftK*if*t~ '"- learn all about it. Improved Model 1915 Lane Mills are 

now being delivered. 




*ty ruii^N 



IF BETTER explosives could be 
made, we would produce them 
because our facilities for experi- 
mentation, sources of supplies, and 
mechanical equipment excel those of 
other makers of explosives. 

Tell us what you have to blast. Let 
us help your blasting crew to become 
more efficient. 




Established 1802 
Wilmington, Delaware. • 

Go East at these 

Low Fares 

Good on Limited Trains 

Also on Fast Express 

Trains with Tourist 

Sleeping Cars 

Best Dining Car In America 


Going and Returning 

Sale Dates 

June 14, 15, 23, 24. 

July 2. 3. 5, 6. 14, 

15. 23, 24, 26, 27 

August 4. 5, 13, 14. 

Round Trip 







Colorado Spr 

ngrs 5.1.00 









KaDNOH City 








New Orleans 


Neiv York 






St. t.Olli* 


St. Paul 






and other 


9110.70 to New York Im good for pannage between New 
Orleans and New York by Sontbern Pnelfle** Admit it- S. S. 
Line, and Included Berth and Meal* on StenmerM. 

Going Limit 15 Days. 

Final return limit three months from date of sale, but 

not later than October 31, 1915. 

Southern Pacific 


,lnl> : 1919 

MINING ud N.mniu PRI SS 

Water Power Wheels 

\\ c construct everything in the 
line of Water Wheels and a< ces- 
sories. \Iso a complete line of 
Hydraulic Giants and parts. 

Mining Hoists 

We manufacture a complete 
line of Mining Hoists, Winches, 

Let us figure with you on your re- 
quirements in these lines. 






Iron Cements 

Positively stop all leaks of steam, 
water, fire or oil, in iron, steel or 
concrete. They are easy to apply, 
harden quickly and make perma- 
nent repairs, proved by years in use. 

Every engineer should have a 
copy of our instruction book. 

Smooth -On Mfg. Co. 


Jersey City, N. J., U. S. A. 

Send for New 




OCATING gold-beds 
-1— ' may be more or less a 

U matter of hazard or chance, but 
pn>\ iding equipment w ith which to work 
them is an EXACT SCIENCE. 

Marion Dredges provide Capacity 
owing to the short season, they must do 
a lot of work insult- of a given time; 
Durability — when a Dredge is working 
thousands of miles away from the factory 
or the nearest supply-house, there must 
be no possibility of a breakdown ; Economy 
because not a grain of dust may be 



J ilialiiil] 





Wherever Minerals are Taken J 
from Beds of Rivers, Marion | 
Dredges Will Save Money j 

—in the gold fields of the Yukon, the platinum- J 




producing states of Russia, and wherever mineral- 
bearing ore is to be taken up from the beds of streams. 

We are now completing work on several impor- 
tant contracts and shall be pleased to correspond 
with you regarding the prospective requirements of 
your own work. 

A new book on Marion Elevator Dredges is now 
in preparation. We shall be pleased to enter your 
request to receive a copy, as soon as completed, 
and meanwhile to furnish complete data and specifi- 
cations with estimate covering the furnishing of a 
Dredge to handle your requirements to the best ad- 
vantage. Please ask for Catalog 942. 

The Marion Steam Shovel Company, 

i .i.ii.ri-iu .i ikni 


Atlanta Chicago New York San Francisco Seattle 
Manufacturers of Excavating Machinery of Every Description. 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 3, 1915 

The Miner Knows 

The machine drill man who is jvorking on a footage basisSwill 
invariably ask for a Wood Rock Drill in preference to any other. 
Without going into the technical points he knows that with the 

I00* lack Ml 

The Drill with the Vanadium Tungsten Iron 
Cylinder, Chest and Air Head 

there is little or no chance of breakdown trouble, and it is break- 
down trouble that makes a drill unprofitable. For the past 15 years 
we have guaranteed that our drills will cost less for repairs than any 
other drill on the market and we will pay any excess to responsible 
companies. This guarantee holds for the life of the drill and is 
strong evidence of our faith in the worth of our product. 


Wmh IrtU Work* 

30 Dale Ave. 


Paterson, N. J. 

Hammond Manufacturing Company. - ... Portland. Ore. 

Fairbanks. Morse A Company Spokane and Seattle. Wash. 

Joshua Hendy Iron Works. - - 75 Fremont St.. San Francisco. Cnl. 
TheChas. Sangster Machinery Co.. 1022 Metropolitan Bldg., Vancouver. B. C. 
rha Western Machinery A- Mfg. Co., Denver. Colo. 

PHPPPR A/1 I Kl F ^' le trustees or an estate which controlled a copper 

%f%Jm ■ dim Iwl 1 1^ C property of great value in Nevada authorizes disposal 
of same. Terms: One year under option with minimum working force of six hundred 
shifts per month, no ore to be shipped until option is exercised; or, 10% discount for out- 
right purchase. Price $150,000.00. Only principals will be treated with. 

Apply: "COPPER MINE," Care of MINING and Scientific PRESS, San Francisco 


A standard work on assaying and thoroughly up to date. The result of years of experience and teaching by a com- 
petent assayer. These books are technically accurate in their description of the most approved methods of assaying 







MINING and Scientiiic PRESS 

, 42 

D Market Street, San Francisco 


on page 36 is a list of firms that tell of their supplies or apparatus truthfully. Use this guide 
always when you are in the market for anything applicable to the business of mining. 

.ini\ ;. 1915 

MINING ,nd -.,.,, hh, |'|<l >s 

THE- Opportunity IM^ y 


Announcements In this column are secured through the 

•rmUOD of many of the hti «est mining companies in the 

I'nlted Stat**. Reader* of Mining and Scientific Pnim are 

thu* kept constantly Informed concerning opportunities for 


MECHANICAL DRAFTSMEN Experienced mill and win. Iter 
work; leveral good openlnga Bu irlng House, 

Denver, Colo. 

u ANTED Practical, sxperh need smelterman who has had 

■ unnlng antimony off in a reverberator? furnace. 
Work would be almost nil In stlbnlte, very little oemantl 

al workman wanted nol a superintending engineer or • 
theorist who can act as foreman. Furnish proof >>f Integrity 
and capability. Address Box 89, Mining and Scientific r 

POSITION for ■ single man, experienced In cyanide mill con- 
struction an.i operation at the Javall mine, Santa Domingo, 

- tia; salary $160 per month with hoard and room; |< 
is reported as healthy and the food good. For further Informa- 
tion, apply to 8, p. pellaB. 9f oils. McAllister & Co.. 310 Cali- 
fornia street, Cal. 

FIRST-CLASS MACHINIST to do lathe work and general ma- 
chine repairing about mine and mill In Nevada. Address Box 
34. Mining and Scientific Press. 

MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS wants a permanent circu- 
lation representative in every mining community in the world 
a win be held confidential if desired. Address, The Man- 
ager. Mining and Scientific 1" 

WANTED — Man as head of laboratory in large brass manu- 
facturing plant in Ohio. Broad experience; capable of looking 
after foundry making brass castings, following the practice of 
Iron castings and insulating materials, is desired. If you feel 
you can meet requirements communicate, giving full details. 
with Box 28. Mining and Scientific Press. 

POSITION of Professor of Mining in the Mining Engineering 
Dept. of the University of Kansas is open. Must carry on work 
with student body and, at same time, gain confidence of fra- 
ternity of the state, which is mainly In lines of coal, lead and 
zinc. Zinc smelting is prominent. Advanced metallurgical pro- 
cesses In ore dressing will be a feature. Preference to those 
with experience in far West and Southwest. Salary is $2200 
with good prospects of advancement to $3000. Address all In- 
quiries to Box 29. Mining and Scientific Press. 

HYDRAULIC ENGINEER as manager of placer property In 
California about June 1. Give detailed chronological record of 
experience, with references. Address Box 20, Mining and Scien- 
tific Press. 


Largest Stock 1 
in the world 
of new and 
second hand 

Ready to 



suppLV CO 










State location, character and quantity of ores, and full 

Address Manufacturer, Station C, New York. 



State price, percentages, analysis, quantity can be de- 
livered monthly, and points of delivery. 

Address Manufacturer, Station C, New York. 


The ooal o! advertising f«>r positions wanted !■ 2 cent* per 
word hi Insertion. Minimum ordi Replies for 

warded without extra charge Remittance! muni tt . . nmpany 
M "i" T Copy must be received morning r«. r current 
week's Issue. 

oglel open i>. engagement; famiiim- ui*.. with oyanldatloi 
concentration, Including <di flotation; technical graduate; i "■ 
t) practical beet ref< 

58, Mining and Scientific Pi i 

'ERIENCED mining superintend* t»i 

I constructed three modern cyanldtng mllla; age 86; 

■ ii man; speaks Spanish; with much experience in testing 
ores for proper treatment; twi perlence In 

centratlon i:..\ 31, Mining and Scientific i- 

GEOLOGIST AND MINING ENGINEER, university graduate, 
ira old, single; experience In South America and talks 
Spanish ; desires a responsible position and will go anywhere; 
B i rererem ss Box 56, Mining and Scientific Preaa 

MACHINIST wants position with mining company; Arst- class 
lathe man aih l all around machinist; good on mac h In* 
pairs; steady and reliable; 16 years experience. Address Box 51. 
Mining and Scientific Press. 

ENGINEER, G years experience assaying, surveying and 
structlon, will go anywhere and take any position with chance 
of advancement. Address Box 53. Mining and Scientific Press. 

FIRST-CLASS MILLMAN. 20 years experience, batteries. 
amalgamating, concentrating, tube and Hardfnge mills, outside 
or inside amalgamation; expert on knowing how to K<'t tonnage 
through; good mechanic on repairs; if you want an up-to-date 
mlllman this is your chance; references. Box 51. Alining and 
Scientific Press. 

POSITION WANTED — As resident manager or superintendent; 
experienced in deep placer work, etc.; thoroughly practical in 
mechanics pertaining to mining operations; good executive; 
best references. Address Box 48, Mining and Scientific Press. 

SMELTERMAN, 18 years experience as a manipulator and 
executive, all branches; have operated In North and South 
America; references. Address Box 36, Mining and Scientific 

POSITION as master mechanic or engineer; practical, able 
and skilled mechanic; years of experience in various camps; 
gas engines and compressors a specialty. Address Box 27, Min- 
ing and Scientific Press. 

EXPERIENCED assayer and chemist; has worked in the larg- 
est cyanide plants in Mexico; best references. Address Box 18, 
Mining and Scientific Press. 

MILLMAN, working foreman; 14 years experience, 10 as fore- 
man; thorough on fine concentration, amalgamation, general 
care of machinery; desire position; references. Address Box 19, 
Mining and Scientific Press. 

MILLMAN wants position, lirst-class in every detail from 
A to Z; 18 years experience in California gold mills, 7 years 
as mill foreman; best of references; will go anywhere. Box 
486, Mining and Scientific Press. 

MINE SUPERINTENDENT or assistant superintendent de- 
sires position; graduate civil and mining engineer and of 14 
years practical mining experience; with best references. Box 
456. Mining and Scientific Press. 


Under this heading announcements may be made of new 
and second-hand machinery or supplies, for sale or wanted. 
The cost is five cents per word, one dollar minimum order. 
Remittances MUST accompany order. Copy must be re- 
ceived by Tuesday morning for current week's Issue. 

Newton Counties, Arkansas, and Taney County. Missouri; :>.*i(io 
acres selected 15 years ago in the richest mineral bell by com- 
petent prospector. Address C. M. Fenton, Box 1381, Columbus, 

WILL SELL two Oertling Button Balances, sensibility 1/200 
milligram, for $180, or one for $100; cost new. $225 each; bal- 
ances are in good condition. Address Box 43, Mining and Scien- 
tific Press. 

mill, one 120 H.P. "Westlnghouse motor, 200 ft. of 6-inch water- 
proof belting — all only slightly used. Details will be sent with 
prices and Information and length of time used, types of ma- 
chines, etc., on application. Address Box 37, Mining and Scien- 
titic Press. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 3, 19ir> 

From "PERFECT" Double - Crimped Wire Cloth 

You Get Longer Service 

The wires are not 
bent but crimped, 
doubled crimped, over 
and under each other. 
They cannot slip- — they 
cannot rub. Therefore the 
only wear in Perfect Screens is 
the actual, unavoidable abrasion 
of the material being screened. 
This is true of no other screen 

and for this reason 
no other screen is so 
long-lived and low in 
utimate cost as Perfect. 
The fact that the wires 
cannot slip has important 
bearing on the uniformity of 
n-^-s* the product for the meshes must 

jtX)Q,<2\ necessarily maintain their size 
until the wire is worn through. 


Get the facts — 75 pages of them. 
Write for our Bulletin. 

The Ludlow-Saylor Wire Company, St. Louis, Mo. 




* Automatic 
idling SKIP HC 

Reduces the cost 
of handling ore 
to the minimum. 

C. O. Bartlett & Siw 

50 Church St., New York City 


w Co. 


is essential in order that every particle of gold may 
be brought in contact with the cyanide solution 

The famous WHEELER PAN, developed in West 
Australia, oilers the advantages of 

Low first cost. Low power consumption. 

Low cost of renewals ol wearing parts 

Easy adjustment to obtain a product of the fineness 

Accessibility of working parts at all times 

Inexpensive foundations. Small floor space. 

Submit your ore reduction problems to us. 

Joshua Hendy Iron Works 

75 Fremont Street, 

San Francisco, Cal. 


Ml\l\l. ud S ,„!,:,. PKI ns 

!> .- 

Engineer s^Instruments 

Assayers' Supplies 


Saves 20', to 
40', in Fuel 
For Work 
and Heat Units 

The Case 
Oil Forge 

(burning fuel oil) 

not only works this saving, but it possesses other 
powerful advantages, 

Kor Instance : Drills heateil in it will not scale, the 
steel remaining always in sight. 

Offsets danger from sulphurized or oxidized steel, 
and makes drills hold their edge a longer time. 

Practically eliminates noise and smoke. 

Get our descriptive catalog. More than 
one man has oeen "converted" by it. 

The Denver Fire Clay Company 

Denver, Colo. 




Fine Balances and Weights 

For every purpose where accuracy is required. 

The Engelbach Ore Sample Grinder 

T~ universally recognized to he the "suimhircl" 
and best sample trrinder made. Hundreds axe 
now in use in all the leading smelters sami ling 
and metallurgical works. It is compact, durable 
and exceedingly convenient in operation, The 
grinding surfaces are twelve inches in diameter. 

For descriptive circular and prices apply to 

The Engelbach Machine & Supply Co. 

Denver, Colorado 

See "PROTO" (^f s * ) Rescue Apparatus 
at "THE MINE," Panama - Pacific Exposition 

You will understand why this self-contained Oxygen Breathing 
Apparatus has been awarded the Gold Medal by the Mining Jury of 
Awards— highest award obtainable In this group. 


General Agent for North America: 

H. N. ELMER, 1140 Monadnock Block, CHICAGO 

The Roessler & Hasslacher 
Chemical Company 

100 William Street, New York 

Work*; Porth Amboy. N. J. 


98/99 Per Cent. 

Cyanide of Sodium 

128/130 Per Cent. 



Backed by a record of 25 years KlllCS 
of dependable service. 

7H E/uFx/tt Pule fig ™ m -™ 

A Mm *■* New \ork 



WM i 

♦ arsons • 


• U.S.A. • 



AIOHt extensive I huccchmIuI iiiiiiiij I'jie- 

turern. Old philc* rcplutcd — made equal 
to new. 


1349-S1 Mission St, San Francisco E. G. DENN1ST0N, Prop. 

Get our prices. Catalog sent. 

Telephone Market 2915. 

Chemicals for Recovery Processes 

Borax Borax Glass 

Lead Acetate 

Zinc Shavings Zinc Dust 



importers 5an Francisco.Cal. Exporters 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 3, l!H.-> 


Leading Manufacturers and Dealers in Machinery, 
Supplies and Instruments. If you do not find what 
you want here, write us and we will give you the 
names of competent and reliable dealers. 


Acetylene Mmpi 

JustrHe Mfg. Co — 


Dorr Cyanide Machy. Co 

Tra: lor Eng. & Mfg Co ..10 

Air Broke" 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

AmalKntimtrd IMatea 

San Francisco Plating \ 

AMNiiytTM* nntl ChemUli' 

See pa - 

Aauuiyera 1 nud ChemUti' 

Braun ( !oi poratlon, The . 27 

braun-Kiie«'ht-Heimann Co. 

21 and 35 
■ ■ Clay Co.. . 86 

& sup. Co. a i 

Mine .v Smelter supply Co.. 14 

Balance*: imil Welgbta 

Alnsworth A Bone, wn, 
Braun Corporation, The. . . .27 
Braun- Kiieeht-Hcimann Co. 
27 an 

: Fire Clay Co 35 


Mine ft Smelter Supply Co ,14 

Ball MUM 

Atneworth & Sons. Wm.... 35 

Chalmers A Williams — 

i ».,!•]■ Cyanide Machy. Co. .».n 
Hardinge Conical Mill Co... 4 
Traj lor Bog. A Mfg Co 10 


Dodge Sales & Eng. Co — 

Meese A Gottfried Co 

Back Cover 
Diamond Rubber Co., The. , — 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co — 

Goodrich Co.. The B. F — 

Meese & Gottfried Co 

Back Cover 
Robins Conveying Belt Co. .29 


Allls-Chalmers Mfg;. Co.... 5 

i ienei e l Electric Co 12 

Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

ply Co 2 

Boiler Graphite 

: Crucible Co, Joseph. 27 

Allls-i lhalmera Mfg, Co, ... 5 
Hendrle & Bolthoti Mtg. & 
Supply Co 2 

I rou Wurks, .1 ■ ■- 

Pot ■ ■ i ■ Mai ■ Co . 4 ] 
Union Iron Works Co — 


Mining and Scientific Press. 7 

Wiley &. Sons, John — 

Brick, Fire 

Atkins. Kroll & Co 28 

Braun < lorpoi atlon, The. , , ,27 
Braun- Knecht-Hei man II I 

I . and 35 

Denver FIi • 35 

Brlaavttlng Machinery 

on. The .... 27 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

_■ , and 85 
Eng, A Mfg. Co. . . .10 


Alllfl I dfg Co 5 

Dodge Sales & Eng, Co — 

Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co 2 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 

16 and 34 
■■ . : 

Meese & Gottfried Co 

Rack Cov*>r 
Robin- t Co. .29 

Watt Mining Cor Wheel Co.2fi 

Burner*, Oil 

Braun Corporation. The.... 27 

Braun -Kneelit-Heimann Co. 

27 and 35 
Denver Fire Clay Co 35 

Cnbletvoya, Sua pen* Ion 

Flory Mfg. Co.. S — 

Lescnen & Sons Rope Co., A. 37 

fj. S. Steel Products Co ^7 


Chalmers & Williams — 

Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co 2 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 

16 and 34 

r Eng. & Mfg. Co 10 

Union Iron Works Co — 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 43 

CnrboDM, Borta, and DlnmoniU 

Atkins. Kroll & Co 28 


Allla-Chalraers Mfg. Co. ...5 

Atlas Car A Mfg. Co 29 

Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co 2 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 

16 and 31 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co.. 14 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. ...10 

Wall Mining Cor Win 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 43 


Dodge Sales & Eng. Co — 

Lunkenhelmer Co 41 

Yuba Construction Co 2it 


Dodge Sales & Eng. Co — 

Meese & Gottfried Co 

Back Cover 
i;. it. ins Conveying Belt Co. .29 


Atkins. Kroll A Co 28 

Braun i m, The . . . .27 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

27 and 86 

Denver f 'J re < !lay Co 86 

Dodge Sales A Eng. Co — 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co.. 14 
Koessler A Hasslacner Chem- 
Ical Co 35 

Chilean Mllla 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

Chalmers & Williams — 

Spi tng Works — 

Lane Mill A Machy. Co 30 

Power A .Mining Machy. Co. 41 

•-erlng Co. 29 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co.,. .10 


Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co.... 5 

Chalmers & Williams — 

i Colorado i ron Works Co. . . i '■'• 
Dorr Cyanide Machy. Co. ...17 
Power A Mining Machy. Co, 41 
Traylor Eng. A Mfg. Co 10 

Clotchea, Friction 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co — 

Meese & Gottfried Co 

Back Cover 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co, IS 

Conl Gotten 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. ... 5 

Ingersoll-Rand Co 3 

A Mining Maori 
i man-Terry Drill Co.. 29 
Sullivan Machinery Co 8 

Conl Handling Machinery 

& Snow Co, C. O. .34 
Dodge Sales & Eng. Co — 

Compreanora, Air 

Chalmers & Williams — 

General Electric Co 12 

Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co 2 

Hendy iron Works. Joshua. 

16 and 34 

Ingersoll-Rand Co 3 

International Steam Pump 


l.fild law- Dunn -Gordon Co.. . — 
nan-Terry Drill l 

■ ry Co s 

Iron Works Co — 

Concentrator Belta 

Diamond Rubber Co.. The.. — 

Goodrich Co.. The B. F — 


Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co.... 5 

Chalmers & Williams — 

Colorado iron Works Co. . .43 
Deleter Concentrator Co. 
Hendrle & BoltholY Mfg. & 

Supply Co 2 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 

16 and 34 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. .14 

Senn Concentrator Co 6 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 41 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co 111 

Union Iron Works Co — 

Concrete Mlxera 

Power & Mining Machy. C0.41 


Allls-Chalmere Mfg. Co. . . . 5 
Cameron Steam Pump Wks., 

A S 39 

Prescott Steam Pump Co.. 

Fred M — 

Conveyora. Belt 

Allls-i !halmers Mfg. Co. . . . 5 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co — 

Meese & Gottfried Co 

Back Cover 

Robins Conveying Belt Co.. 29 
Conveyora, Screw 

Dodge Sales A Eng. Co — 

Meese & Gottfried Co 

Back Cover 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co.... 5 
Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co 2 

POWI I A Mining Marhv Co. 41 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co.. ..10 

Union Iron Works Co — 


Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 43 


Braun Corporation, The.... 27 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

27 and 35 

Detning Co.. The 37 

Dixon Crucible Co. Joseph. 27 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co.. 14 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

Bai on, Earle C 29 

Braun Corporation. The.... 27 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

27 and 35 

Chalmers A Williams — 

Colorado Iron Works Co... 43 

Denver Fire Clay Co 35 

Denver Quartz Mill & Crush- 

er Co 89 

Engelbach Mach. & Sup. Co. 35 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co 2 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

16 and 34 
International Steam Pump 

Co — 

Power A Mining Marhv. Co. 41 

Traylor Eng. A Mfg. Co m 

Union iron Works Co — 

Vulcan Iron Works 29 


Braun Corporation. The. . . .27 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
_ 21 and :;."> 

Denver Fire Clay Co 35 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co.. 14 

Cyanide Planta nod Machinery 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co*.., 5 

Chalmers & Williams — 

Ldo I ron Works Co. . .48 
Dorr Cvanide Machy Co. 17 
Hendrie & Bolthoff' Mfg. & 

Supply Co 2 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua 

16 and :I4 

Kelly Kilter Press Co 29 

MacDonald, Bernard 15 

Meese & Gottfried Co 

Back Cover 
Mine A Smelter Supply Co U 
Moore Kilter Co 2.". 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co 42 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 41 

Redwood Manufacturers Co. 13 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co.... 10 

Union Iron Works Co — 

De water era 

Colorado Iron Works Co... 43 
Dorr Cyanide Machv. Co.... 17 
Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 

Back Cover 
Distribute ra 

Colorado Iron Works Co. ..43 
Drafting Material 

Alnsworth & Sons, Wm 35 

Buff & Buff Co — 

Dragline Excavatora 

Bucyrus Company — 

Flory Mfg. Co., S — 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co 16 

Sauerman Bros — 


Bucyrus Company — 

Marion Steam Shovel Co... 31 
New York Engineering Co.. — 

Union Construction Co 29 

Union Iron Works Co — 

Yuba Construction Co 29 

Dredging Machinery 

American Locomotive Co. . .17 

Bucyrus Company — 

Flory Mfg. Co., S — 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co 2 

Marion Steam Shovel Co... 31 
New York Engineering Co.. — 
Robins Conveying Belt Co..2y 

Seattle Machine Works 3] 

Union Construction Co 29 

Union Iron Works Co — 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. ;': 

Yuba Construction Co 29 

Drill Makers and sharpener* 

Ingersoll-Rand Co 3 

Drill*. Air and Steam 

Cochise Machine Co — 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co 2 

Ingersoll-Rand Co 3 

McKlernan-T*rry Drill i '■>. .29 
Mine & Smelt. -1- Supply Co. .14 
Wood Drill Works 32 

Drill*. Core 

Ingersoll-Rand Co 3 

McKlernan-Terry Drill Co..2y 

Referson Machinery Co — 

Sullivan Machinery Co 8 

Union Construction Co 29 

Drllla, Electric 

Ingersoll-Rand Co 3 

Drllla, Proapectlng 

Ingersoll-Rand Co 3 

McKlern an -Terry Drill Co.. 29 
New York Engineering Co, - 

Reierson Machinery Co — 

Sullivan Machinery Co 8 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co.... 5 

General Electric Co ] 2 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co 2 

Western Electric Co — 

Westinghouse Electric & 

Mfg. Co — 

employment Bureau 

Business Men'^ Clearing 

Mouse — 

Engineering Agency — 


Bradley, Bruff & Labarthe. .18 
Engine*, Gna and Gaaollne 
Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co.... 6 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co 2 

Hendv Iron Works, Joshua. 

16 and 34 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. 41 
Englnea, Oil 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co.... ."> 
Buseh-Sulzer Bros.- Diesel 

Engine Co 25 

International Steam Pump 

Co — 

Snow Steam Pump Works.. — 

I Continued on page 40) 

.luh :. 1915 

MINING ..nd Scientifit PRESS 



liriHL'|H[D 1«.T \ 

tf /V & SONS ROPl 

iT. tOLIS, WO. 


Mine Pumps 

For any power and capacity. 
Write Tor our 190-page catalog. 

The Doming Co. 

Salem, Ohio 

General Distributing Bouses : 

San Francisco. Cal.. N.irimiu It. 

■■*<:> Market Street: Denver. 

Colo.. Hendrie .\. Bolthnfl Mftr a 

Supply Co i Chicago. IH.. Henlon 

A Hiil.1-11. JIT- Jl Nnrth .U'fTrr&on 

New York City. Ralph B. 

fari-r Co., I&GI Cbatmben Btreet, 

brmk. - 

■nd dial 


No. 25L 

Always Ready — 

Jackson Pumps are the highest type of efficiency 
and economy wherever and whenever water is to 
be raised. They operate over the widest range of 


357-361 Market St. 
San Francisco. Cal. 

West Berkeley. Cal. 

212 No. Los Angeles St. 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

New Perkins Hotel 

Fifth and Washington Streets, 
Portland, Ore. 

In Heart of Business and Shopping District. Location 
and environment most favorable to Mining Men. 

European Plan 

Rates: Without bath, $1.00 and up; with bath, $1.50 
and up. 

Moderate priced restaurant in connection. Automo- 
bile bus meets all trains. 

L. Q. SWETLAND, President and Manager 

! Hand Operated I 


Electric Hoists 

Nordberg Electric Hoists are 
built in all sizes from small 
single drum, hand operated 
hoists, up to the very largest 
steam and electric hoists for 
great depths, loads and 

The above illustration shows 
a typical small hoist with post 
brakes, lever operated, and 
dial miniature. Particular 
attention is called to the con- 
si ruction of the brakes, which 
even in the smallest sizes are 
of the Post type, operated by 
a powerful hand lever with 
quadrant. Also to the gear 
and pinion at one end of the 
base, insuring perfect align- 
ment under the most severe 

For complete information 
and detailed drawings of 
Nordberg Electric Hoists, 
send for Bulletin. If in- 
terested in Steam and Air 
Hoists, send for Bulletin 23. 




1453 Chicago Ave. 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

Manufacturers of High Efficiency 
Corliss Engines; Uniflow Engines; 
Poppet Valve Engines; Carels- 
Dlesel Engines; Air Compressors: 
Blowing Engines; Hoisting En- 
gines; Pumping Engines; and 
other machinery. is 





MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Julv 3. 1915 



I'.lluilKO. M ell Ml 

Allts-Chalnn Co.... 5 

H.mlv Iron Works, Joshua. 

ml 34 
Nordbei a Mfg. Co.... 

Travloi Eng, A Mfg. ' U) 

Iron Works Co — 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. i-> 

I ;■ plosive* 

i ■ . 30 

l-'nilM. \ fin Milling 

J . Co.... 5 

»ff Mfg. & 

Supply Co 2 


Filler Preanea 

■ " 
Traylor Eng & Mfg. Co 10 


Chalmers & Williams — 


Genei b in Co., Inc. 

Continuous Filter Co. 

Back Cover 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co I 

Fire Brick 

Atkins. Kroll & Coi . . M 

. . i .. . 


27 an 

1 '" 35 

Fire RxtlnKiilshers 

'■■'"■- CO — 

Fittings. Mulleable and 
Caul Iron 

I ■ ■ Co 29 


octal Co., Ltd. . . — 

■ i - ' Co ii 

National Tube Co 2y 

Flotation Procemi 

Mi ,,. pb i- Sep. Am. S3 n.. Ltd , 29 
Foundry Equipment 

oil -Rand Co 3 

Sullli .hi Machinery Co 8 

Wellma ■'■ i n I !o 1 3 

Proas ami Switches 

"i s. Steel Products Co 87 

Watt Mining Cor Whet I i !o 26 
Furnavesi Ausy 

Corporation, The 27 
i-Knecht-Helmann Co. 

27 and 85 

Den ei Fi re Clay Co 35 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co.. 14 
Furnace*) Roasting and 

... ■, 1 1 g Co .... 5 
Colo do i ron Works Co. . .43 
Hendne & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co 2 

r & Mining Machy. Co, n 
We dee Mechanical Furnace 

Co 9 

oi Eng. & Mfg Co. . . .1" 
Gna Prodtaecrs 

■■ & Mining Mach! Co 
Wellman-Si '-■'■ ■ ■ n Co I :: 


I ,,,. i |< :; Splr : PIpi Wks.30 
Co The. . — 

Si th-On Mfg. Co 31 


D Sales & Eng. Co — 

Genera] Ele< Co 12 

Meese & Gottfried Co 

Back Cover 

Pacific Gear & Tool Co — 


iera Mfg. Co.... 

■■■■■■ i Electric Co 12 

Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co 2 

Western Electric Co — 

Westlnghouse Electric & 

Mfg. Co — 

Giants, Hydraulic 
See Hydraulic Mining 

Graphite Products 
"■•nters. Feed Water 

i Sa les & Eng. Co — 

ie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co 2 

'. T ninn Iron Works Co — 

Hoists, Air 

Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

1 ■ 2 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co.. 14 
Moists. Electric 

■ is Mfg. Co 5 

Ate Co.. 5 — 

i ieneral Sled ric Co 12 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co 2 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

uid 34 

■ ood Mfg. Co 16 

Mordberg Mfg. Co ::7 

Power & Mini Co. 4-1 

i Eng. & Mfg Co . .Ml 

Union Iron Works Co — 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 
Westl n gh o use Elect ric & 
Mfg. Co — 

Hoists, Steam 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co.... 5 

tfte. I'm., S — 

Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co 2 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 

and 31 

Lidgerw I Mfg. Co IV 

- g Mfg. «'m 37 

Power & Mining Machy Co. 41 

suilivau Machinery Co s. 

Union Iron Works Co — 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 43 


Diamond Rubber Co., The.. — 
Goodrich Co.. The B. F — 

Ingersoll-Rand Co 3 

Howe Coupling's 

National Tube Co 29 

Hydraulic Mining Machinery 
IplraJ Pipe Wks.30 
Hendy iron Works, Joshua. 
New Yurk Engineering Co.— 

16 B 

Pelton Water Wheel Co 29 

Union Iron Works Co — 


Lunkentlelmer Co II 

Iron Cements 

Si i b i in Mi g i !o 3i 


. a Mfg. Co 5 

Chalmers <& Williams — 

i Colorado Iron Works Co. . . 43 

Laboratory Supplied 

See Assayers' and Chemists' 

I.nmpM. Arc and Incandescent ■ 

■ ' !o 12 

Co — 

Westinghouse Electric & 

Mfg. Co — 

i amps, Miners 

Justrlte Mfg. Co — 

Lead Joint Pipe 

National Tube Co 29 

Locomotives, Electric 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co 29 

General Electric Co 12 

Westinghouse Electric & 

Mfg. Co — 

Locomotives, Steam 

Ami i tea n Locomoth e Co. . .11 
Lima Locomol [ve Corp ■ i 


1 l ■■). ible i !o , Joseph .27 

Dodge- Sales & Eng. Co — 

Lunkenhelmer Co '. 1 


Atkins. Kroll & Co US 

Metal Buyers and Dealers 

• .i n Meta i Co„ Ltd. . . — 

Atkins. Kroll & Co 28 

Buff & Buff Co .— 

Consolidated Min. & Smelt- 
ing Co. of Canada. Ltd. .28 

Empire Zinc Cq 2s 

Granby Mining & Smelting 


mal Smelting Co. . 28 
I Ing & Lead i 
i 9 Smelting. Refining & 
Mining Co 28 

Mills. Ball and Pebble 

A Ills -Chalmers Mf| i 

Chalmers & Williams — 

Colorado Iron •Works Co. . .43 
Hardin- Mill Co. . . 4 

i i , lor Eng. A Mfg. Co. ...10 

Mills, Chilean 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

Chalmers & Williams — 

do 1 ron Works Co. . .43 
Lam Mill & Ma< hj Co.. .. 80 
Power & Mil . Co. 41 
Sears-Smith Engineering Co. 29 
Traylor Eng & Mfg Co., . . 10 
Union Iron Works Co — 


. ts Mfg, Co. ... E 

Chalmers & Williams — 

Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co 2 

i i.i r.i 1 1, g-e ( ton leal Mill Co ... t 
Mini & Smeltei Supply Co. .1 I 

Western Elei i rii Co — 

Wesl Inghouse Electric & 

Mfg. Co. . — 

Oil, Wood Creosote 

Pensacola Tar & Turpen- 
Co 29 

OH and Grease Cups 

Lunkenheimer Co 11 

Oil Well Supplies 

i ilamond Rubber Co . Tin . . — 
Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

16 ari,l 9 I 

National Tube Co 29 

Union Iron Works Co — 

I', s. Steel Products Co 27 

Ore Buyers 

See Metal Buyers and Deal- 
Oxygen Apparatus 

Elmer. II. W 35 


Diamond Rubber Co., The . . — 


Blake. Moffltt & Towne 29 

Patent Attorneys 

I '.\\. v. Strong & I'm. ...... 'J 7 


Atkins. Kroll & Co 28 

Perforated Metals 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

Ludlow-Saylor Wi re Co 3 1 
Pipe, Riveted 

American Spiral Pipe Wks. 30 
Sacramento Pipe Works. . . . — 

Pipe, Wood 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co 42 

Red ■■■■ ""'I Ma n u I acturers Co . ig 

Pipe, Steel 

onal Tube Co 29 

nento Pipe Works.... — 
Placer Mining Machinery 
A. me] lea n Spiral Pipe Wks. 30 
Hendy iron Works, Joshua. 

It; and 31 
New York Engineering Co. .— 
Pelton Water Wheel Co.... .29 

Sauerman Bros — - 

Seattle Machine Works 31 

Union Iron Works Co — 


1 mi Pont Powder Co 30 

Producer, Gus 

Power & Mining Machy. Co. 41 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 4 3 
Pulleys, Mm 1'ii hut and Hangers 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co — 

Hendy [ron Works, Joshua. 

lb and 34 

Meese & Gottfried Co 

Back Cover 
Robins Conveying Belt Co. .29 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 43 


American Metal Co., Ltd... — 
Braun Corporation, The. . . .27 
Braun -Knecht-Heimann Co. 

27 and 35 

Chalmers & Williams — 

Colorado Inm Works Co. . .43 

Denver Fire Clay Co 35 

Denver Quartz Mill & Crush- 
er Go 39 

Hardinge Conical Mill Co... 4 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co.. 34 
Power & Mining Machy. Co. 41 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. ...10 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co 


.aimers Mfg. Co. . . . 5 
Cameron Steam Pump Wks.. 

A. s. 39 

Steam Pump Co — 

Deming Co., The 87 

Frenier & Son — 

General Electric Co 12 

Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co 2 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua. 

16 and :: I 
International Steam Pump 

Co — 

Jackson [rou Works, Byron. 37 
Jeanesville Iron Works.... — 

Krogh Pump Mfg. Co — 

Meese & Gottfried Co 

Back Cover 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co.. 14 
Fresco tt Steam Pump Co., 

Fred M — 

Snow Steam Pump Works.. — 
Union Iron Works Co — 


Atkins, ffrbil & Co 28 

Braun Corporation. The. . . .27 
Braun- Kneeht-Heimann Co. 

27 and 35 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. .14 
Railway Supplies aud equip- 

American Locomotive Co. . . 17 

ah, is Car & Mfg. Co 29 

Lima Locomotive Corp !i 

['. S. Steel Products Co -i 

Watt Mining Cor Wheel Co. 26 

Rolls, Crushing 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co.... 5 

Bacon, Earle C 29 

Colorado Iron Works Co... 43 
Hendrle & Bolthoff Mfg. & 

Supply Co 2 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua. 

16 and 34 

Lane Mill & Machy. Co SO 

Power & Mining Mach v. Co . 11 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co 10 

Rope, Manila and Jute 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co — 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 37 

Meese & Gottfried Co 

Back Cover 
Rope, Wire 
American Steel & Wire Co. .27 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co — 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co.. A. 37 
Robins Conveying Beit Co. .29 
Roebling's Sons Co.. John A. 15 
C. S. Steel Products Co 27 


Braun Corporation, The. . . .27 
Braun-Knecht-Helmann Co . 

1^7 and 35 
Colorado Iron Works Co. . .43 

Denver Fire Clay Co 36 

Mim- & Smelter Supply Co.. 14 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co lu 

Saw Mill Machinery 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua . 

16 and 34 
Schools and Colleges 

Colorado School of Mines... 25 

HeaJd's Scl l of Mines. .". .25 

Michigan College of Mines. .25 
Missouri School of Mines. .'.26 
New Mexico State School of 

Mines 25 

University of Washington - . 26 
Van der Naillen School, A.. 25 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

Cal Perforating Screen Co. — 

Chalmers & Williams — 

Colorado Iron Works Co. . .4.". 
Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. . . .34 

Meese & Gottfried Co 

Back Cover 
Power & Mining Maehv. Co . 4 1 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co 10 

Second-Hand Machinery 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. 

Co 33 


See Pulleys, Shafting and 


(Continued on puge 42} 

Juh 3, 1915 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

5 Years 

Tha ibon eat ill m oaf N, > : ^i 1 1 1 imniy 
1 in 120 toni 
i~t H noun. Weisht SJ.O0C 

i-- the r< •<! of some of our Denver Quartz 

Mills, mid excepting the tires and mortars 
which are replaceable when worn oul they are 
practically as good as when they left the shops. 

UPKEEP makes cheap ore reducing equipment 
expensive in the end. 

DOWNKEEP is o >f the man} reasons why 

the Denver Quartz Mill is held in such high 
esteem by its users. 

Write for the latest descriptive 
Circular of our mills and crushers. 

The Denver Quartz Mill & Crusher Co. 

216-217 Colorado Building, Denver, Colorado, U. S. A. 

in Mine Station Pumping 

The severe duty of mine station service requires a 
pump of compact design, capable of handling gritty 
or acid-bearing water, so designed that it will with- 
stand the shock of back pressure and combining high 
efficiency with reliability in any condition of service. 

"American" Centrifugal Pumps 

fulfill these conditions, because they have been devel- 
oped after many years of experience in building all 
kinds of pumps, to meet all these requirements. When 
so ordered, they are made of acid-resisting material, 
and equipped with air chamber, check valve, with by- 
pass, and with the check valve having a relief valve 
set to open at any predetermined pressure. 

They are made in styles and multiple stages to meet 
any requirement of location or condition of head. 

Catalogue 132 describes them. 
Write for your copy. 


General Office 
and Works : 

Chicago Office: 

First National 
Bank Building 



"It may please you to learn thai the 

Cameron Centrifugal 

recently installed in our Lee Bhafl to take the 
place of another leading make (which was 
worn out in three months, running under the 
same conditions and driven by the same motor 1 , 
delivers 20fi more water than the other pump 
did when new. The other pump was twice re- 
paired by the manufacturers, hut did not 
stand the acid water, although made entirely 
of acid resisting bronze metal as is the 
Cameron. This other pump is now in the scrap 
bin," writes the Superintendent of a large Coal 
Company in Pennsylvania. 

The Cameron Centrifugal is shown in the illustra- 
tion. It is a 4" Double Suction Pump with a hori- 
zontally split casing and an enclosed impeller. It is 
most modern in design and strongly built throughout. 

Actual tests have proved to mining men that the 
highest efficiency and economy can be secured from 

Let us tell you all about them. No obligation. 
Write now for Bulletin No. 1.50. It's free. 


11 Broadway, New York: Offices the World Over 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Julv 3, 1915 



Mines and Hi. - 

Iron Works, Joshua . 

16 ai 
Union Iron Works Co — 

sfaovrU. Blectfie and steam 


k Scale Mfg. Co i"» 


Atkins. Kroll & Co 28 

Mueller* nml Krflner* 

Consolidated Mm. & Smelt- 
ing l !». l-t'l .28 


Mining ok .Smelling 



l i 
Smelting, u-nning & 


1 28 


Smelting Machinery 

Allls-Chalmera Mfg. Co.... 5 

iron Works i o 
Hendrle & Boithoff Mfg. & 

supply Co 2 

■ ft Mining M 

■ Eng ft Mfg Co io 

L'nion Iron Worka Co — 

UVflee Mechanical Furnace 



American Steal ft Wire Co. 27 

-: Works — 

r s. Steal Products Co 27 

Mump Mill* 

Allls-Chalmera Mfg. Co S 

Chalmers ft Williams — 

Co. . .48 
Hendrle & Boithoff Mfg. & 
.Supply Co 2 

H.-ndv Iron Works. Joshua. 

16 ai 
Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co.. 


rg Mfg. Co 37 

Power & Mining Machy. Co n 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co.... 10 
Union Iron Works Co — 

W oilman -Sea ver-Morgan Co. 4 3 
Snetlon Dredaea 

Yuba Construction Co 29 

Tanks* Cyanide 

nald, Bernard 15 

National Tube Co B9 

Tank & Pipe Co 42 

■ ft Mining Machy. Co. 41 
Redwood Manufacturers Co. 13 

or Eng. & Mfg. Co 1" 

Tape*, Men* urine 

Lufkln Rule Co 35 

TclpphoncH. Mine 

in Bleetrlc Co — 

Thickener*. Slime 

Colorado Iron Works Co. . .43 

■ vanirle Machv. Co 17 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co.... 10 


Holt Mfg Co — 

Tramway*, Aerlnl 

:, ft s.-us Rope ' '".. A .37 
Roebling's Sons Co.. John A. 15 
U. S. Steel Products Co 27 


AinsWOrtb & Sons. Wm 35 

Rausch & liOmb Optical Co. . — 
Buff & Buff Co — 

Trim* in Union Machinery 

A.HIs-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

Dodge Sales & En". Co — 

i Bleetrlc Co 12 


Bendy Iron Works. Joshua . 

16 and -I 
Meeae & Gottfried Co.. 

» Back Cover 
Robins Conveying Belt Co.. 29 

Tube Mill* 

Allla-Chalmera Ufg. Co.... 5 

Chalmers ft Williams — 

Colorado Iron Works Co. . .43 

Power ft Mining Machy. Co. 41 
Eng ft Mfg. Co 10 

Union Iron Works Co — 


aal Tube Co 29 

Turbine*. Hydraulic 

Allla-Chalmers Mfg. Co.... r. 
Bendy Eron Works, Joshua. 

16 ai 
Pelton Water Wheel Co. ...29 
Wellman-Seaver- Morgan Co. 43 

Turbine*. Meant 

Allla-Chalmers Mfg. Co 5 

Genera] Electric Co 12 


Remington Typewriter Co. .41 

Lunkenhelmer Co II 

aal Tube Co 29 

\ aire* 

Lunkenhelmer Co 41 

National Tube Co 29 

Pelton Water Wheel Co.... 29 
Water Wheel* 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co — 

Bandy Iron Works. Joshua. 

16 and 3 1 

Pelton Water Wheel Co 29 

Union Iron Works Co — 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 43 
Waterproof Confine 

Smooth-On Mfg. Co 31 

\\ flu hi ne Machine* 


Well iirllilne Machinery and 

American Well Works 39 

Union Iron Works Co — 

Wheel*. Car 

Watt Mining Car Wheel Co.2B 

Wire Cloth 

LndlOW -Savior Wire Co. . . .SI 

Wire Cable* 

American Steel & Wire 

n & Sons Rope Co., A. 37 

: : A . 1 '■ 
I', S. Steel ProdUCtS Co 2? 

Wire, Insulated 

an Steel ft Wire Co . . jt 

General Electric Co 12 

r. s. steel Products Co 27 

Western Electric Co — 

Zinc Boxes 

Braun Corporation, The. . . ,21 
Braun-Knecht-Beimann Co. 

27 and 35 

Chalmers & Williams — 

Colorado Iron Works Co. . .43 

Denver Fire Clay Co 35 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. .14 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co 4 2 

Redwood Manufacturers Co. 13 

Traylor Bng. ft Mfg. »'o 10 

Union Iron Works Co — 

Zinc Du*t and Shaving;* 

Atkins. Kroll & Co 2S 

Braun Corporation, The 
Braun-Knecht-Beimann Co . 

27 and 85 

Denver Fire Clay Co 35 

Granny Mining & Smelting 

Co 29 

Roessler & Basslacher Chem- 
ical Co 35 


Copies of the MINING and Scientific PRESS 
of the issue of August 1, 1914. As this 
edition is entirely exhausted, we will pay 
the regular price of ten cents for each copy 
returned to us. Send them to 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

420 Market Street 

San Francisco 

July 8, 1915 

MINING and Sdaatific PRLSS 


TH1-: siorvoI' ,\ d.wswork 

for this 

It's m BtDrj that will Internet yon %\ 

u letti of eoonomtilnf money end deteU.«tin« uooonurif 

routlib'. ft mt thtf UtnUhm.-nt of BrrOH. It telle IOO Mow to ". rmr- 

proof your bookkeeper, row bill clerk*, your whole ecoounttnf 

im-nt-aii'l MTt you lncn.-y In tot ProOOOl 

|l*i ti itij; Story, end eoey to reed; but tt is not ■ \>>u« story. 

It'» e utory of Big Illusirati..ns, Hitf Typo end Wg Funs— e gena> 
iiH-ly Biff Story of a Bif Bet 

it will |tve yoo e oleer. nee Light! on the meohlnelhet is now die- 
piecing former eoooanttng a In elmoet soo separate 

ami dbttnet Un - nemo li the 


Adding and Subtracting Typewriter 

(Wahl Mechanism) 

When yon have n'a-l "The Story of a Day's Work." you will bavi 

iniKhty IntaKStulf OODOUuloiU to ilraw. 

Remington Typewriter Company 

1 Incorporated ) 
327 Broadway, NEW YORK 



for the Engineer 


— auurrY" — 


Simple in Construction 

Gigantic in Strength 

McCully Gyratory Rock Crusher 

The original successful gyratory crusher. Designs always maintained 
up to date. Has stood severest service for years. Has greatest 
capacity. Can crush finer than any other gyratory breaker. 

Write for Catalog PM 4-32 

Rock Crushing Machinery. Mining and Smelting Machinery. 
Cement Making Machinery, Wood Impregnating Plants, Loomis- 
Petribone Gas Generators, Suction Gas Producers, Cyanide and 
General Steel Tank Work, Woodbury Jigging System, Lead Burning. 


Works : Cudahy, Wis. 

New York Office : 115 Broadway 

District I llBces — Chicatto. El Paso. San Francisco. Atlanta, Seattle. 


In mining service where heavy grades, sharp curves 
and temporary track combine to make the service 
severe, our Shay geared Locomotives have proven 
exceptionally satisfactory. 

Write for our Catalog. 


111 IV. Second St., Limn, O. 
50 Church St., New York. 


Rapid Drop 
Portable Mill 

(Less to transport 
Less to erect 
Less to operate 

And the price is less. 
While the capacity is great 

The E. H. Moyle Engineering 
and Equipment Co. 

224 So. Spring St. Los Angeles, Cal. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 3, 1915 


31s Market St., - - San Francisco Cal. 

1276 "nk Street - - - Portland 

Room i' I as . Lee angeles, ' al. 


low cost — constant friction co-efficient — positive permanency— quick delivery 

Our wood pipe costs less initially than metal pipe and is more cheaply and quickly laid. Any crew 
can easily conform it to abrupt contours. It withstands pressures up to 4ikj foot head. The interior 
is always smooth and true and no rusty rivets can develop. Where permanency is required, mining 
engineers insist upon 

Our Continuous Wood Stave Pipe , 

This line for a mining company is 3100 ft. of (16-in. wood pipe for a 196-ft. head 
Our three factories and many years of experience are ready to serve 
you. Ask for booklet : 'Wooden I'ipe : Its Many Advantages,' and 
Mining Catalog Xo. 7. 





Aills-Chalmera Mfg Co. ... S 
American Locomotive ' 
American Metal Co., Ltd. . . — 
Pipe Wks.30 
American Steel *.• Wire 

American Well Works 

Atkins. Kroll * c<i 88 

Atlaa Cai A Mfg Co 29 

Bacon, Earle C _■!) 

i A Snow Co., a O. .34 

Bausch & Lomb Optical Co. 

Beer, Sondhelmer A- Co 2>- 

Blake Moffltt & Towne....2S 
Bradley, BrunT A Labarthe.13 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

.'7 and 35 

Bucyrus Company 

Buff & Butt Co 

Buseh-Sulzer Bros.-Diesel 

Engine Co 25 

Business Mens Clearing 

Cal. Perforating Screen Co. — 
Cameron Steam Pump Wks , 

»- 8 39 

Cary Spring Works — 

Chalmers & Williams — 

■ Machine Co — 

Colorado Iron Works Co... 43 

Consolidated Mln. & Smelt- 
ing i '., of i fenada, Ltd. . 28 


Deming Co., Th,- 37 

Denver Pin 35 

Denver Quartz Mill & Crush- 
er I'n 

Co 27 

CO., The.. — 

Dixon dhicible Co., Joseph. 27 


Dodge Sales & Eng. Co — 

Dorr Cyanide Machy. Co 17 

nl Powder Co 3u 

Elmer, n. N 35 

Empire Zine Co 28 

Engelbach Machine & Supply 

Engineering Agency — 

■Ifg. Co., 
Frenler & Son . 

General Electric Co 12 

General Filtration Co.. Inc.. — 

Goodrich Co.. The B. F — 

Granby Mining & Smelting 

Co sa 

llanlinge Conical Mill Co. . . l 

Heald's School of Mines.... 17 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & 
Supply Co 2 

Bendy iron Works. Joshua. 
Holt Mfg. Co — 

Ingersoll-Rand Co 3 

International Smelting Co 9! 

International Steam Pump 


m Iron Works, Byron. 37 
Jeanesville Iron Works.... — 

.lust rite Mfg. Co — 

Kelly Kilter Press Co 29 

isch, Herman, Sr. . 

. Pump Mfg. Co — 

Lai<lla\v-Dunn-Gordon Co. .. — 

!o 30 

Sons Rope Co.. A .83 
Lldgerwood Mfg. Co 16 


Lima I. o notlve Corp II 

Ludlow-Saylor Wli 

Lufkin Rule Co 35 

I. link' n ' 11 

1 • 1 15 

Marion Steam Shovel Co. ...SI 
McKlernan-Terry .Drill Co.. 29 

Meese & Gottfried Co 

Back Cover 

Merriok Scale Mfg. o 15 

-an College of Mines. .26 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co.. 14 
Minerals Sep. Am, Syn., Ltd. 29 
Mining and Scientific Press. 7 
Missouri School of .Mines. .. 25 

Moore Kilter C 25 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. 



Moyle Eng. & Equip. Co., 

HII 41 

National Tube Co 29 

New Mexico State School of 
Mines gg 

New York Engineering Co. . — 

Nordberg Mfg. Co 37 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 

Back Cover 

lng"s Sons Co., John Air. 
Roessler & Hasslacher Chem- 

i. al CO 

Pacific Gear & Tool Co — 

Tank & Pipe Co 12 

Parrall Tank System 15 

P. lion Water Wheel Co. ...28 
Pensacola Tar & Turpentine 
Co 29 

Power .v Mining Bd 
Prescott Steam Pump Co., 
Fred M — 

Redwood Manufacturers 

Reierson Machinery Co.... — 
Remington Typewriter Co..4i 

Robins Cm, yint; Belt Co.. 29 

Sacramento Pipe Works.... — 
San Francisco Plating ' 

Sauerman Rros — 

Smith Engbi' 

Seattle Machine Works 31 

Selby Smelting & Lend Co 28 

Senn Concentrator Co 6 

Smooth-" in Mfg. Co 31 

Snow Steam Pump Works.. — 

Southern Pacific Co SO 

Sullivan Machinery C B 

Traylor Engineering & Mfg. 
Co 10 

construction Co 29 

Union Iron Works Co — 

U. S. Smelting, Refining & 

.Mining Co 28 

r. S, Steel Products Co -'7 

University of Washington.. 26 

i Naillen School, A. . 26 

Vogelstein & Co., L 

Vulcan Iron Works 29 

Watt Mining Car Wheel Co. 26 

Wedge Mechanical Furnace 

Wellman-Si aver-M - 

Co — 

Westinghouse Electric & 
Mfg. Co — 

Wiliin.i'g Bros — 

Wiley & Sons. John — 

W I Drill Works 32 

Yuba Construction Co 29 

.lull 3, 1915 

MINING and PR| S3 

igy gj/ 






Sustained Efficiency 

48x20 Portland Type Crushing Rolls. 

~^J ( >T mere durability, but con- 

■^^ tinuims satisfactory perform- 
ance with repairs reduced prac- 
tically to renewal of shells. 
Pounds of steel per ton of ore 
crushed, uncomplicated by break- 
age of parts, is all that need lie 
considered where our rolls are 

Straight line resistance to strains 
and extremely heavy spring pres- 
sures insure maximum capacity 
on the hardest ores. 

Colorado Iron Works Company, Denver, Colorado., U.S. A. 


One of the Latest 
W-S-M Types 

f — ■ i 

•s ** ■' _*-- hB^ST*" am 

The hoists which we build today are 
splendid tributes to the way in which we are 
utilizing our 30 years' experience by fore- 
seeing the hoisting needs of the mining in- 
dustry. The hoist shown, for example, is 
provided with machined herring-bone gears 
encased in oil-tight housing; steel drums; 
weighted steel safety brakes, and strong 
steel clutches, all operated by compressed 
air cylinders with cataract cylinders at- 
tached. The brakes are instantly applied 
upon failure of air pressure or if electric 
current is cut off. 

Hoist Designed and Btiitt (or the Cananea Consolidated Topper Co.. Cananea. Mexico 

You can secure continuous operating economy 
by letting us work out your hoisting problems. 

MIWellman-Semr-Morsah Co. 

NEW YORK— Hudson Terminal 


DENVER— 611 Ideal Building 

MEXICO, D. F.— Apartado 1220 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 3, 1915 

Oliver Continuous Filter 


-_" ' 

■ ■:•■• -'■ -. BHI I I ' " Wm 

What are your freight 
bills on WATER? 

Filter your concentrate. You save 
labor — you save freight on water. An 
Oliver Continuous Filter delivers con- 
centrate ninety-two per cent dry. Let 
our metallurgical engineers show how 
much you will save by the Oliver way. 

Write for details today 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 

San Francisco 


No royalties to pay on ANY work ol an Oliver Filter. 








Elevating, Conveying and Screening Machinery 

ifcs? $c Okittteti (Emnpattg 



e«0 MI»»lon s«. 130 \. i..>k Angeles si. «7 From si. Lamb Machine Co. 558 Flr»t Ave. So. 


Mining • « Press 

Edited by T. A. RICHARD 

voium, m SAN FRANCISCO. JULY 10, 1915 Num b«2 

The Filter Best Achpted to Your 
Needs is the One We Furnish 

Movable Leaf Type 

Stationary Leaf Type 

Continuous or Rotary Type 

Also specially designed filters 
for handling both strong 
and weak acid solutions. 



115 Broadway New York 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 10. 1915 













5/wzz pon/m 


A/0 SHA/ff A/0 JAR 


■■ RD 

A 'Iillr ! 

M \v von BBRMBW1T2 

Assistant i 

Mining' s ^v Press 

Published at <-'» Murk, t Si , San FranclMO by iho 
ly Publli hlni Co. 
CBABLBa T. HUTCH 1N80N, Uunaiir, 

lssu.- I I i.luy 

|] p« | nis per Copy 

San Francisco, Ji l\ 10, 1915 



I ImiL 

!•■ .Iiutin 
I' k-niii 
I- li 
W. II 
C w. Purlnaton. 

C I' •r.ilumn, Jr. 

II. M ... .■ V \\ 1., 

Advertiser* InJn -Iji.t p»ci> 
Boyeri Dlreotory — rin a 



N> ■ 1 1 - 3" 

Tin Mu-Yi mi 34 

Review hi ill.- mining Industry for the half-year. 
Bio Business 35 

The views of a reactionary. 
Ai -iiiM i \\ lUTU TraDI 36 

The metal Is exported as raw material and returns in 

finished products. 


Sri. l l uiia IS MlM S, 

By C. 8. Burton 37 

Development companies thai are willing to risk capital 
in the working of prospects are needed. 
Goi.ii Mining in Bolivia. 

By ff. W. Wepfer 38 

The lure of rich 'lost' gold mines. 
Assai ■'! Obi Containlwo Metallics. 

By /. ./. Bristol 39 

Theoretical proof of Cahill's method. 
Thb Mechanical Work of Cbushing. 

By Walter I. Hose 39 

Crushing is preceded by deformation, the work done 
is proportional to this. 


Tk. h mi ax Reminiscences. 

By E. Gybbon Spilsburu 40 

Fifty years ago the calamine deposits of the island of 
Sardinia were rediscovered, and work begun on behalf 
of English companies. Mr. Spilsbury relates many in- 
teresting adventures, including a visit from a bandit 
who turned out to be Duke of Brabant. 

Minim; Claims in National FORESTS 42 

They are not examined previous to application for 
patent unless they interfere with the administration 
of the Forest. 

A Novel Dkbris-Dam. 

By Leroy A. Palmer 43 

By an adaptation of a Japanese method a dam was 
built, on the Yuba river, out of wire baskets filled 
with cobbles, at a cost of 48c. per yard. The dam 
withstood a heavy flood without injury. The material 
of the dam is slowly cemented together by the action 
of percolating water. 

Questions on Milling Practice. 

By A. 0. Gates 47 

Problems for our readers to solve in their spare mo- 

Colloidal Chemistry. 

By Clifford Richardson 48 

Colloids are merely a state of matter, one in a highly 
dispersed or subdivided condition. The forces in ac- 
tion on the surface of colloids are enormous. 

Nona FuoM s.ii rn Ami kii v. 

By kfor* B. Lamb 49 

Tin- Chuqulcamata bus started, other copper mines are 
enlng. The nitrate market Is depressed, quick- 
silver mines arc being re-opened. Freight rati 
ores have doubled, the cost of coke Is excessive. 

Mechanic*! Features at a Laki Sct-kbiob Iron Minx. 

By P. /;. \i. li-,, mill 50 

Ingenious devices used to Improve the mechanical 
equipment of an old mine taken over by the Cleveland 
Cliffs Iron Co. 

Improvements u Anaconda 51 

The new reverberatory furnaces are 148 it. iong! The' 
flotation section of the concentrator is Heating 2000 
tons per day. 

Mining in C u a obnia. 

By Charles a. Yale 52 

There bus been an increase in the gold output, chiefly' 
in alluvial mining and dredging. There is little 
change In quartz mining, some companies are build- 
ing. Copper mining is prosperous. 

Tin YV.ui I'll ING Mim:s. China. 

By H. T. Liang 53 

Stibnite occurs in veins in Paleozoic rocks in several 
districts west and southwest of Tungting lake, Hunan. 
The ore is smelted at Changsha by the Herren- 
schmidt process, the metal produced is of tho highest 

Mining in Colorado. 

By George .1 . Bancroft 55 

Local financing of new ventures is becoming impor- 
tant. A notable gold discovery has been made at Rico, 
and a good find of zinc-lead ore at Leadville. 

Non-Metallic Products. 

Compiled by Samuel H. Dolbear 55 

The Products Development Co., at lone, is building a" 
second unit at its clay-washing plant. The Russell 
Borax Mining Co. has resumed work, and the Western 
Manganese Co. has begun refining manganese ore at 

California Minerals at the Exposition 59 


Concentrates 53 

REVIEW OF Mining gQ 

Special correspondence from Joplin. Missouri; Gold- 
field, Nevada: Cripple Creek, Colorado. 

The Mining Summary 62 

Personal 67 

Schools and Societies 67 

The Market Place: 

Metal Prices 58 

Eastern Metal Market ] 69 

Mining Decisions 70 


Book Review 70 

Lathes: Their Construction and Operation. By George 
W. Burley. 
New Machines and Devices: 

Electricity at the Exposition 71 

Combined Water-Wheel and Motor-Drive 71 

New Gasoline Locomotive 72 

Commercial Paragraphs 72 

Established May 24, 1860. as The Scientific Pressi name 
changed October 20 of the same year to Mining; nad Scientific 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class mat- 
ter. Cable address: Pertusola. 

Branch Offices — Chicago. 300 Fisher Bdg.; New York. 1308-10 
Woolworth Bdg.; London, 724 Salisbury House, E.C 

Price, 10 cents per copy. Annual subscription: United State-n 
and Mexico, $3; Canada, }4; other countries In postal union. 
21s. or |5 per annum. ^ 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 10, 1915 


X T lil f UVitM^MA ' a t i^^W^X OTSSa ^t/^I^^WMUW^^^^^A'; 


WE have just completed and shipped an "Empire" Dredge, 
that embodies improvements of a revolutionary character. 
It is an electrically driven dredge, having a complete steam- 
electric generating plant on board, for generating its own elec- 
tric current. This is the first modern gold dredge of this form 
ever built in this country. We are the pioneers in radical and 
marked improvements. We are the first to build a steel-hull 
gold dredge. If you want an up-to-date, economical and 
efficient dredge, designed and built, consult us, as we are 
specialists in this line, devoting our entire attention to placer 
mining machinery, including the "Empire" Prospecting Drill. 

"Empire" Placer Mining Equipment 

includes Dredges, Drills, Hydraulic or 
Bucket Gravel Elevators, High-Carbon 
Steel Sluices and Riffles, Hydraulic Pipe 
Lines, Giants, etc. We design and build 
your equipment to suit your conditions. 





July 10, 1915 

MINING «nd Scientific PRESS 





Associate B4ltor 

/"^AUTION marks business policy in general. Money 
^ is not in demand. Hesitation is still manifest, de- 
spite good crop prospects and a slight improvement in 
railroad earnings. The trend of events favors the min- 
ing industry. 

TJLATINUM export in quantities valued at over $250 
-*- was placed under an embargo by the Russian gov- 
ernment early this year, in the expectation of encourag- 
ing the opening of domestic refineries. This hope has 
been falsified; the producers have platinum they cannot 
sell, and are now petitioning for a modification of the 

POTASH SALTS are much needed for making fertil- 
izers. In 1914 the United States imported $8,743,- 
973 worth. Other ingredients of fertilizer manufacture 
to the value of $25,000,000 more were imported during 
the past year. Potash salts have been found lately in 
Arizona and Oregon, but the extent and quality of the 
deposits are yet to be proved. 

GOLD from the South African, the West African, In- 
dian, and Australian mines is being accumulated 
near the places of production, for the British govern- 
ment arranged early in the "War to advance 97% of its 
value to the companies producing it, the payment being 
made in London. This gold, on the average production, 
represents about $28,000,000 per month. If it had been 
stored for the 12 months now nearly past, it would repre- 
sent a sum of $336,000,000. 

WE READ of a party of miners working the Sultana 
mine in Utah who had not kept informed concern- 
ing the metal market, so that after two months' opera- 
tions they returned to Salt Lake City to find that th$ 
lead in their ore had risen from about 4 to 7 cents per 
pound during the interval. Fortunately they had bene- 
fited by ignorance. Another time they might suffer as 
much for the same reason. We commend our page, pub- 
lished weekly, on the metal markets to the operators of 
mines as giving reliable information on a subject vital 
to them. 

ANTIMONY, in the form of the sulphide, stibnite, is 
plentiful in Kern county, more especially in San 
Emidio canyon, also near the Tehachapi pass, and at 
Mohave, which is just over the line in San Bernardino 
county. In 1884, S. Boushey and his associates worked 
the San Emidio mines, and subsequently Starr & Mathi- 
son built a refinery in San Francisco to treat the prod- 
uct. This refinery was operated for several years and 

only tailed became of the prejudice for 'star' metal, 

although thai prodn I in the local plant was identical 

in character. So the antimony had to be shipped to 
New York, and the freight killed the business. In Cali- 
fornia antimony is associated in nature with mercury; 
hence it is also found in Napa, Ban Benito, and San Luis 
Obispo counties. 

TJALANCES of trade have averaged $140,000,000 per 
■*-* month in favor of the United States tor the last 
seven months. Despite the liquidation of American se- 
curities in Europe, alum I $120,000,000 of gold bus 
crossed the Atlantic to balance the account. Further 
selling of American investment stocks is certain, with a 
corresponding influx of gold hither. This fact is now 
engaging the serious study of financiers, for it is feared 
that it may lead to a dangerous inflation. The recogni- 
tion of the danger is a good sign. 

W/'E take pleasure in publishing an article by Mr. E. 
* " Gybbon Spilsbury giving our readers some of his 
technical reminiscences. If he had not confessed to 
being engaged on the inspection of a mine on the day 
when the present writer was born, we would not have 
disclosed the fact that he is indeed a veteran, although 
we were fully aware that for 50 years he has commanded 
the respectful attention of his professional friends. Mr. 
Spilsbury has the secret of a youthful spirit: the ability 
to take an interest in the affairs of others. His many 
friends will lie delightfully reminded of him by reading 
the article and will join with us in wishing him con- 
tinued health and prosperity. 

'TUN-SMELTING will soon be a domestic industry. 
-*- As stated in our correspondence from New York 
recently, the American Smelting & Refining Company 
has a plant under construction at Maurer, New Jersey, 
while Williams, Harvey & Co., the principal English 
smelter of Bolivian ore, has announced that it also will 
build a smelter somewhere in the United States. We 
are glad to add that a proposal is on foot to build a 
smelter in California, to treat Bolivian ores as well as 
the tin concentrate from Alaska. The principal use of 
tin is the making of tin-plate, which is used mainly in 
the making of cans for preserved fruit, foods, and oils. 
California, with its great petroleum output and fruit- 
growing industry, furnishes a large market for tin-cans, 
as does the salmon of Alaska, and the pine-apples of 
Hawaii. There is thus a local market for tin products, 
but a tin smelter would need as a corollary a tin-plate 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 10, 1915 

mill. Probably the one would be built if the other were 
in existence. Crude oil is available here at a Low price 
for smelting the ore. and the development of this local 
industry wems quite feasible. 

T>AN AMERICAN Scientific congress is the name of 
-*■ an international meeti for Decern! 

next at Washington. It is a sequel and a confirmation 
of toe recent Financial Conference, which appears to 
have paved the way for closer industrial relations be- 
tween tin- Americas north and south of the equator. 
That was a business men's affair, while the forthcoming 
Congress is to be educational and scientific. A similar 

motion was held at Santiago, Chile, in 1908, and at 

that time Washington was designated as the next place 
of meeting. Among the departments of science to fur- 
nish subjects for discussion is one entitled 'Mining and 
Metallurgy,' in charge of a committee of which Mr. 
Hennen Jennings is chairman. That fact speaks for 
itself. We make mention of this convention early so 
that those finding it convenient to be near Washington 
at the end of the year may arrange to be present and to 

I" OCAL papers have stated that Mr. II. C. Hoover 
J - J "will take over the management" of the Oroville 
Dredging company. This error is due to confusion with 
Mr. Theodore J. Hoover, his brother, who is a director 
of tin pany mentioned. However, even then the pub- 
lished statement would be erroneous, for the change 
made recently, whereby the control has passed from San 
PranciscO to London, is of a nominal character. The 
fact is that the company's alluvial property at Oroville 

is nearly worked out: the enterprise was rejuvenated. 

abqut three years ago. by the exploitation of a new dredg- 
ing property, called the PatO, in Colombia. This is doing 
well, but as W' c of the Oroville shares are held in Lon- 
don, the California!! interest in this South American 
dredging ground is slight, although it is pleasant to note 
that the technical work is still in the hands of Cali- 
fornians. notably Mr. W. A. Prichard, who is consulting 
engineer to the Pato. This offspring of the Oroville has 
itself given birth to a later subsidiary called the Nechi, 
another dredging enterprise in the same district as the 
Pato. It is obvious therefore that the original financial 
and technical interests of the original Oroville dredging 
company have passed elsewhere, and with this passing 
the management. It is the logic of events, nothing 

TfXAMINATTON of metals by means of X-rays has 
-*-' been developed in the experimental laboratories of 
the General Electric Company, and Mr. W. P. Davey 
will present a paper on the subject at the International 
Engineering Congress, to he held in this city in Septem- 
ber. While a radiograph gives no information as to the 
crystalline structure of the metal, it serves to indicate 
the presence of blow-holes, slag inclusions, porous spots, 
and similar defects that could not otherwise be detected 
except by cutting into the metal. Thus, for example, 

plates g inch thick, wetted by means of an ftry=aeetytene 
flame were examined and defects in the weld easily de- 
teeted. Iii steel g inch thick an air inclusion only 0.007 
inch wide eouhl be discovered. Unfortunately none of 

the fluorescent screens now in use are sensitive enough, 
so that all the Work must be done photographieally. On 
aeeount. of the length of exposure required with X-ray 
tubes of the voltages now in use it is not practicable to 
photograph through greater thickness than I inch, but 
with further development, higher voltages may become 

/"m )ST of living in South Africa, so it is claimed by the 

^* Labor Union on the Kami, has increased to such an 
extent as to warrant a demand for a 20% rise in the 
wages paid to contractors and a 25 f ; rise for day's-pay 
men. The demand comes at a moment so inopportune as 
to look like a hold-up, but it has been met judiciously by 
the Chamber of Mines, which has replied that the cost of 
living in the Transvaal has increased to no such degree 
as that claimed, while, on the other hand, the market- 
value of the product of the mines, namely the gold, has 
not been and cannot be increased to the consumer. A 
vise of 20 to 2.V ,' iii wages would augment the cost of 
production by 1 shilling, or 25 cents, per ton, so as to 
put nine mines on the ragged edge of solvency, and thus 
endanger the employment of 1670 white men. Hence the 
Chamber of Mines demurs to any hasty action and sug- 
gests an investigation by a committee of representative 
employers and employees under a chairman to he ap- 
pointed by the Government. This is a reasonable and 
politic solution of a threatening difficulty. 

The Mid-Year 

For the first time the Secretary of the Interior has 
issue. 1 a mid-year review of business conditions as re- 
flected by the mining industry. By calling upon the 
agents of the Geological Survey in the different mining 
centres, he has been enabled to issue a valuable summary 
of opinions. We publish the one emanating from Mr. 
Charles G. Vale here in San Francisco. It speaks for 
itself. Mining in California is awakening to renewed 
activity. In regard to the copper industry of the conn- 
try, the period of restriction of output has ended, most 
of the large mines having now brought their output to 
normal capacity. Many of the smaller producers, which 
were compelled to shut-down a few months ago, have 
resumed work. Mr. fJ. S. Butler's report on the subject 
summarizes the position by saying: "The output of cop- 
per has probably nearly or quite reached the normal. 
"Wages have been raised where reduction had taken place 
and the industry in general is in a highly prosperous 
condition." As to lead and zinc, Mr. C. E. Siebenthal 
reports that a marked revival in the mining of these 
metals has followed the rise in prices. "The present 
smelter capacity is scarcely equal to the demands upon 
it. This renders it imperative that as much spelter as 
possible be produced per retort, and puts a premium 
upon high-grade ores." He explains that this means a 

.lulv I 

MINIM. in d Sdentife IM<I SS 

old coal fin '1 plan' 
1 in Kansas and Missouri. The Joplin district 
.illy is booming; also the Miami diatricl ol <»kla 
boms Better quota! lead are also helping the 

/.in'- iniins. for most "i them produce l h »t li metals Lead 
.11 kept ■i""' 1 by the stock accumulated dur 
big n dull period, bul much of this baa now been sold, 
Mr. I 1 ' I. II.--. reports upon autimonj and speaks of 
the 'boom' in i luii metal The demand tor il and the 
British embargo on exports have caused the beel brands 
I., riae from 7 centa before the War to as much as l" 
per pound. The < blneae output, on which this 
country largel) depends, has been increased, bul ii does 
n. .1 suffice. The Chapman Smelting Companj has re- 
sumed in San Francisco, and a new smelter lias been 
erected mar San Pedro, in work ore from mines near 
Ballarat, in California. Prom Alaska an. I Nevada also 
Bome antimony has come, but the fear of a .li-..|> in the 
price "t' tin- metal as soon as the War is over prevents 
search for new deposits, although, of course, if a mine 
containing high-grade ore were found it could be run 
profitably even at the normal price. 

References are made in a report, also l.y Mr. P. L. 
II. ss. to tli. erection of the tin smelter at Perth Amboy 
by tin- American Smelting & Refining Company, to treat 
Bolivian ores at the rate of 3000 to 5000 tons per annum. 
This should prove helpful in any effort to exploit the 
meagre tin resources of this continent. Tungsten and 
molybdenum are now in great demand, owing to the re- 
quirements of the steel industry. The first American 
molybdenum mine to be worked on any scale is that of 
the Primos Chemical Company near Empire, in Colo- 
rado, while tungsten is also being exploited at a number 
of mines in Boulder county. Colorado. The quicksilver 
industry is one concerning which we have had a good 
deal to say in these columns. Mr. II. D. McCaskey, con- 
firming our statements, refers to the rise in price from 
$40 to $90 per flask, and mentions the cessation of ship- 
ments from Italy when that country went to war. He 
concludes that "the domestic mines are without serious 
competition and are in a position to profit while the War 
lasts." The demand for explosives is abnormal ami the 
few producers of mercury in California, Nevada, and 
Texas "will find some difficulty" in supplying the mar- 
ket. Mining for gold and silver, says Mr. McCaskey, is 
in a normal condition. Any danger of a shortage of 
cyanide has disappeared, the domestic production of that 
necessary chemical having been increased "under the 
freedom from foreign competition." A lower price for 
silver, which has fallen from an average of 55 cents in 
1914 to below 50 cents, is noteworthy. It remains only to 
quote the final remark of the Secretary of the Interior. 
Mr. Franklin K. Lane. He says: "The mining industry 
is basal in its relation to the general business of the 
nation and these generally optimistic reports from all 
parts of the country are significant and assuring to all 
who desire the industrial advancement of the T'nited 

Big Business 

An honored correspondent writes to n> expnwiing the 
opinion that the depressed condition • •! the mining pro 

ii has been prodti I bj the consolidation of mining 

ami metallurgical enterprises, He holds thai »' 

formerly a hundred men found occupation hi 

small operations, now, in these days of ^asi aggl ira 

of capital, one-tenth the number suffices Economy, 
you say. No says ho. In one sense perhaps, namely, the 

c is! of production, but as the millions thai compos ir 

population are forced into strictest economy through the 
contraction of employment, they have no money to spend, 

and hard limes ensue. It was so before the War. The 

trouble, he insists, began with the larg osolidations, 

which naturally threw thousands of men oul of employ 

mi hi. What is the use. he asks, of reducing cost if at 
the same time people an- deprived "f tin- means where- 
with to purchase 1 The only corrective, he suggests, is to 
go back to small operations. In I he mining districts such 

a stale of affairs can be brought about by showing small 
operators how to make their mines profitable. That, he 
concludes, is one of the fund of technical journalism, 
particularly of a paper like the Mining \m> Scientific 

I', which is nearer the mines than any other on this 

That is an appeal to which we respond. It is one that 
will evoke the sympathy of most of our readers. But 
first let us consider the premises to the argument. Big 
consolidations stifle small operations and depress the 
vitality of the mining profession. That is the statement. 
Remembering the days when a million Ions of ore was a 
visionary quantity and recalling a period when a $100,- 
000 mine was a respectably large enterprise, we are able 
to make necessary Comparisons. Then $5000 was a hand- 
some salary for even the cleverest engineer, and many of 
those thus recompensed worked cheerfully in charge of 
relatively small mines, as against the few who now re- 
ceive $5000 per month and supervise the operations of an 
enterprise that includes a dozen or twenty mines consoli- 
dated into one property. Yes, the picture of a dozen 40- 
stamp mills crushing ore from an equal number of mines 
is attractive as against a 100-stamp mill crushing five 
times as fast for a single consolidated property. But those 
40-stamp mills were supplied with richer ore than the 
big fellow and the latter earns a small profit from stuff 
that his predecessors would have found unprofitable. 
Mere bigness is not attractive, but it must be confessed 
that the large-scale operation is often necessary to fur- 
nish an economic basis of production. The disseminated 
copper mines with their 2 to 2\J ore are making for- 
tunes for their proprietors by exploiting lodes that were 
intelligently diregarded in an earlier period when such 
ore afforded no economic attraction even to a skillful and 
experienced engineer. It was the improvement in con- 
centration practice, plus the devising of suitable methods 
of mining cheaply, that brought these deposits within 
the definition of 'ore.' Before that they possessed only 
an academic interest. The copper mines of Ely furnish 
a good example. For many years small mines working 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 10, 1915 

restricted and uncertain bodies of high-grade ore ex- 
isted precariously, with more failure than success. When 
a broad-gauge engineer realized the conditions and 
adapted his methods to them, by steam-shovel and con- 
centrator, these unhappy ventures were joined into one 
superb undertaking, involving much capital and the 
building of a railroad, but developing into an enterprise 
of commanding merit. This story was repeated at 
Bingham, and elsewhere, notably in Arizona. No, we 
cannot glorify the past in an economic sense, much as 
we sympathize with the human extinction that follows 
in the wake of material aggrandizement. Yet we realize 
the advantage to the home community of smaller enter- 
prises owned and operated domestically. We have an 
example in the Mother Lode mines. These are small, 
compared with the Modderfontein, the Homestake, or 
the Treadwell, but they go ahead year after year giving 
employment to a resident population and to a number of 
local engineers, with results highly advantageous to the 
state of California. Those connected with them prefer to 
operate themselves rather than sell out to capitalists on 
the outside. The pleasure of the work, and a confidence 
in their own ability to perform it, prevents them from 
considering the transfer of their property. At the same 
time the gold lodes are such as not to justify the belief 
that they can be exploited more profitably by mere en- 
largemenl of the scale of operations. The general result 
would please our correspondent. Here the big consolida- 
tion finds no foothold. Yet at Grass Valley the main 
portion of an old gold-mining district has passed under 
the control of two companies, which have absorbed the 
adjacent smaller companies that used to operate there. 
No reason exists for believing that the community has 
suffered thereby, for those smaller companies had come to 
the end of their tether in most cases before they were 
swallowed by their present successors. Here we come to 
one of the advantages of consolidation ; stability of enter- 
prise. By averaging good and ill luck over a large area 
of mineral territory the consolidation escapes the unpro- 
ductive years that kill a small property. The element of 
risk is lessened. 

And yet we feel some sympathy with our correspond- 
ent's argument even though the logic of facts tends to 
refute it. Indeed, we want more of the smaller enter- 
prises, if only for the reason that from them are incu- 
bated the bigger ones. Men have not yet learned per- 
haps that to manage a small mine of your own is more 
interesting, and sometimes more profitable, than to hold 
a block of shares in a consolidation that puts you aside 
as a passenger, no longer a navigator. Many a man that 
was leading a happy life in the busy occupation of man- 
aging a mine, which he controlled, has exchanged that 
status for the idle possession of a shareholding that left 
him nothing to do except watch the tape. Each man 
must be his own philospher. From the community point 
of view the capable mine operator'is more desirable than 
the same man when he has become a gambler on Wall 
Strict; the one develops a natural resource, the other 
uses it as a counter in a game, which usually, like Bill 
Nye. "he does not understand." The conditions of which 

our correspondent complains should correct themselves. 
The small operator sold out when he got more by selling 
than by operating. Formerly there was more money 
made by selling than by buying mines. Now purchasers 
are more wary, they are better advised, and they decline 
to discount an unknown future too liberally. The time 
may come, indSed the consolidators complain that it has 
come, when mines cannot be bought advantageously. 
Then the small operator will refuse to do business with 
the consolidator, who has become so exacting, and will 
pursue the even tenor of his way, working his small mine 
cheerfully without the hankering to 'cash in.' In short, 
the incorrigible law of supply and demand will adjust 
the difficulty. 

Australian Metal Trade 

An official statement, prepared in the office of the 
Federal Attorney-General, gives some interesting sta- 
tistics concerning the metal trade of Australia. The 
year 1913 is taken as typical. Of the lead produced at 
Broken Hill, 208,000 tons, just 50% was treated locally, 
the other half being exported, under the control of the 
'Lead Convention.' Of the metallic lead exported, a 
large proportion goes to China. Of the zinc, 89% of the 
output (188,270 tons) was exported to a German group, 
consisting of the Metallgesellschaft, Aron Hirsch & Sohn, 
and Beer, Sondheimer & Co. Of the copper produced by 
the leading Australian mines, 95% was controlled by the 
German companies, notably Aron Hirsch & Sohn and 
Brandeis, Goldschmidt & Co. The Great Fitzroy and 
Chillagoe companies shipped their product to refineries 
in the United States, where the copper passed to the 
American Metal Co., which is associated with the Metall- 
gesellschaft at Frankfurt. Taking the production of the 
principal base-metal mines of Australia, 80% is exported 
and controlled by German metal agents. So says this 
official report, prepared in connection with an inquiry 
arising out of the War. All we need say is that it fur- 
nishes a scathing comment on the lack of enterprise, first 
of the Australian and then of the British. Of course, 
the consumption of metal in Australia is, relatively to 
Europe, small; yet much of it is exported as raw ma- 
terial to return as a manufactured product. Not even 
sheet zinc was rolled until the War made it imperative. 
As regards the British position, it is a fact that Great 
Britain consumes an amount of zinc exactly equal to the 
Australian output and consumes twice as much lead as 
that derivable from the Broken Hill lead concentrate 
that passes her ports on its way to the Continental 
smelters; while as to copper, Great Britain uses 140,000 
tons, or three times the Australian production. One can- 
not but admire the enterprise of the German ore-pur- 
chasing agencies, which have been able to make such a, 
successful industrial invasion of a foreign mineral 
region. At the same time, viewing the matter in a broad 
way, it is undesirable that ore-producers anywhere 
should be under the thumb of cartels, conventions, or 
syndicates so concentrated as to be able to control not 
the output only but the market price of the metals. 

July 10, 1916 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Our read*™ are Invited to use this department fur tho discussion of technical and other 
mutters pertaining to mining and metallurgy. The Edltur welcomes the expression of vlewa 
contrary to his own, believing that careful criticism Is mora vgulable than casual compliment. 

Speculation in Mines . 

Tho Editor: 

Su- li baa never occurred to me that the question 
of speculation in mining enterprises turned, in any way 
upon the Eaotor of venture par te. If the nature of 
mining has made it attractive to questionable promoters, 

surely no diseiission should he neressary to eliminate all 
sueh and to put absolutely aside the too numerous ped- 
dling schemes thai wholly lack the element of good faith. 
The fact that sueh gentry have flourished in the United 
States, and have given some excuse for the sneering 
attitude of financial authorities toward mining has 
nothing to do with the soundness of mining as an in- 
dustry. For some reason, not germane to the present 
subject, financial approval has been given most freely 
in this country to railroad securities; yet these have 
found a fairly rocky road to travel, with frequent re- 
organizations that, of necessity, have fallen most heavily 
upon those least able to protect themselves. Until the 
average shareholder in American corporations comes to 
realize that he must expect the treatment accorded to a 
sheep, if he insists upon playing the role of a sheep, the 
evils of which he complains will continue. There never 
has been, and, so long as human nature continues to be 
an imperfect thing, there never will be, evolved a system 
of jurisprudence that will remove the requirements of 

If mining does not hold the place it should in the 
ordinary layman 's classification of the sources of wealth, 
it can only be due to ignorance, the ignorance traceable 
to a distinctly American habit of letting others do the 
thinking for the man in the street. Miles Standish and 
Caesar agreed in the saying that "if you want a thing 
well done, you must do it yourself and not leave it to 
others." As Americans we have largely refused to 
shoulder our financial and political duties, but have 
"left them to others." It would be quite unfair to ac- 
cuse the American public of a lack of intelligence, but 
is quite true that as a whole that intelligence is not used 
as fully as it should be. All forms of business activity 
depend primarily upon the uninsurable business risk. 
The timid man who seeks to protect himself against 
every possible contingency of loss must be content with 
an extreme minimum of profit. Such men are never 
creators of anything, yet this is the type that condemns 
all mining as unduly venturesome when he happens to 
learn of some unwise or dishonest promotion coming to 
an inevitable end. 

It has been suggested in the discussions of preceding 

contributors that if the financial managements of mining 
companies could raise money by assessment, when 
Deeded, it would go far to cure some of the present-day 

troubles. I am iuelineil to the opinion that in so far :is 
this is ii step toward more complete co-operation, it is 
good, but the principle should be carried further, if pos- 
sible. I have always considered thai the best and most 
satisfactory results in mining could be obtained through 
properly organized development companies, with a staff 
that would pride itself upon the number of properties 
it developed rather than upon those which it rejected. 

Writing as a student of conditions and without the 
bast desire to criticize without cause, I am inclined to 
think that engineers have developed an undue fear of 
failure; it has become almost impossible to get a recom- 
mendation that expenditure be made upon a property 
that cannot absolutely demonstrate its ability to re-pay 
at least all such outlay. The result is a deadlock, with 
development companies reporting, and apparently tak- 
ing pride in the report, that large numbers of prospects 
in various stages of development have been 'turned 
down.' Kejections do not count, but prospects turned 
into mines do. The investor, with but the one string to 
his bow — a holding in a single company — is perhaps 
justified in his sense of discouragement, when the vein 
pinches out. If, however, the same capital is in the 
form of a holding in a development company, with ade- 
quate resources, a good staff, and some aggressive spirit, 
he can feel that one failure is of little moment. 

It may be replied, with truth, that we have not enough 
of such organizations, or that those that do exist lack 
some of the qualifications requisite for successful opera- 
tion. On the other hand, those organizations that have 
to some extent adopted this course and shown them- 
selves capable have no lack of followers. 

The moment a good organization comes into being and 
is ready to demonstrate to the public that the only risk 
which the shareholders will have to face will be that 
of legitimate mining, of finding and treating the ore at a 
profit, it will discover a public that will never complain 
of any failure made in good faith, but will remember 
and applaud every success, nor will it unreasonably ex- 
pect that "every post shall be made a winning one." 
Inside options must be eliminated, and the work of ev- 
cavation must be done on mining properties and not in 
the way of making ground-floors and sub-cellars. This 
completes the cycle ; it is up to the investor to insist 
upon these conditions and not expect that others will 
serve him where he should r»v->e himself. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 10, 1915 

When engineers are ready to say that they cannot 
expect to be infallible, that it should not be expected 6f 
them, and that Bach expectation compete them to take 
no chances and consequently gel nowhere, but that in 
the long run they will be right often enough to show 
satisfactory profits tor their financial sponsors, then 
mining will begin to have at its command the resources 

C. S. Burton. 

New York. Jane 15f 

Gold Mining in Bolivia 

The Editor: 

Sir — Tin- department of La Paz unquestionably con- 
tains the richest gold placers in Bolivia, and it is also 
regarded as being the- richest in gold veins. Among its 
nine provinces, [nquisivi is supposed to be the richest. 
Tin- western boundary of [nquisivi follows for a long 
distance the summit of the eastern Cordillera, descend- 
ing toward the east and north. The province' is ex- 
ceedingly rugged, transversed by many mountain ranges 
and corresponding deep canyons, accessible only by 
trails. Although the Bolivian government, besides its 
extensive railroad system, is building good wagon-roads, 

and has now nearly looo miles constructed, [nquisivi 
has the smallest ratio of good roads, on account of the 
difficulty of establishing an easy grade. Inquisivi for a 
long time has had more road accidents recorded than all 
the other 51 provinces of Bolivia together. 

The many tin mines in the Quimsa Cruz district were 
difficult of access; now there is a stage-road in operation 
from a station on the Bolivian state railroad in Sicasica, 
across the Quimsa Cruz pass, down into Inquisivi. with 
many branch-roads and trails to about 20 different tin 

According to the 'Monografia de la Industria Miners 
in Bolivia.' by Pedro AnicetO Blanco, published by the 
Bolivian government at La Paz in 1910, there is a group 
of three rich gold mines in Inquisivi. These are the 
Bavara, the Sacambaya, and the Cutavito, established 
and operated lor many years by the Jesuits with great 
results. Notwithstanding the long war of Independence, 
lasting from 1781 to 1825, the gold and silver mines made 
a good production, and it is supposed that these three 
mines also were in operation until 1825. Large sums of 
gold had accumulated, which the Jesuits could not take 
along with them, and on leaving, they buried it in the 
vicinity of the Sacambaya mine. In most cases a care- 
taker was left behind to look after the properties, as the 
Spaniards hoped to return eventually with a new army 
to re-conquer the country. Another rich gold mine, with 
a wonderful production, was the San Juan Bautista. 
also supposed to be in the mining district of Chuquirca- 
miri. in this same province of Inquisivi. 

About 1846, -lose Maria Dab-nee was directed by the 
President of Bolivia to explore 'the whole country and 
compile a list of all the mines and placers. For this 
purpose he was provided with a number of old maps. 
His report, published at Sucre i Chnquisaca) in 1851, is 
entitled 'Bosquejo Estadistica de Bolivia.' Dalence had 

also been charged to find these three mines and the 
buried treasure near the Sacambaya. But the whole 
landscape had been so much changed by the forests that 
ha.l grown up that he could find none of them, nor the 
San Juan Bautista. Besides, the inhabitants had all de- 
parted, nor could he obtain any help, guides, or pro- 

I'. A. Blanco lias published, with his book, a map show- 
ing the position of the most important mines, but none 
of these four mines, nor even their respective districts, 
has been indicated. I have an assortment of maps bear- 
ing on Bolivia. On one of them the district of Havara 
in I nquisivi province is shown; there is also a village of 
that name. I would have no difficulty in finding the 
Havara district. 

As to the authenticity of these three mines, I may men- 
tion that in 1546, at the Royal Villa at Potosi, a book of 
record was kept, giving the names and owners of all the 
gold and silver mines in Bolivia (then called Peru Alto), 
with the yearly production up to 1825, for the collection 
of the 'Royal Fifth,' to be sent yearly to the treasury of 
the king of Spain. These records have been transferred 
from Potosi to the Government archives at La Paz. It 
is known that every year a copy of these yearly records 

had I D sent also to the Royal Treasury at Madrid, and 

that subsequently these records had been transferred to 
the Royal Library, so a Bolivian Commissioner with 
copies of the La Paz records was sent to Spain to com- 
pare his copies with the records preserved at the Royal 
Library at Madrid. The Commissioner received permis- 
sion to do this and found that the records of La Paz 
agreed fully with the records of Madrid, and are, there- 
fore authentic. It is evident that there cannot be any 
question as to the existence of these three gold mines and 
the authenticity of their production figures. 

On June 12, 1666, a great revolt of the Indians of 
Bolivia broke out, during which the San Juan Bautista 
mine w'as completely destroyed. The Spaniards had to 
flee. The Indians defaced the portals of the adits, de- 
stroyed the reduction works, all the dwellings, broke the 
aqueducts, and for years had guards stationed for miles 
around to prevent any Spaniard from coming near. 
Nature finally helped, for the tropical rains caused the 
chaparral and forest trees to obliterate the trails and the 
fields where the Indian women were forced to raise the 
corn to feed the mine-population, now departed to other 
parts of Bolivia. The destruction of the three mines in 
the Havara district followed 115 years later. 

There would not be much difficulty in discovering the 
Havara, Sacambaya, and Cutavito mines by searching 
for the ruins of reduction works, dwellings, broken 
aqueducts, flumes, frequently hewn along the mountain- 
sides from solid rock and leading to large cisterns, quim- 
ball tea (rocking-stones for fine crushing of ore), and the 
accumulations of immense waste and tailing-dumps: all 
these objects would not he effaced in a thousand years. 
Much information can be collected from the natives and 
also from descendants of the early Spaniards. Many of 
these were engaged in farming and trading; not having 
taken part in the war, they had nothing to fear from the 

Juh 10 19] • 

MINING ud Sdeniifi. PRI SS 

Indiana In aetoal »ar lime, I nted themselves, 

but always returned to their honii 
Spanish di *< ndsnta kepi up the famil) m'd bj 

getting in toneh with them much information 
former timi b can I"- obtained. 

The reaull of finding some of these gold mines would 
l»- the obtaining, from the Government, of a leasehold 
at the rate of l" Bolivianos (80 cents per hectare 2 it 
acres per 6 months. So long as this leasehold fax is 

paid, the company is in undisputed possessi f the 

property. Wages ar.- low, about 80 cents' per day, the 
workman buying bis own food. Bolivia is a member of 
the Postal Onion and parcels can lx sen) to the United 
States, ii|> to a weighl of 10 lb., for 12c. per lb. There 
is also ■ urge banking and commission Arm with many 
branches in Bolivia and main offices in New York and 
San Francisco, thai could attend to the shipment of 
bullion. All iron-work aiul machinery is admitted free 
of import for mines, concentrators, mills, and smelters. 
The mining laws are good and the United States gov- 
ernment maintains a legation at La Paz. 

Berkeley, California. June 12. G. W. Wepfer. 

total gold from pulp plus metallic! to | A. i 

.lit of 

Assay of Ore Containing Metallics 
The Editor: 

Sir — In his letter. 'Assay of I Ire ( 'oulainiug Motallies.' 
in the issue of June 5, \V. E. CahiU describes a modifica- 
tion of the usual method of assaying ore containing 
metallics. Mr. CahiU states that by adding pulp to bring 
the total up to one-half assay-ton it is not necessary to 
weigh the metallics in order to make the calculation for 
its equivalent weight in pulp, as that is automatically 
done. While this is not apparent from his discussion, 
the following mathematical computation shows it to be 

In the usual method, assaying the pulp, finding the 
total gold in the pulp, finding the amount of gold in the 
metallics, and then distributing the total gold over the 
whole sample, if 

P t = the weight of pulp in grams, 

P, = milligrams of gold per assay-ton of pulp, 

M, = the weight of the metallics in grams, 

M s = milligrams of gold in metallics, 

T, = the weight, of the sample in grams = (P, -f- M x )', 
then the amount of gold in ounces per ton (of 2000 lb.) 
of sample is 

(P,) (Pi-) (29.166) (M.) 


This corresponds to the formula on page 259 of Fur- 
man's 'A Manual of Practical Assaying.' Transform 
this into Mr. CahiU 's method by separating the expres- 
sion into two terms having a common denominator. The 
first term (P,) (P 2 )/T, can he written P 2 - (1 - P,/T, )P, 
or P 2 - (T, -P,) (P^/T, or (A + B) a - (MJ (A + B) 2 / 
T,. The second term of the expression (M a ) (29.166)/^ 
represents the amount of gold in the metallics divided 
by the assay -tons in the sample. In terms of Mr. Cahill's 
method this can he written [G 2 -(l A.T. of pulp - 
weight of metallics) (A + B),/29.166] 29.166/T l (G 2 

pulp A 

of pulp 

1 gold p' ' 




this last portion of the second term is seen to cancel with 

■ond part of lb,, tii-si term, this being the automatic 

adjual nt of Mr. Cahill's method. Collecting terms the 

formula is, 

I | 

(A | G I — 

L 2 J T, 

Substituting figures given, then lis | 1.52 • [94.50 
I 1.48 - 1.52) 2] 29.166 ffi,r:' (90 29 166 292 
17. lis:', or practically 18 oz. per ton, 

Mr. Cahill's method affords considerable advantage 
over the usual method both in procedure and compute 

Reno, Nevada. June 15. 

J. J. Bristol. 

The Mechanical Work of Crushing 

The Editor: 

Sir — In the article by II. C. Kenney, in your issue of 
April 10, there seems to be a serious lack of 'precision of 
thought.' On page 573 the author takes the theoretical 

cis,' of a knife cutting a soft cube. I fail to see what this 
has to do with crushing ore — we crush ore, we don't < nl 
it. All fracture is finally caused by tensile strength, but 
the work required to produce the necessary tension va- 
ries with the manner in which the force is applied. Thus 
in the case of compression (or shearing), the deforma- 
tion (as Mr. Kenney states), is proportional to the di- 
mension of the test-piece in the direction of the applica- 
tion of the force, and the work is proportional to this 

In the case of cutting, the knife stretches the surface 
layer till it breaks. The work is measured by the dis- 
tance the knife has to travel before rupture occurs, and 
this is quite independent of the dimensions of the test- 
piece. Thus the work required in each case is not neces- 
sarily the same. To say that any mechanical means can 
"sever the molecular bonds without, causing distortion," 
is to deny that "strain is proportional to stress." Other- 
wise it means that an infinitely sharp knife can cut ma- 
terials without the exercise of any pressure on the blade ; 
in other words, that it can cut without doing any work. 
The rest of page 573 is based on this fallacy. Confusion 
again appears in the attempt to differentiate between 
"work of compression" and "work of rupture." The 
work is done in compressing the hody up to the point of 
rupture. When this is reached an infinitesimal increase 
causes rupture, and no more work is done. The poten- 
tial energy of compression changes to heat, to surface 
tension of the new faces, and to electrical forms of 

Walter J. Rose. 

Broken Hill, Australia, May 18. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 10, 1915 

Technical Reminiscences 


When asked by the Editor to contribute some remi- 
nces of my technical experience, I could not but 
wonder how much age had to do with this request. 
Knowing how careful the said Editor is in the use of his 
own experience, I felt that nothing short of real ancient 
history was expected under the title of "reminiscences," 
and, therefore, to reach back that far I shall have to 
begin at t lie date of his own birth.* 

At that time I was representing an important German 
zinc and lead mining company, on the island of Sardinia, 
investigating the zinc resources of that island. Captain 
Thomas Rickard and his brother Richard reached the 
island about the same time in the interests of the mining 
firm of John Taylor & Sons, of London. As we were the 
pioneers in the work of developing the immense calamine 
deposits only then just beginning to be known and ap- 
preciated, and also being practically the only English- 
speaking engineers in the country, we were naturally 
thrown much together, and although our interests were 
somewhat opposed, personally we became quite intimate, 
and I well remember the invitation I received at my 
camp one day to come down to the town of Iglesias and 
dine with the Rickards to celebrate the advent of "young 
Tom" on this mundane sphere, the news of which event 
had just been received from Spezzia, where the family 
then was. Needless to say, I went and we did ! 

This early pioneer work in Sardinia was most inter- 
esting and instructive. In the first place, the island was 
almost as much a terra incognita as our own West a 
century ago. The only towns were along the coast and 
there were only two roads on which wheeled vehicles 
could be drawn ; the one connecting Cagliari in the south 
with Sassari in the north, and the other connecting Cag- 
liari with Iglesias in the south-west. All communication 
outside these two roads was by trail. And yet the civili- 
zation of Sardinia was one of the oldest in the world. 
Every district where mining became later developed had 
numerous workings of the ancients. The Phoenicians, the 
Egyptians, and later the Carthaginians and Romans had 
all left their marks, in old excavations, dumps, slag- 
piles, and more especially in the tombs, cut out of solid 

In those days, every old mine yielded no end of speci- 
mens of bronze tools and lamps, stone picks, and ham- 
mers made either of jasper or obsidian. The tombs 
yielded pottery of all sorts and scarabs of malachite 
and turquoise. The old slag-piles yielded lead slabs and 
pigs, with the Government seal and dates cast in them. 
Altogether it was a paradise for* the archaeologist, if not 
for the miner. 

Mining for the first few years was conducted under 

•The Editor appreciates the joke and will take pleasure in 
signing the card. 

difficulties, owing first to the unhealthfulness of the coun- 
try during the summer months and secondly to lack of 
native labor. The prevalence of malarial fevers and 
cholera necessitated the cessation of all operations for 
the three summer months each year. All foreigners had 
to leave, even the imported labor from Piedmont could 
not stand the conditions. So that our calculations had 
to be based on a nine months' campaign. The natives 
themselves were more or less immune, but, owing to the 
peculiar tribal or village system under which they lived, 
they could not be induced to mingle with others not of 
their village and work in harmony with them. 

The extent to which this segregation obtained through 
the island was really remarkable. The cause was at- 
tributed to lack of intercourse, due to the poor means of 
communication, but it was primarily attributable to the 
diverse origin of the tribes. Probably no region of equal 
area in any country contained so many different customs, 
costumes, and languages as existed in Sardinia at that 
time. General La Marmora, who wrote a history of the 
peoples of Sardinia, gives, I believe, 11 distinct languages 
as being spoken. One interesting case he mentions, and 
I verified it personally, was that of a community in the 
province of Sassari on the north-western coast, where the 
classic Latin is still the common language of the people. 
The costumes were varied and picturesque, and each vil- 
lage had its own. In the south the type was Moorish and 
the bournmis was still worn. In some places the cos- 
tumes resembled somewhat those of the Basques, but with 
more vivid colors. 

In those days the north and eastern parts of the island 
were dangerous for foreigners as well as difficult of 
access. The tribes occupying this mountainous district 
did not recognize the Italian government and were gen- 
erally classed as bandits. Many of them were so, being 
escaped convicts from the penal establishment near 
Cagliari. They had a government of their own, which, 
while not recognized by the Italian authorities, was 
winked at and not interfered with, except when some 
raid or other on the villagers of the lower country re- 
quired a counter punitive raid by the carabinieras of the 
Italian army. As a rule these so-called bandits were a 
pretty decent set of fellows, as long as they received fair 

There was one episode that I recall with much pleas- 
ure ; it happened during the second year of my stay. I 
was camped near the village of Villa Cedro, opening up 
a new mine, when one evening just when I was about to 
retire I heard a disturbance outside and the clatter of a 
number of horses. Thinking at first that I was about to 
be raided by the bandits, who were reported in the neigh- 
borhood, I called the two foremen who were in the house 
with me and getting our guns we started to see what the 

July 10, 

MINING and .Scientific PRESS 


trout. l< ma Opening the tear, I snw ■ small eavaleade, 
of which eon ,im.., i of gudannea, earning up to th.- 
The leader, a very mil mid slim young gentle 
man dreaeed in full hnnting "ffftmne. gal off his horse 
and eoming np the itepa addreaaad dm by nana. BUting 
thai lu- lui.i a letter of introduction for me, he Baked if 
ha and a friend eoold stay the night Of .•ours,-, i told 

him he waa weloome, it' l onld put np with our rough 

accommodations. He Bailed to his friend and then en- 
tered the living-room, where there waa a light. I thought 
1 had never Been a taller or lankier fellow, but withal a 
most pleasant face. After getting rid of some of bis 
wraps, in- handed me a letter from one of tin- directors 
of our company asking me to do all that was possible to 
make the stay of the bearer as pleasant us I could, as he 
uas a friend of theirs, being the Duke of Brabant, after- 
ward Leopold the Second, King of the Belgians. 

The Duke hail come to Sardinia on a m moun- 

tain sheep] hunt, and as my camp was situated in the 
beat mouflon country he stayed with me for several days. 
He never forgot the experience of that trip and years 
afterward when he had succeeded his father, I always re- 
ceived a hearty welcome whenever I met him either in 
Bruxelles or more often, in the latter years of his life, 
in Paris. A curious coincidence was that the last time I 
met him, about a year before his death, he was again in 
tin- Mediterranean, but this time at Messina on the 
island of Sicily. 

At the time of my first visit to the island of Sardinia, 
the chief, if not the entire, metal products were lead and 
silver. These had been mined as far back as the time of 
the Phoenicians, and the extensive old workings as well 
as the slag-dumps showed the extent to which the busi- 
ness had been carried on. 

The decline in the industry dated evidently back to 
the period following the dismembering of the Roman 
empire, as no relics of a subsequent date have been found, 
so far as I remember. In 1864 there were only two 
large producing mines operating on the island. These 
were the Montevecchio lead and silver mines in the cen- 
tral part of the island, and the Monteponi mines in the 
province of Iglesias in the south-western part. Both of 
these mines were treating galena as well as oxidized 
ores, while nearly all the old mines had worked only on 
the carbonate ores. About the year 1863 a new mining 
excitement seems to have been started, mostly by French 
prospectors, and concessions were obtained and capital- 
ized on the ancient mines. This resulted in disappoint- 
ments, as the mineral that was supposed to be cerussite 
turned out to be chiefly calamine.! This discovery, how- 
ever, called the attention of the European zinc-smelters 
to these deposits as a source of supply, and in a few 
years Sardinia became the principal zinc-ore producer of 

It was not long before the Monteponi Mining Co. be- 
gan concentrating its lead ores more efficiently, saving 
the zinc silicate for further concentration and shipment. 

tHere used for the carbonate. As our readers are aware, 
that is the European usage. — Editor. 

It was in carrying out this work that the | 

aogleaite in large quantities in the l.-ad veina waa db> 

covered, and a sour f trouble in th.- smelting of had 

carbonates was thus eliminated. Probably no other mine 

has produced as much natural lead sulphate as Monte 

pom, out only aa sabinel specimens, hut actually in bulk. 

It may l f interest to note that the identification of 

the amorphous calamine of Sardinia was made possihle 
by the discovery, a few years previous, of a similar 

cherty-looking mineral that Hired in a banded form 

in the Breinigerberg had ami zinc mine near Stplberg, 
in Rhenish Prussia. In tin- hand-jigging methods of 

titration of those days, this material, which was 
much harder than the ordinary calamine, or zinc car- 
bonate, was easily [licked out and had 1 n discarded as 

worthless until somebody out of curiosity analyzed it 
and found it contained as much zinc as the best carbon- 
ale ore. 

The reduction of these silicate of zinc ores, however, 
offered no end of difficulties because the calcining, which 
by driving off the carbonic acid in the carbonate ores 
left, that material in a porous condition and easily per- 
meated by the reducing gases, had no effect on the sili- 

The principal markets for these zinc ores were in Bel- 
gium and Rhenish Prussia. Nearly all the zinc-smelters 
of these districts were either actually engaged in mining 
themselves, or were represented by buyers on the island 
of San Pietro at Carlo-Forte, which was the principal 
shipping port for all the ores mined on the western side 
of the island. The mines shipped their ores by lighter 
to Carlo-Forte and those not consigned direct were sam- 
pled there and sold at public auction once a week. 

The method of shipping across the Straits was crude 
in the extreme. The ore was delivered by bullock-carts 
on the beach at Fontenamare, and when a shipment was 
ready it was loaded in baskets and carried out to the flat 
boats or lighters on the backs of men and women, who 
went into the water up to their shoulders before reaching 
the boats. The unloading at Carlo-Forte was done in the 
same manner. It was not till some years later that any 
mechanical loading devices were installed. 

I wonder how many mining engineers of the present 
day can call to mind the changes and advances in the 
practice of mining which have taken place in the last 
half-century? Practically every appliance, beyond the 
pick and shovel, hand-hammer and drill, has been intro- 
duced during that short period. When I first started 
my practical course in underground work we knew none 
of the aids now considered requisite to work econom- 
ically. We had no machine-drills to save the physical 
labor of hand-work. Dynamite or its precursor nitro- 
glycerine had not yet been invented; fuse was still un- 
known ; even steel was more or less of a luxury and our 
hand-drills were still made of iron with steel bits welded 
onto them. The mushrooming of the head of the drill 
under the hammer-blows was a constant source of trouble 
and injury to the hands of the miners. The only ex- 
plosive known was the large-grained black powder. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 10, L915 

It seema strange now to remember thai pari of the 
culum in tin- mining coll tsisted in instruc- 

tion in how to prepare the cartridges of brown paper 
for the charge; how t<> waterproof them by soaking in 
tallow; how to prepare the long rye-straws for fuse and 
fill them with fine sporting powder; and how to prepare 
the slow fuse for ignition by soaking cotton wieking in 
molten sulphur and cutting it up into the proper lengths, 
eems hardly credible today, and yet it is a fact, thai 
the contract price for driving or stoping ground was in- 
fluenced by tin- condition of the rye crop. In seasons of 
drought the height of the rye was much curtailed, and 
the length of the straw between joints would be so short 
that the time occupied in jointing and filling the straws 
greatly lessened the driving capacity of the miners, and 
hence increased the Cost per foot or per ton. Single- 
hand drilling was the general practice except in extraor- 
dinary hard rock, when double 'jacks' were used. The 
straw primers naturally Limited the possible depth of a 
hole, and three feel was considered a good average. It 
was the invention of the tape fuse that brought the 
double-hand hammer into rogue, and made deeper drill- 
ing possible. 

Lately there has arisen a good deal of discussion re- 
garding the meaning of the terms 'tamping' and 'stem- 
ming,' the idea being that one designates the material 
Used, and the other the method of introducing it into 
place. These terms, however, reach back to the straw- 
fuse period. 'Tamping.' from the French tampon, a 
plug, originally meant the material used fur the plug. 
hut was also generally used to express the action of in- 
serting the plug. 'Stemming.' on the contrary, referred 
originally to a different part of the same operation, 
namely, the insertion of the copper stem or needle 
around which the tamping was driven so tight that 
when the needle was withdrawn it left a clear tube from 
the mouth of the drill-hole through which the straw fuse 
could be introduced and pushed home into the charge. 
The tamping-har. which was copper-faced, was nearly of 
the same diameter as the hole, but along one side it. had 
a groove in which the stem or needle would lie. What 
was known as 'stemming' in those days was the method 
of jarring the needle as the tamping progressed so as to 
make sure of its safe withdrawal without disturbing the 
completed tamping. This withdrawal was effected by 
passing a drill through the eye of the stem and using one 
end as a fulcrum, tapping the other end with a hammer 
until the needle was loosened sufficiently to be with- 
drawn by hand. 

No detonating caps were used except in very wet holes. 
The end joint of the straw was split, with a sharp knife 
before insertion, and the hlow-out from the sporting 
powder was sufficient for the ignition of the charge. 
These straw fuses were very rapid and it was necessary 
to ignite them by a slow-burning sulphur wick. The 
choice of tamping material was not left to the miners, 
hut was provided by the company, and the use of any 
other material rendered the miner liable to fine. As a 
rule the first plug next to the cartridge was of burnt 

(day. while the rest of the tamping was coarsely ground 


ipment in those days consisted of a long 

tin tube to carry the lengths of straw for fuse and a 
sheath on the outside for the copper needle; this "as 
the miner's no property; also attached to tie- main 
tube were smaller tuhes or hoxes containing the sulphur 

wicks, the sporting-powder priming, and the paper for 

cartridges; he also carried a Mask id' blasting-powder, 
and another smaller flask for oil. besides a water-Mask, 
generally filled with coffee. All of these receptacles 
weir inspected by the foreman as the men went on shift. 
In the German mines the men all assembled in the fore- 
man's office for prayers before beginning their shift. 

Except under special conditions no men Were allowed 
to be raised or lowered by the hoisting-engine, the lad- 
ders being used both for entry and exit. In some of the 
very deep mines, however, a special man-engine or 
fahrkunst was used, greatly lessening the tine- spent in 
climbing ladders. 

Mining Claims in National Forests 

In many mining districts in the AVest there is some 
opposition to the practice of the Government in having 
claims within the National Forests inspected before the 
issuance of patent Many mining men feel that they are 
entitled topatenl to mining claims, particularly in estah- 
lished milling districts, even if they have not made min- 
eral discoveries on the individual claims. 

( 'ongress has set aside a part of the public domain for 
a specific purpose — for the growing of timber, and the 
protection of the watersheds. The fact, that any ground 
has thus been withdrawn is prima facit evidence that it 

has a definite value for the uses prescribed by Congress. 
Is it unreasonable for the Government to require mining 
claimants to comply with the Federal law before giving 
them absolute title to a part of its domain which has 
been designated hy Congress as having a presumptive 
value for the purposes for which it has been reserved? 

A prospector or miner is in no way disturbed hy Gov- 
ernment, agents in the enjoyment of his rights within 
National Forests. No examination is made of any ground 
located for mining purposes unless, as stated, it interferes 
with the administration of the Forest. A claim may in- 
terfere with the administration of the Forest when it 
conflicts with areas leased to individuals under what is 
known as a Special Use Permit; when it is included with- 
in a tract from which the Government has sold, or con- 
templates selling, the timber; or wdiere the claim is so 
located as to control rights of way over which it is neces- 
sary to transport forest products. At the present time. 
in some parts of the country, the timber business within 
the National Forests is seriously interfered with hy un- 
scrupulous locators of ground under the mining laws. 
In all such cases, the Government has a direct interest at 
stake, and an examination of the interfering mining 
claims is made to determine their validity. — E. I). Gard- 
ner in Trans. A. I. M. E. 

.Julv 10, 

MINING and Scicnt.hc I'KI SS 

I : 

pr " 


I \i mi 1M. loll III! IHM. 


A Novel Debris-Dam 


Gold w;is accidentally discovered in California in i S 18. 

In 1>49 fully 100,000 millers were washing tin- gravel in 

the Btreams and gulches of the Sierras. The pan was 
Shortly followed by t lie rocker, brought from Georgia, 
then came the 'long torn' and the 'sluice-hox.' With the 
sluices came the demand for some means of moving the 
gravel in larger quantities than before and an ingenious 
Yankee conceived the idea of directing a stream of water 
against the bank, using a rawhide hose with a eow's horn 
for a nozzle. This method was so effective that it was 
generally adopted and the crude apparatus soon devel- 
oped iuto the steel penstock and the hydraulic giant of 
a later day. 

The progress of hydraulic mining brought forth a 
problem that resulted in much bitter feeling and long 
continued litigation between the different interests in- 
volved. The first comers were essentially miners and 
sought gold regardless of the consequences that might 
attend their search. But the agricultural possibilities of 
the country were too great to be long overlooked, there- 
fore many of the newcomers turned to this industry and 
much land was put to the raising of crops, the valleys 
watered by the largest rivers, the Sacramento and the 
San Joaquin, being the first and most thickly settled. 

These streams flow with gentle grades through wide 
valleys covered with the flood-plain deposits of earlier 
periods. Consequently the spring freshets result in 
floods that spread over a considerable territory unless 
controlled by levees. Calculations have been made of 1 lie 
rate of erosion of various rivers. Using the figures of the 
Po, in Italy, where conditions approach most nearly those 
of the Sacramento, it has been estimated that the sedi- 
ment carried by the latter which is derived from the 
natural erosion of its own channel and its tributaries 
varies from 5,600,000 to 43,000,000 cu. yd. per year. The 
problem was serious enough in itself without adding to 
this amount the vast quantities of debris resulting from 

the placer operations, which in many cases bad grown to 
enormous size ami had involved large amounts of money 
iii permanent works. 
The accompanying photograph ahows par) ef the pit 

Of the Malakoff mine at North Bloomh'eld. in Nevada 
county, the largest placer mine of all time and one from 
which some of the most valuable data on hydraulic min- 
ing have been obtained. One can get some idea of the 

debris of this One mine by realizing that its banks reached 
a maximum height of 26f> ft., water was used under a 
head of 800 ft., a static pressure of :S47.2 lb. per square 
inch, and directed against the banks through nozzles with 
diameters up to 8 inches. In 1877 the Malakoff used 
595,000 miner's 24-hour inches and moved 2,993,930 cu. 
yd. of gravel. From 1870 to 1877 inclusive it moved 11,- 
021,630 cu. yd. of gravel. 

Various figures have been given as to the duty of water 
in hydraulic mining, all of which vary widely, the chief 
factors being the character of the material and the size 
and grade of the sluices. At the Malakoff it varied from 
18 to 21 cu. yd. of water for each yard of gravel. Harts* 
places the average duty at the mines on the Sacramento 
watershed at three cubic yards per miner's 24-hour inch, 
equal to 26.66 cu. yd. water pel' yard of gravel moved. 
These figures are quoted to give some idea of the immense 
amounts of debris washed from the watersheds of the 
rivers mentioned. It must be remembered that when 
hydraulic mining was in its prime practically the entire 
flow of the mountain streams was put to this use. 

The State Engineer of California estimated that in 
1880 53,400,000 cu. yd. of sediment and gravel found its 
way into the Sacramento basin. 18.100,000 cu. yd., of 
which 4,900.000 cu. yd. was the result of natural erosion, 

*For most of the data concerning erosion and the debris 
deposited I am indebted to 'Control of Hydraulic Mining in 
California by the Federal Government' by W. W. Harts, Trans. 
Am. Soc. C. E„ Vol. 57. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July in. 1915 

was brought down in suspension ; of this 2.100.000 en. yd. 
settled in the overflowed basins and 16,000,000 cu. yd. 
was deposited along the channel or carried into the bays 
of Suisun and San Francisco. From 1849 to 1880 the 
low-water plane of the Sacramento was raised 7% ft., 
tides at Hie city of Sacramento almost disappeared, navi- 
gation was seriously impeded, and it was estimated that 
this stream contained 108,000,000 cu. yd. of placer 

Conditions on the San Joaquin river were similar, but 
it is probable that the Yuba, to which the largest opera- 
tions including the Afalakoff, were tributary, was the 
greatest sufferer. It was estimated that the Lower Yuba 
contained 333,000,000 cu. yd. of debris and the low-water 
plane at Marysville was raised 15 ft., making necessary 
the construction of an extensive system of levees to pro- 
tect adjacent lands from inundation. 

Obviously such a condition was intolerable to the agri- 
culturists, whose lands were frequently overflowed and 
covered with fine tailing, and to those who had invested 
money in river-transportation enterprises. Various legal 
actions wen- started. After sonic years of litigation the 
year 1880 found hydraulic mining on the watersheds of 
the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers practically 
Stopped by injunctions obtained in the local and Federal 

At this point the matter was made the subject of in- 
vestigatinn by Congress, and this investigation was car- 
ried on Eor eight years, from 1880 to 1888. finally re- 
sulting in 1893 in the passage of the Caminetti Act. This 
Act was ostensibly designed to protect the navigable 
rivers, but its provisions were such that it also has the 
effect of protecting the agricultural lands, as only those 
mines were allowed to operate that could do so without 
discharging their debris into the navigable streams. At 
first thought this might appear to be an assumption by 
Congress of authority over State affairs, for the trouble 
was confined to two river-basins in the state of California, 
but it is based on the constitutional authority of Congress 
to exercise jurisdiction over navigable rivers and inter- 
state commerce. The validity of the Act has not been 
questioned; iii fact, the miners welcomed any move that 
might permit even a few of them to operate. 

The Act created the California Debris Commission, a 
Federal hoard of three members from the Engineer 
Corps of the 1". S. Army, with authority to pass on all 
schemes for the impounding or controlling of debris 
from hydraulic mining operations with power to stop 
any that do not meet with its approval. Thus the effect 
of the Act is to permit such mines to operate as will in- 
stall works adequate to control their tailing and prevent 
it from reaching the navigable streams of the valleys. 
The authority of the Commission is limited to the water- 
sheds of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, and 
its duties also include investigations and formulation of 
plans to improve the navigability of these streams in 
their lower rea 

The Commission has worked with a broad-minded 
the result being that many hydraulic mines 

been able to resume operations, while there has been a 
gradual improvement in the condition of the lower river- 
channels. The choice of a dam is wholly within the dis- 
cretion of the operator, the only conditions being that it 
shall be efficient and safe. Many types have been used, 
notably stniie % rarth, brush and rock, and log cribbed with 
rock-tilling. Some concrete dams have been built but in 
general they are too expensive for this purpose, so that 
the log cribbed with rock-fill is probably the most com- 
mon. A debris dam. however, must combine efficiency 
and safety with economy. Most hydraulic mining is con- 
ducted on a narrow margin of profit and it has been 
found too often that the dam designed to meet the re- 
quirements of the Debris Commission added so much to 
the expense of operations as to make it unprofitable. 
For this reason the dam now under construction to im- 
pound the tailing of the Omega mine in Nevada county 
is of interest, as it has met the requirements of the Com- 
mission and has been constructed at a very small expense 
per yard of gravel hydraulieked. 

The Omega hydraulic mine is situated on the channel 
of the Tertiary Yuba river about 34 miles above Wash- 
ington, California, an old settlement dating hack to the 
very earliest days of the great stampede. It is perhaps 
liitinsr thai the dam to be described, the first of its kind, 
should be built within a short distance of the spot where 
the clever Yankee first turned his water through the 
rawhide hose with its cow's horn nozzle. 

The tailing from the Omega mine discharges into 
Scotchman creek. The first dam was built about 2VL 1 
miles below the mine aud about a quarter of a mile above 
the South Fork of the Yuba river at a point where the 
creek cuts a narrow channel through the slate that forms 
a part of the Blue Canyon member of the Calaveras 
formation. This dam is made of concrete, 23 ft. long at 
the bottom, 55 ft. long at the top, 15 ft. thick on top with 
a down-stream face 45 ft. high. The reservoir formed 
thereby was of small capacity, so that it was soon filled, 
and as the length increased rap'dly with the height the 
economic limit of such a dam was soon reached. 

After a period of idleness the mine resumed operations 
and construction was commenced of what, for lack of a 
better name, may be called a 'basket' dam. The old con- 
crete dam was used for the toe of the new dam and the 
tailing back of it was excavated to a depth of two feet. 
In the excavation, two tiers of baskets were laid butting 
against the old dam. The basket dam was designed by 
J. M. Howells, of San Francisco, who conceived the idea 
from the Japanese jakago, a levee facing of loose rock 
restrained by bamboos so constructed that if the facing 
is undermined by the current the rocks settle of them- 
selves and cover the eroded spot. 

Construction of the basket dam proceeded as follows: 
The baskets \\,w made of ordinary poultry-netting of 14- 
gauge galvanized wire and 6-ft. widths. For a reason to 
be mentioned later the length of the baskets varies, eight 
feet being the average at the time these notes were made. 
Such a basket is made by cutting eight feet of poultry- 
netting and folding it over so as to bring the two bound 

July 10, 


p iiml Him wiring the mesne* of the 
Getting together on the .mix. Thia can perhapa best be 
understood by folding a piece of paper aa described. 

The result is a wire i tainer thai may be iTi— lilmi] aa 

pillow shaped with a seam opening lengthwise along the 
top and of raeh dimanaiona thai whan filled it will 
measure s by 2 bj l 

In building the dam a two-inch plunk ia ael on edge 
two feel from the bank, or from the lasl baskel laid, and 
held in place by driving iron puis alongside, < Ine of the 
empty baskets is set in the two-fool space thus Formed 
and Oiled with small boulders, not larger than a man's 
head, with sand and gravel sprinkled into the interstices. 
Tin- open edges of the netting are then brought together 
by means of a curved pier,- of strap-iron with a sharply 

curved hook on the end and held while they are tied 

together with wire. The down-stream ends of the baskets 

are lined to a wire stretched taut along 
the line to which they are to he buill 
and the tops are brought to level with 
a straight-edge. A spillway 20 ft. long 
and 1 ft. deep is carried at one end of 
the dam. Kaeh row of baskets is 
started with its down-stream face one- 
half its length baek from the corre- 
sponding face of the basket on which 
it rests. Thus if 8-ft. baskets are used 
they will lap 4 ft. As the baskets are 
laid, gravel is filled behind them for 
10 ft. so that the top width of the dam 
is 10 ft. plus the length of the basket. 
or an average at the Omega dam of 18 
feet. The concrete dam was built at a 
point where the creek makes a sharp 
bend almost at a right angle, so that in 
carrying this dam up it has been neces- 
sary to curve it to conform with this 
bend, which gives it the fan shape 
shown in the photograph. On this account the length of 
the baskets has been varied, causing a corresponding 
variation of the slope of the down-stream face. At the 
time these notes were made the dam w T as 150 ft. long, in- 
cluding the spillway, and 35 ft. high, with a slope on the 
inner side of 2 : 1 and on the outer side of 6 : 1. The cross- 
section illustrates the average as it is at present, a 4 :1 
slope using 8-ft. baskets. When the dam reaches a point 
on the stream where it is no longer necessary to carry the 
fan shape, 6-ft. baskets will be used with a lap of four 
feet giving a down-stream slope of two to one. 

Conditions prevailing at the Omega site were not fav- 
orable to the lowest cost of operation. The ideal condi- 
tion would be one that would allow of backfilling with 
a hydraulic giant, but this was not possible. Dragline 
excavators were tried, but it was found that under pres- 
ent conditions they are not feasible. They can be oper- 
ated in another season. It was therefore found necessary 
to excavate with pick and shovel and move the dirt by 
wheeling. Fortunately there is plenty of gravel at each 
end of the dam, so that even with this method the cos": is 
not excessive. 

When the mu arging 1000 ou yd. of tailing 

per day. tin debris can i" controlled by 'J men laying 
baskets and I men shoveling and wheeling If wagi 

13 per day, with a foreman at si. ihis would bring the 

labor enst to (22 per ,iay. This is the only expen 

eept for DOultTJ netting ami wear of tin- tools, which 
amounts to not over *•"> per day, so thai Under present 

conditions the total coal is approximately J.Te. per yard 

of gravel hydraulicked. However, as the height of the 

dam is increased the area of the pond 09 tpidly 
in both length and breadth out of proportion to the in- 
crease m BSary in the length of the dam as it is raised. 

For this reason it is expected thai in another season the 
same amount of work and material now necessary to con- 
trol loim eu. yd. of tailing will then impound approxi- 
mately 1000 ou. yd., thus bringing the cosl per yard of 
gravel hydraulicked to about 0.7 cent. 


The above crew can lay and back-fill 20 baskets per 
day. One basket (average at present) is-8 by 2 by 1 ft., 
so that the basket-work amounts to 320 cu. ft. per day. 
Back of the basket-work is 10 ft. of back-fill, 6 ft. of 
which is on the earth already filled in and thus only 
one foot deep while four feet must go down to the bottom 
of the pond, about 6 ft. on a l 1 /^ :1 slope, making a total 
for the 40 ft. of dam laid in a day of 1520 cu. ft. or 56.3 
cu. yd. at a cost of 48c. per yard. 

One of the regulations of the Debris Commission pro- 
vides that the water in the pond must have a depth of 
at least 3 ft. below the level of the spillway at a point 
150 ft. upstream from the dam. This regulation is 
wholly within the discretion of the Commission and may 
be altered one way or the other, as justified by the mag- 
nitude of the operations of the mine. It has been found 
that when it is met a depth of six feet of water is ob- 
tained at the dam. 

The basic principle of this dam is the relief of pressure 
rather than resistance to it. The most impervious part 
is the back-fill, the up-stream face of which is continu- 
ally covered with a layer of very fine silt, 'slickens' as 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 10, 1915 







o c '-'o ° o o o op o ~ ,j<s 

O O O O O c < 6 Or? rt <■ 

■ o 0o o Ob -0:°^ 

...^ — "" t-r". i-, ' .'". ■■ j o:'?:-<i^9X> :San&, bovtder, and grays/ f/ll. Cvi 6. c ■ff--y ^f^£ 3£ 

it,-.';' '•-"■:■ ■-".-.-", - -v - '., c '?,'" ;Sjp <Z £o"i&£-6 o <x-'o: oxo. q -. o u D q --.o d: o;< g g g »■.* Mjei£<S5=ri== 

. r.<< ECTION O?' THE DAM. 

tlie placer-miner calls it. This silt makes the dam prac- water-tight, hut such water as does seep through 
makes its passage into the back-fill and spreads out in the 
many tiny open spares therein or perhaps finds it way 
to the baskets. These are purposely made porous, so that 
the water which reaches them does not have a chance to 
accumulate and gain a pressure such as might eventu- 
ally cause a failure of the structure, but gradually seeps 
through without resistance and discharges from the face 
of the dam under no pressure at all. 

The step nature of the structure is also designed to 
offer a protection against erosion from floods. It will be 
noticed that every point on the face is protected by the 
thickness of two baskets. If a flood pours over the crest 
of the dam it is broken into a series of cascades, each one 
with only a drop of one foot and falling on two feet of 
the rock-filled baskets, so that obviously the damage from 
such a sourer would be slight. 

In the spring of 1915 the dam was subjected to a 
severe and unexpected test of this sort when an unusu- 
ally heavy anil long-protracted season of rain brought a 
sudden flood down Scotchman creek. This poured over 
the crest of tin' dam continuously for five weeks. The 
flood was so unexpected that several broken boulders with 
sharp edges were lefl by the workmen on the crest of the 
dam. These were carried down the face in the first rush 
of the water and cut the wires of two baskets allowing, 
some of the tilling to he washed out. It was five weeks 
before this damage could he examined and it was then 
found that the baskets above had weighed the others 
down and closed the opening formed by the escape of the 
filling so that no more boulders could work out. the dis- 
placement being distributed gradually through the other 
baskets, leaving the dam perfectly safe. It is here that 
the principle of the jakago comes into play, as it will also 
in case of the natural settling that may be expected of 
such a structure. But it is evident that it is impossible 
for any boulder of a size sufficient to injure the face of 
the dam to pass down the stream and through the several 
hundred feet of still water in the pond to the dam itself 
by any flood, however great. 

The designer of this dam states that it is not the in- 
tention to expect it to act as a spillway for flood-waters 
except as may be occasionally required while the mine 
is in operation, and the dam itself is under the close over- 
sight of those engaged in its construction. The Debris 
Commission requires that all dams not made of concrete 
shall be s instructed with a permanent bedrock or con- 
crete spillway as forever to divert the flood-waters in 
such a manner as to guarantee the continuous storage of 
i lie tailing. The spillway required is proportioned to the 

precipitation and the area of the watershed, with a 
large factor of safety. In the case of the Omega it will 
be cut through the slate bedrock and will have a capacity 
of 2000 sec. ft., a factor of safety of 10, as the drainage- 
area of Scotchman creek is small and it is not expected 
that its discharge will ever exceed 200 second-feet. 

This will prevent any water from being carried over 
the dam, which has not been designed with the idea that 
it will act as a permanent spillway. However, there 
seems to be reason to believe that the dam would be sat- 
isfactory even if put to this test. At first thought it 
might seem that its usefulness would be limited by the 
life of the baskets, that when the wires rust the baskets 
will fail, and the structure gradually disintegrate. But 
on further consideration it is reasonable to suppose that 
the constant percolation of silt-laden water through this 
basket-work will have a tendency to cement the loose 
gravel and boulders. It has also been found that the 
water which comes down from the mine carries a con- 
siderable amount of iron oxide, one of the commonest of 
nature's cements, in solution. This iron oxide is deposit- 
ed from the water and one can observe this process of 
cementing going on to a limited extent at present. 

That this dam is performing the service for which it 
was designed is evident from the fact that not only the 
tailing from the mine but. the natural sediment of the 
creek is impounded. The water discharged actually 
contains less sediment than it did when the mine was 
not operating and there was no dam. I am indebted to 
J. M. Howells. C. E., of San Francisco, designer of the 
dam, for assistance in collecting and preparing these 

A placer is an unconsolidated deposit accumulated by 
mechanical processes, carrying one or more minerals in 
commercial quantities. All placers arc secondary de- 
posits; that is. the material of which they arc composed 
was originally derived by erosion of bedrock. Although 
it is undoubtedly true that under certain conditions 
nuggets of placer gold have been enlarged through chem- 
ical precipitation, yet this action is a negligible quantity 
in placers. Placers may be derived solely by rock 
weathering without water sorting, but more commonly 
are the result of water transportation, sorting, ami de- 
position. Many of the richest placers are those formed 
by the erosion of older placers and the re-concentration 
of their gold. 

Costs at the Mt. Lyell copper mine. Tasmania, during 
the six months ended March 31, 1915. totaled $6.86 per 
tun of ore smelted. This included the mine smelter, 
railway, office, and depreciation. 

.IiiIn 1" 

MINING and Nirniilu PRI SS 

Questions on Milling Practice 

By A. O. OATtS 

Suppoa we pile up pii cm of crushed rot k as shown in 

Pig. 1 and then strike .1 ■ good stiff blow. Whal hap 

■ the various pit tea \\ liich is damaged the worst, 

the big fellow nr the little fell 

And if .1 did n<ii break on the Brat blow bul passed " 

• big fellows usually 'l". when would he gel his. if 

the licking continued 1 And whal would be happening 

I I, iimiI we spin it up lulu I\m. lots 

■ material i » to an anal 
which combined with 

how "I i the probable extraction on the l" t"ns "i 

r material correa] ling to the • 60 mesh in 


Suppose the quantities of 2 «h al t in Fi 

ami ni i/' in Pig. :i are equal, which »ill probablj have 

the larger quantity of I • meaht And which will 

offer the greater difficult} in concentration, flotation, m- 
washing: the pulp with the greater percentage of 1000 
mesh, or the pulp with the lessf 

le same horse-power per ton is required in pro- 

F,&. -i 

i ' /' and C and B\ This has nothing to do with the 

Suppose in Fig. 2. xy represents the screen-analysis of 
the product from a crushing machine, and xe the prod- 

ft too /lr 



net after an •improvement' is made, either in the lining, 
the screen arrangement, the crushing medium, or in the 
type ni' mill; the ratio tonnage to horse-power being un- 
changed, has anything been gained.' Do you get any 
better extraction from the +60 mesh material than be- 
fore .' Whether it be washing-after-leaching, concentra- 
tion, or flotation, do you get any better results out of 
the - 200 mesh material .' 

In your opinion would xz require more power ? 

Now suppose we again have the screen-analysis xy in 

ucing x'y' in Fig. 3 as in producing xz in Fig. 2, which 
product is the more desirable metallurgically .' 

Is it good metallurgy to decrease the amount of -1000 
mesh and to increase the amount of -100 mesh, thai is. 
making the line of screen analysis steeper? J I' Rittinger 
be right, so that it takes ten times as much energy to pro- 
duce - 1000 mesh material as it takes to produce an equal 
amount of -100 mesh material, would the steepening of 
the screen-analysis line save any power? 

One thing more and then I'll stop. Do screen-analyses, 
expressed in percentages placed side by side, give a clear 
conception of the difference in the operations? Take 
this example of two classifiers side by side, handling the 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 10, 1915 

tonnage of feed, moisture beiii!_ r around 5J to 1. 

i A , , B , 

Feed. Sand. Overflow. Sand. Overflow. 

Tons per 24 hr 150 7.", 75 52 98 

% % 

+ 20 1 2 1.5 

+ 4" 13 27 37 

+ CO 23 1 67 0.5 

+ 100 35 69 5.5 92 2.5 

+ 200 47 84 10 94 21 

— 200 53 16 90 6 79 

.1 baa 909! of 200 meah in the overflow while B has 
79! . 

But when you diagram it on the basis of a separation 
at 90-meah there is a different look to it. The eross- 
sectional area. Pig. 4 and 5, represents the surface that 
got into the wrong place. 

After you have answered all the questions you may 
go back to work. 

Colloidal Chemistry 


•Colloidal chemistry originated in the investigations 
of Graham in the sixties of the last century. It then lay 
dormant for forty years and has only recently been 
developed to an extent commensurate with the impor- 
tant which it is now recognized as having. The original 
idea of Graham was that substances could be classified 
as crystalline and colloidal, with a sharp line of division 
between the two, according to whether or not they would, 
in solution, diffuse through an animal or semi-permeable 

It is now recognized that colloids are merely a state of 
matter, one in a highly dispersed or subdivided condition. 
By appropriate means, in a suitable medium or phase 
with which the substance does not form a molecular 
solution, crystalline substances can be obtained in such 
a degree of subdivision or dispersion that the}' exist in 
a colloidal state, that is, they will remain suspended in a 
medium indefinitely. The chemistry of colloid matter 
then differs from the chemistry of matter in its ordinary 
form, merely by the degree of its subdivision or disper- 
sion. In order to be dispersed in colloidal form a sub- 
stance must exist in a system of at least two phases; an 
interior or disperse one which may be solid or liquid, and 
an exterior or continuous phase in which it is dispersed. 
The main characteristic of the disperse phase is its state 
of subdivision or degree of dispersion. Bancroft has 
characterized this as follows :f 

"If we drop a stone into water, it sinks very rapidly; 
if we grind the stone into coarse particles these sink less 
rapidly ; if we grind the stone into fine particles, these 
sink slowly ; if we grind the stone into very fine particles 
we should expect them to sink very slowly, the rate being 
a function of the diameter of the particles. This is not 
the case, however. Very fine particles do not follow 
Stokes' equation and do not settle at all, because of the 
Brownian movements which are negligible for coarse 

•Excerpt from Jour. Industrial and Eng. Chemistry. 
Uour. Phys. Chem., 18, p. 549. 

particles. We, therefore, conclude that any substance 

can be brought into a state of colloidal solution provided 

we moke the particles of that phase so small that the 
Brownian movements will keep tin- particles suspended, 
ami provided we prevent agglomeration of tin.' particles 

by ;i suitable surface film." 

The Brownian motion to which Bancroft refers is one 

which can lie discerned under an instrument known as 
the ultra-microscope which makes visible particles which 
are invisible in the ordinary instrument. It serves as a 
means of detecting matter in a colloid state which has 
been unavailable except within the last decade. The 
size of particles, when in a colloid state, is ordinarily as 
small or smaller than 0.0001 mm. in diameter, and in the 
case of some solids no larger than 0.000006 millimetre. 

A realization of the enormous surface area possessed 
by disperse solid colloids of this size may be arrived at 
from the fact that if an amount of material represented 
by a cube, one side of which has a dimension of one centi- 
metre, is reduced by decimal subdivision only to the 
coarsest colloidal size, a ten-thousandth of a millimetre 
in dimension, the number of cubes produced would lie 10 
to the 15th power, while the surface area would be in- 
creased to 60 square metres, or 100,000 times that of the 
original cube. The great increase in surface area of the 
finer material over that exhibited by the surface area of 
a single cube is at once made evident. Surface energy is 
demonstrated by the fact that if two plates of glass, 
which are ground perfectly parallel, be brought together 
with or without water, it is difficult to separate them, 
owing to the surface energy of the film of air or water 
which is imposed between them, energy far greater than 
can be attributed, as has been asserted, to the pressure 
of the atmosphere. This same phenomenon is exhibited 
in cementing together with bitumen the particles of a 
mineral aggregate of a sheet asphalt pavement, having 
a great surface area. 

Adsorption is the power a solid or liquid surface has 
of holding thereon a thin film of solids, liquids or gases, 
an example of which is the film of air or water which is 
found under ordinary conditions on the surface of glass. 
Colloids possess this property to a high degree, owing to 
the large surface area they present. Adsorption is well 
illustrated by the manner in which a dye or coloring 
matter is removed from its solutions by a substance like 
charcoal or kaolin : this is known as selective adsorption. 

[A good example of selective adsorption is the pres- 
ence of iodine in seaweed. The iodine salts are selec- 
tively adsorbed, by the colloidal substance of the sea- 
weed, from the sea-water, though the amount of iodine 
in sea-water is so small that it cannot be detected. This 
property of adsorption is of importance in many metal- 
lurgical operations, now that the practice has become 
general of grinding ores to an extremely fine state of 
subdivision in order to free the included mineral. With 
this fine grinding, the particles of ore tend to approach 
the colloid stage and if valuable chemicals are employed 
the tailing may carry away considerable quantities that 
cannot be recovered by any practicable amount of wash- 

July 1". 1915 

MINING and Scientific PRI.SS 

Notes From South America 


quicamata ted bj In* Excellency 

the President of Chile. The papers were lull "i 
able i ■ the event ami the company and Americans 

in general. One paper gave a particularly lucid state- 
ment "i' the advantages resulting in favor of Chile from 
this big enterprise, and expressed the wish thai there 
Bfty such here. An analysis of the expenditures 

ni' tli mpany showed clearly the amounts apent for 

labor ami local supplies, and the article will en far to 
remove tin' last remaining traces >>f hard feeling against 
th.' concerns that an- shipping such large quantities of 
mineral from the country. 

After a shut-down of several months, the Quayacan 
smelter is i" .-.tart again mi a very moderate scale, ship- 
ping matte as heretofore, bnl in much smaller quantity. 
A small company is being formed to supply inn. Is for 
starting, ami it is expected that it will he possible to 
make more than expenses from the start 

The Calama company is in better financial condition 
than for many years. The mines are shipping a good 
quantity of sorted ore. and the little old smelter. at 
Calama is making several tons of bar eopper per month. 
The company is capitalized at $S00.000, so that the divi- 
dends will be spread out rather thin. With present 
- of copper, the management is making every effort 
to increase production. 

Sr. Felipe llerrera is producing regularly about 30 
ounces of gold per day with his Tremain stamp-mill. His 
success has induced other owners of small gold mines to 
erect small plants. A Tremain is going in to Petorca 
this coming week and will crush ores from the Durazno 
mine. Another small mill is being erected in La Ligua. 
This plant is one of the last things to arrive in Chile 
from Germany. 

The Murex people have a fine working-scale testing- 
plant at Santiago and are making numerous tests of cop- 
per, silver, tin, and gold ores. As Chile is profusely sup- 
plied with iron ore, it would be difficult to find a place 
where the necessary magnetite was not right at hand. 
And as the country is narrow, supplies of oil and fuel are 
usually easily obtainable. A large waste-dump of cop- 
per ore at Batuco is to be treated by the Murex process, 
and negotiations are under way for a plant for the 
Espino mine, near Pedegua. 

The condition of the nitrate market is far from satis- 
factory, the price ruling today close to $25 per ton, ex- 
port-duty paid, and on board ship. This is far below 
the ruling price before the War, and it is to be expected 
that California fruit-growers will take advantage of the 
low prices. Although the shipments of nitrate are sure 
to be less on account of Italy going into the fight, a num- 
ber of nitrate plants are planning to begin operations 
again, and this in the face of a heavy drop in the leading 
nitrate shares. 

The jump in prices of zinc and quicksilver has started 
work on several mines yielding these metals. One dis- 

trict called Punitaqui 

il\' r, but lias been closed do* n 
An ., ..up has re-located the district and fire 

brick is already on the waj t" the mini' tor the 'm 

n f th'- furnaces. Practicallj no machinery »ill be 

required, as the deposit is s.. large thai no underground 

work is i esaarj for a long ti There an- inquiries 

for quicksilver from Europe, which would indicate thai 
the metal is used in some waj in shooting people. 

There an- a number of small mines that can |m 

zinc ore, and one near Los Vilos has 100 tons of high- 
grade hand-sorted ore at the port for shipment. 

Freight-rates on ores have doubled, and in some eases 
are three times former rates. This makes difficulties for 
the producers, but not in proportion to the increased 
prices, so that mining is now actually on a better basis 
than before. 

In view of the excessive prices asked for coke, careful 
tests have been begun to attempt the manufacture of 
coke from native Chilean coal. Practically all the coals 
here are Tertiary and do not therefore compare with the 
highest grades found elsewhere. Nevertheless, it should 
be possible to make a coke sufficiently strong to bear the 
burdens in the small furnaces used. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Julv 10, 1915 

Mechanical Features at a Lake Superior Iron Mine 

By p. b. Mcdonald 

Mines have individuality reflecting Bie personal abili- 
ties ai unings of their superintendents and engi- 
Thus one property will bi p tonally well 
bandied underground, with possibly its clerical work 
notably neglected, in which case it will be apt to attract 
good miners, but will impress visitors as being rather 


slipshod. Another mine will emphasize its mechanical 
features, due perhaps to the ingenuity and talents of 
one of its engineers with a bent in thai direction. The 
Republic Iron mine on the western Marquette range, 
Michigan, lately sold by the Cambria Steel Co. to the 

Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co., is a mine of the latter elass. 

It is a high-grade ore producer, mining a hard speculai 

hematite, requiring good miners. Being the only mine 

^Hoisting Cable. 



in the vicinity, it has attracted a desirable elass of work- 
i the village of Republic, and has maintained ex- 
cellent relations with its employees. Due to the mine 
being opened in the early days, and to an irregular 
shaped ore deposit, the original" arrangement of the 
equipment and shafts were not as wotdd have been 

planned if the development had been foreseen. Thus, 
when an engineer with mechanical ability took charge 
some years ago. there was a ehanee to improve matters. 

The mine U0% has various mechanical features show- 
ing the result of his work. One of them is a stock-pile 
or trestle car fur use in making an ore-dump starting 
along a side hill, with an arrangement for dumping 
Only on one side. This ear is entirely of steel: it has a 
long low truck with eight small wheels, and the ore or 

- Cage 

- Coupler weight 

Auxiliary Double 
Conical Drum-^ 


Plan View. 

To Hoist-* 

rock is contained in a box of triangular cross-section that 
can only dump to one side. 

Another peculiar arrangement is the counterweight at 
one of the ore-hoisting shafts. This shaft is vertical and 







1 ;,| t 




: \n 





- Counter-tveiqht 
In Two Parts. 

is mostly for hoisting from depths of from 500 to 1000 
ft. j it has only one compartment for a skip, which is 
therefore balanced by a counterweight. 

In addition to the regular hoisting-cable fastened to 
the skip is a second cable that passes over a small sheave 
and to a double conical drum. From the drum it passes 
over another small sheave to the counterweight. The 
drum, being conical, helps to accelerate the load at the 
start of hoisting. When the skip is dumping, the load 

.InU 10. I'M . 

MINING ..nd Scientific I'M SS 

- onlj one end of ii • skip fa being railed 
to tukr off ii,,- weight tunterweighl al 

thai lime, it is made in !»>• parts, the outer of which is 
lifted utT by timbers al the bottom "i tin wen in 

teb Later the outer counterweight fa raised by 
a shoulder on the inner counterweight li maj be stated 

r Clutch. 

* Lever • 
-Trestle Drum. 
t_ - Lever 

^ J Rope Drive, 
/foisting Sheave 


Over Shaft. -HI 


Plan View. 

in passing, that some Lake Superior mines are counter- 
weighting their man-cages by a long 11 in. steel cylinder 
or shafting thai moves in ;i 12 in. iron pipe, making a 
compact and space-saving counterweight with no danger 
■ if anyone getting caught by it. 

Stock-pile or trestle cars at the Republic mine are run 
out by gravity, the trestle neing inclined for that pur- 

Hoisting Sheave.^ 

pose, and a clutch on the trestle-drum being thrown out 
to allow it to revolve freely. The car is pulled in as 
follows: On the same shaft as is the hoisting-sheave is 
a smaller sheave, which, by a rope-drive, runs the small 
drum on the trestle. As the regular hoisting-sheave re- 
volves, the car is pulled in. 

Another unusual feature is the economy secured in 
crushing ore and sub-hoisting ore to the crusher, using 
one engine alternately for these two purposes. It is 
usual at many hard-ore mines to dump ore from the skip 

into n gj ! isher, wbii I the ground 

"ii a eo and then to hofal tl 

ore to a loading i kel or to I pile-trestle by » 

Becoming hoisting-engine, possibly one man tending the 
crusher and the secondary hoiat. Sum.- later Installa- 
tions al large mines have followed the coppei nntry 

practice of only hoisting the ore oi dumping the Bkip 

direct into the crusher, bul placing tl rusher high 

• uough from the ground bo thai cars can be I 
underneath, The iron mine operators have placed their 
heavj gyratory crushers on a separate foundation from 

the head train,', as opposed i" the coppei untry prac 

i placing a jaw-crusher in the shafl house, when' 
ii shakes things a good deal. Ai the Republic mine one 
engine hoists ore from B ore i kel below tin- 

railroad track, and serving Beveral shafts, to the crusher, 
and then furnishes the power to crush it. The Bketch 
gives an idea of the arrangement, showing three separate 
ropes, and a counterweigh! that slides in a curved path. 

Improvements at Anaconda 

At the concentrator, No. 1 section, which was recently 

re i leled to provide for the installation of oil flotation, 

is successfully treating ore at the rate of 2onn inns per 
ilny. The tailing assays well within the limits expected. 
No. 2 section is now being changed to provide I'm- the 
use of a similar plant. Rapid progress is being made 
with the work. It is expected that tearing out the old 
machinery and constructing the new 2000-ton unit, 
ready for operation, will be accomplished in 33 days. 

All four furnaces in the east reverberatory building 
arc now operating on pulverized coal. Three of them 
are 143 ft. long; the fourth, which was the first furnace 
to be equipped for coal-dust firing, is 124 ft. long. These 
four are working well. They are smelting a greater 
amount of material than the eight grate-fired furnaces 
formerly did. All furnaces in the west building are now 
being re-built. They will be ready for operation when 
the No. 2 roaster plant is completed. In the coal pul- 
verizer plant the pulverizer building is now completed. 
Work is progressing on the installation of the remainder 
of the crushing, storage, and drying equipment. — Tht 
A node. 

Metals produced by the Mt. Lyell properties, Tas- 
mania, from August 1903 to March 1915 are as follows: 
copper, 194,261,760 lb.; gold, 175.627 oz. ; and silver. 
6,979,567 oz., from treatment of 4,193,789 tons of ore. 
Including production prior to that date the total is 303,- 
074.240 lb. copper, 331,379 oz. gold, and 11,100,968 oz. 
silver. Dividends total $12,973,000. 

Gold production of Peru in 1914 totaled 670 kg., 
equal to 21,400 oz., from 12 departments of the republic 
This bullion was sent to the mint at Lima, which exe- 
cuted coinage valued at Lp. 123,763, or about $594,062. 
The largest gold producers are the Cotabambas Auraria. 
Chuquitambo, and Aurifera Anadray Pasco. Their 
total was 417 kilograms. 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 10, 1915 

Mining in California 


•There an' Eew changes to be noted in the mining in- 

ornia for the first six months of the year, 

pared with the conditions in P'14. Some gain in 

gold yield is apparent, however, 8he United states Mint 

at San Francisco, and local smelters and refiners having 

red $598,822 more California gold in the first five 

months of 1915, than in the corresponding period of 


There was plenty of water available Eor mining in the 
winter of 1914-15, not only for gravel but for quartz 
miners, so that the working season for hydraulic mining 

has been longer this year than usual. The placer miners 
throughout tin- State took advantage of the abundance of 

water ill the spring and summer months; and at numer- 
ous points, Where little bad been done for years. I siil- 

erable gold was taken out. Drift mining continues in- 
active, with no new developments of note except that at 
the old hydraulic camps of Dutch Flat, in Placer county, 
long idle, the Federal Drift Mining Co. has discovered 
rich gravel in driving a tunnel connecting with the old 
Rough and Ready workings. 

Dredge mining continues to be prosperous and pro- 
ductive. Some few 7 changes have taken place in the 
movement of the dredges. The United States Dredging 
Co.. which has its machine on Middle creek, three miles 
from Redding, and some other companies are prospecting 
ground in the vicinity of Igo, Gas Point, and in Happy 
Valley, in Shasta county. The Pacific Gold Dredge Co. 
has started a new dredge in Butte Creek district, six 
miles from Cbico. 

The Oro Water, Light & Power Co. has completed a 
dredge on the Mokelumne river, near Clements. Part of 
the machinery from the old Empire dredge was used in 
this. The Yuba Consolidated Goldfields is building a 
new 16-cu. ft. dredge with steel hull at a cost of $400,000. 
It may be said that the dredging companies that bought 
a lot of land along the Yuba river have stopped the old 
placer miners from working along that river. The Shasta 
Dredging Co.'s dredge, which has been operating at 
Horsetown, on Clear creek, has been moved 12 miles to a 
point near Gas Point. 

In connection with quartz mining, it may be said that 
there has been very slight change. An unfortunate set- 
back is that of the pending apex conflict between the 
Empire and the North Star companies, at Grass Valley, 
the two largest deep producers in the State. There are 
contentions of trespass, which arbitration has failed to 
settle, and now the matter is to come before the courts. 

The North Star has constructed a large steel frame at 
fnc Central shaft and a new hoist to operate to a depth 
of 7500 ft. The Empire Mining Co. has erected a new 
mill of 60 stamps with a capacity* of 300 tons per day. 
In conjunction with a 20-stainp mill operated on the 
Pennsylvania, the Empire now- has SO stamps at work. 

•Report made to the Director ot the U. S. Geological 

The Bunker Hill Co., operating near Amador City, has 
increased its output by adding a Ilardingc mill. 

The Plymouth, in Amador county, re-opened in. 1914, 
has had a prosperous year and is now Considered one of 
the best producers in the State. The South Eureka con- 
. to run its Mi-stamp mill and the Central Eureka 
is becoming prosperous. Work has been started on the 
Providence shaft of the Champion mines at Nevada City. 

and the shaft, which is BOO ft. deep, is being repaired, 
ami a new frame and hoist is being erected. 

The Standard mine at Bodie, in Mono county, has 

. ? : S , -il- 

.... .TZHAMA A - '■_ ! 
fit.. , V- '.'"<"M*;j 

c'$f -\ - *Y"-k N E 

- ■ *\V* / /-* ft*'/' \ \ 
-" ■ "' '■ V f ' 'V . yrewV 

passed into the hands of J. S. Cain, owner of the South 
End group. 

In regard to copper mining, the conditions at present 
are much better than they were last year. The Mam- 
moth Copper Co., in Shasta county, is now running to its 
full capacity. The concentrating plant of the Mountain 
< topper Co., near Keswick, has been completed and put in 
use, and the smelter on San Francisco bay has again 
been blown in. At the Dairy Farm mine, in Placer 
county, a railroad nine miles long, to carry the ore to 
Sheridan, has been completed. The Balaklala Copper 
Co., in Shasta county, has repaired the tramway and 
other surface structures and the property is being put in 
shape for a heavy output as soon as arrangements for ore 
reduction have been perfected. This ore will probably 
be shipped to the Mason Valley smelter or the Tacoma 
smelter, and the output is expected to be 500,000 lb. of 
copper monthly. 

The Calaveras Copper Co. has put in an oil flotation 
plant at its big copper mine. The old Copper King mine, 
near Fresno, will shortly be started, it is probable, and 
it is expected that it will turn out a thousand tons of 3% 
ore monthly. 


MINING *nd Scientific PRILSS 

The Wah Chang Mines, China 


The Wah Chang Mining & Smeltin 
h year of Kwai \ II- . 
and a patenl to its smelting | riven by the 

Chinese government. Therefore no person or company 

can us.' the same pr as for antimony ore anywhere in 

China and do antimony-smelting company is allowed to 
incorporate in Hunan province for 10 years following 
no matter what processes it plans to use. In 1908 
this property and the Kin Tung antimony mine were 
consolidated. Previous to 1908 the Kiu Tung antimony 

mine smelted its stil>nit •■■ into crude antimony by 

native methods. After the consolidation the ore was 
treated by the volatilization (Herrenschmidt) process. 

The Wah Chang smelter is situated near the si-Hn 
bridge, al Changsha, in Hunan province. The Kiu Tung 
mine is at Pan-chi, 46 miles from the Yi-yang district 
and about 100 miles from Changsha. 

Geoi.ouy. The country rocks near Pan-chi are old 
crystalline slates, broken through at several places by 
granite. The intrusion of the eruptive magma in part 
has tilted the old slate rocks at high angles and else- 
where has given rise to lateral displacements. These 
phenomena are to be seen in the valleys formed by 

The absence of fossils in the slates and eruptive rocks 
renders difficult the determining of the age of the rocks 
and of the time at which the ore deposit at Pan-chi was 
formed. Only by analogy with the geological formations 
of the antimony deposits in such remote districts as 
An-hua and Sin-hua is it possible to estimate the geologic 
age. It is probably Paleozoic. In the ore deposits at 
Pan-chi it is important to note that no lateral displace- 
ment but only tilting of the slate is to be observed. The 
dip of the strata is steeply inclined or even vertical. 
Therefore, the veins of the Pan-chi mine are likely to 
persist in depth and disturbances in the regularity of the 
dip are much less likely to occur. Mining operations up 
to the present afford justification for this opinion, as 
down to the deepest level the orebody is of a uniform 

The lodes are of simple geologic structure. Presum- 
ably metalliferous solutions circulating in fractures 
formed by horizontal displacements, caused by the erup- 
tion of the granite, have undergone chemical reaction 
with other metals, such as iron, precipitating antimony 
sulphide in the fractures. 

The antimony deposits of Hunan and Hupeh contain 
only small amounts of arsenic, as the following quotation 
from an article by W. R. Schoeller in the Journal of the 
Society of Chemical Industry indicates. "The Siang- 
kiang would appear to form the eastern boundary of the 
antimony belt. The district situated between that river 
and the Yuen-kiang and of which the city of Sin-hao 

may be said to be the centre, produces the purest and 
riches) Btibnite ore. a typical ore i 57.649! Sb 

and 0.127^1 As. with traces of Pb and t'u. However, the 

arsenic is usually well below <>.l\ , The gangue amounts 

to about l.v, and consists of quartz, asionally mixed 

with schistose rock. The mineral is most frequently 
coarsely crystalline, showing Long stout prisms of strong 

lustre. Massive Btibnite is not uneom n, and the richest 

ores are of this variety with an antimony conteni of 

60 to tl.V, . To the north of the Sin-hao district tl„. ,|,.. 



posits become poorer; near An-hao there occur ores 
averaging 48% Sb, with 0.06% As and negligible quanti- 
ties of lead, copper, and zinc. They are granular texture 
and present a dull lead-gray appearance. Low-grade 
ores are also known to occur. A 25% ore showed beauti- 
ful isolated crystals several inches long, embedded in a 
slaty gangue. Another ore (28.94% Sb) of extraordin- 
ary hardness consists of an intimate mixture of quartz 
and stibnite in fine-grained masses. Both ores were prac- 
tically free from arsenic. Passing into southwestern 
Hupeh the ore deposits show an increased proportion of 
arsenic, a sample giving 51.75% Sb and 0.43% As. 

"The same may be said of stibnite and crude antimony 
from the provinces of Kwei-chow, some of which finds its 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 10, 1915 

way down the y/uen-kiang. Speckftens were examined 
with tin- following results: 

1 On 


Metallurgy. The company smelts its stibnite ore by 

a simple volatilization pn imposition of the 

from the Pan-chi Yi-yang ; - as follows: 


12.88 Arsenic ".•"■'. 

Sulphur : 

Ir,.n I L.8< I Ar-. ic - 

The composition of antimony regains, or the metal, is 

as follows: 

1 si, 99. :• Aa O.i 

2 Bb As I 

The metals produced by the Wah Chang Company 
have been carefully analyzed by W. A. Cowan, who pub- 
lished hx results in the Transactio American 
Institute of Metals, Vol. VIII. 11)14. It is important to 
not,- that tin- Wall Chang metal is purer than either the 
son's '(•■ brand or Hallett's 'II' brand. 

•■The samples of antimony were obtained in a similar 

way. by taking individual ingots from lots bought in the 

market of tin- following brands: Cookson's, branded 
■f. Hallett's, branded 'H'; Japanese, branded 'M C; 
Chinese, branded 'W. C ('.' with two overlapping circles 
Mio\ The Cookson's and Hallett's an- both produced 
in England, probably largely from imported ewe. 

"The results represent respectively only the one ingot 
of each brand and not. necessarily, tin- average composi- 
tion, except in so far as the manufacturer would guar- 
anty- each ingot to come within certain specifications. 
Neither should it be supposed that the composition of 
any of the brands represents the characteristic produc- 
tion of the country of its origin. 

"The samples of antimony were prepared for analysis 
by breaking up the whole of each ingot, crushing, 
quartering, and powdering, finally putting two pounds 
of each sample through a 100-mesh sieve. They were 
then carefully mixed and divided into portions for the 
different analyses. 

"The determinations reported here show also the need 
of much more work being done. The results so far ob- 
i .I are given in the table below: 

Metallic Antimoki Analysis 


'- •( ' 


•s ' 11 ' 









... 0.035 






.. trace 











Nickel and cobalt.... 











Tin .. . 0.175 

Arseni* - 0.008 


Copper ... 

iui * 

Iron 'i 015 

Zinc trace 

Nickel .on] cobalt 



e 'MC 

Chinese •OO' 






























Total i 

A — American Sheet & Tin Plate Company 
D — National Lead Company 

* — By difference. ' ' 

Market CONDITIONS. The market for antimony is a 
peculiar one. as the prices are not according to the purity 
or grades, but their brands. The following statement 
■vas published in the MINING axi> SCIENTIFIC PRESS 

November 14. 1914: "Cookson's brands are more in de- 
mand than Hallett's and both command better prices 
than the Hungarian or Chinese antimony. The average 
priee of Chinese brands is not available, but is usually 
1 t .. cents less than Cooksou 's. It is an interesting 
feature of this situation that careful analyses recently 
published by Mr. W. A. Cowan in the Transactions of 
the American Institute of Metals, show that although 
Cookson's antimony is purer than Hallett's. the Chinese 
Wah Chang antimony is purer than either. Recently 
Hallett's antimony has been most in demand, and the 
inference seems inevitable that antimony is sold on the 
basis of its trade-mark rather than its quality.'" 

The Wah Chang and Kiu Tung companies were 
awarded the prize of the first class at the National Ex- 
hibition at Nangking. China, in the second year of Hsuen 
Tung, 1910. 

The DISTINCTION between agate and onyx is no! ap- 
parent to everyone, as is indicated by the samples of the 
two minerals received by the U. S. Geological Survey 
with requests for information. Onyx marble, or .Mexican 

onyx, is composed of calcium carbonate or banded lime- 
stone. True agate is a variety of silica. Onyx marble is 
much softer than agate and is rarely used for gems, but 
when onyx is obtained in pieces of sufficient size it is cut 
and polished for small ornamental objects like inkstands 
and paper weights, as well as for table tops and soda- 
water fountains. 

Manganese production in the Caucasus district of 
Russia in 1.114 totaled 6o2.:;.">4 tons, a decrease of 302,290 
tons. In the first half of the year the output was 9 -It;' , 
over that of the same period of 1913. The decroa- 
nil year was due to military operations. 

Oil production of Illinois in 1914 totaled 21,919,749 
bbl., worth $25,426,179. This is a decline of 1.!>0 
bbl. Stocks at the end of the year were 13.563,743 bar- 

Jnlj in. 1915 

MINING ind Sc.cni.uc PRLSS 

Mining in Colorado 


I of (he European war on mining enterprises 
in Colorado is being felt more and more. On t lie whole, 
thai effect is beneficial. The War baa broadened 1 1 1 «- in- 
dustry. It has maili' <mr mining men take notice of 
minerals heretofore paased over n» of little account. It 
orther thrown us mi our own resources. Promoters 
do not go "bach Bast" t.> raise money any more. They 
get it close at home. Local capital is notoriously eco- 
nomical, an. I this again lias had a good influence on 
operations. An important enterprise lias recently been 
financed with local capital at Salida. The Peerless M. & 
M. i ... will re-open the famous old mine called the North 
Pole, Bituated above Salida <>u the boundary between the 
Chalk Creek an. I monarch districts. The ore contains 
silver, lead, and sine. The vein is 10 ft. wide in places. 
It has already been tapped at considerable depth by a 
— .-lit adit 1200 ft. long. 

Another instance of local financing is seen in the buc- 

John II. Nichols (recently general superintendent 

of the El Paso mines ;it Cripple Creek I in raisin? $100,- 

000 in Colorado to re-open the old Freeland mine at 

Idaho Springs. 

shortly before the untimely death of Franklin Guiter- 
man, of the American Smelting & Refining Co., he spent 
time in Denver. He sai.l to the writer: "The War 
has opened our eyes to our weaknesses and opportunities. 
We have for too long a time let the Germans handle the 
unusual and rare metals, in which there is small tonnage 
consumed but a very big profit. The volume of business 
in any one metal may he small, hut take all the rare 
metals together and the business is altogether too big 
and too profitable for us to let foreigners take all the 
cream. 1 have been urging our company to erect works 
to handle the rare metals, and already we have made 
some progress in that direction." That Mr. Guiterman's 
wise and timely advice has not gone unheeded is shown 
by the activity in the Daly district, above Empire, where 
100 men are busily engaged in mining molybdenum ; in 
Boulder county, where the output of tungsten is rapidly 
increasing ; in the remarkable strides made by the Golden 
porcelain works, their product supplanting German-made 
laboratory porcelain in many American laboratories; in 
the precious gem industry started ,by Prof. O. M. 
Butler in Fremont county, Colorado ; and in the new 
titanium industry, which is gradually crystallizing into 
tangible form in southern "Wyoming. 

The past month has been one of great activity in the 
installation of mining equipment. The Mary McKinney 
at Cripple Creek has installed a large new electric com- 
pressor and hoist. The machinery for the new gold 
dredge for the Derry Ranch placer, on the Arkansas 
river, 12 miles south of Leadville, has arrived on the 
ground and is being erected on the boat. This dredge 
will be a material factor in increasing the gold output 
of Lake county. The Derry Ranch is a well proved 
placer, and the wonder is that a dredge was not built 

rf. explanation probably lies in thi 
that the proved ground was somewhat limited in ■ 
and so a great enterprise had to hang 

years pending the drill. « in. in- test holes. 

Tin- Western Colorado Power Co., at Telluride, has 
expended about $8000 in improvements an. I betterments. 

- M. Were of Leadville is IT I lelillg the shaft 

house of the Fortune mine an. I installing a hoist Ho 

has opened up the property from the Yale 'runnel an. I 

already proved the existence ..f profltabl e iii the 

lower tacts. When the hoist is installed, lie will 

clean out the slopes on the upper itaCtS and go after 

the zinc ore that was left behind years ago when zinc 
was a liability instead of an asset to the producer. 

The Iron City mill at Black Hawk lias been re-1 leled 

and put in operation. The new cyanide mill of the 

Jerry Johnson, at Cripple Creek, is nearing completion. 

The Cordon Tiger property at Twin Lakes. Lake county, 
is working a small force of men preparatory to building 

a mill. The Idaho Bride M. & M. Co.. near Idaho 
Springs, has completed the installation of a compressor 
plant, and development work is progressing in a satis- 
factory manner. 

Among the notable discoveries of ore may he men- 
tioned the high-grade gold ore in the Pro I'atria adit at 
Ri.o. Rico is noted as a producer of silver, lead, and 
zinc. Gold, by itself, has never been suspected or sought 
after; hence the discovery of this ore, which had lain 
exposed on the tunnel-walls for many years, opens up 
the possibilities that there may be many bodies of similar 
ore in the district. The ore-shoot is reported as small 
but very rich. It is on a north-west and south-east vein, 
which series has always been considered barren. About 
$10,000 has been realized from ore-shipments to date. 

The Kansas Leasing Co.. working through the Argo 
Tunnel, has opened-up a nice body of ore in the Kansas 
vein, which was one of the famous early producers of 
Quartz Hill, Gilpin county. This strike is of unusual 
importance because it may lead to a general resumption 
of work in the Quartz Hill mines. Although this famous 
group, which has produced $50,000,000. was pierced at 
great depth by the Argo (or Newhouse) Tunnel several 
years ago, yet the water lowered very slowly and little 
ore was found in the adit. 

Another epoch-making strike is that in the Ponsar.lin 
mine at Leadville. This is one of the mines affected by 
ex-Governor MaeDonald's pumping coalition for the 
'Dow-n Town' mines. The discovery of a large body of 
zinc-lead ore in the Ponsardin, as the water lowered, has 
given additional enthusiasm to those who are hacking 
the project. 

At Cripple Creek "things never looked better." as one 
big operator tersely put it. Progress in that busy and 
complex camp is so varied that it is impossible to detail 
it in an article of acceptable length. In brief, new ore- 
bodies are being discovered at all depths. Working costs 
are being lowered. Old mines are being re-opened ; 
notable among these is the famous old C. O. D. The 
Roosevelt drainage adit is daily tapping new water- 
courses and so lowering the water-level. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 10. 1915 

Non-Metallic Products 

Compiled by SAMUEL H. OOLBEAR 

Kaolin Repining at [one, California 

In the vicinity of Victorville, California, one of the 
tirst clay-washing plants in the state was erected several 
years ago. This attempt to produce a refined product 
tor use in the arts was not entirely successful, although 
the material was used in the aiut and other industries 
in southern California. One of the serious difficulties 
encountered at this plant arose through the fact that the 
buildings could not be made air-tight. Victorville is 
situated on the Mojave desert, where sand abounds and 
vegetation is scarce. In spite of all precautious, tine 
drifted sand found its way into the finished product, 
this grit rendering it useless for many purposes. 

No such problem as this confronts the Products De- 
velopment Co., at lone, in its clay-refining plant, which 
has now been in operation for a year. In contrast to 
the arid conditions at Victorville, it has been found that 
winter rains have limited the operating season at lone 
to about seven months each year. The refined clay, after 
treatment in the water-flotation plant, is distributed over 
drying-floors, solar evaporation being utilized to dry the 
product liefore shipment. 

The refining of this clay is entirely a mechanical 
process in which the clay itself is separated from the 
sand embedded in it. This sand constitutes about 40% 
of the weight of the crude material, and is of particular 
interest on account of its high silica content. Analysis 
shows 99.5% Si0 2 . It is one of the few sands found in 
California of sufficient purity to be used in glass-making. 
Experimental lots of several hundred pounds have been 
used for this purpose by San Francisco glass manufac- 
turers and have been found as satisfactory as Belgian 
sand, which has been imported previously in large quan- 
tities. As the latter material is not to be had at this 
time, the lone deposits have solved at least one local 
problem arising from the European war. 

When mined from the bank, the clay is delivered to a 

cylindrical disintegrator. It then passes into the flume 

through which water moves slowly. The disintegration 

nes complete in this flume, the sand readily settling 

and the finely divided clay remaining in suspension and 

passing into settling-tanks. There are three of these, 

having a capacity of 20,000 gal. The clay settles 

gradually to the bottom of the tanks, and the water is 

decanted. Enough remains so that the product is now a 

thick sludge, this being pumped to a Kelly filter-press. 

When dry, the clay is pulverized in a cage-mill and is 

ready for shipment. This plant is capable of pro 

ducing 15 tons per day of refined kaolin. 

The company is now building a second unit having a 

ity of 25 tons per day of refined kaolin and 15 tons 

and. In this unit the clay will be treated dry and 

paration made by a pneumatic process. A small 

experimental plant of this type was built in San Fran- 
cisco before this new construction was undertaken, the 
experiments having indicated that the process was suit- 
able for this work. 

It is expected that the completion of this equipment 
will make possible operation at all seasons of the year. 
The product is used largely in the manufacture of 
enamel, sanitary ware, and to some extent by paint and 
linoleum manufacturers. 


The production of borax in the United States has re- 
mained about normal during 1914. Depressed business 
conditions, it is true, have largely reduced local con- 
sumption, but the European war has disturbed produc- 
tion in other countries, and this deficiency has been 
partly supplied by the California mines, which are the 
only source in North America. Canada usually imports 
large quantities from England, but since the declaration 
of war has drawn upon American refiners for its require- 
ments. The refiners of Austria and Germany have also 
been badly crippled, and the mines on the Sea of Mar- 
mora have been closed by the participation of Turkey in 
the War. 

The world's commerce in borax and boron compounds 
is largely controlled by Borax Consolidated, an English 
company with headquarters in London. This company 
has refineries in England, France, and the United States, 
and has supplied the German and Austrian refiners with 
borate ore fro raits Chilean mines. The Turpish mines 
are, however, the older producers, and were worked years 
before the South American deposits were opened. The 
former have produced about 14,000 tons annually during 
recent years. 

The California mines supply practically all of the 
borate ores used in this county. Three companies are 
engaged in this work, the largest of these being the Pa- 
cific Coast Borax Co. Since the sale of the F. M. Smith 
interests, this company has been controlled by the Borax 
Consolidated, with which it had a working arrangement 
prior to that time. The Pacific Coast company completed 
much construction work during the past year, including 
a branch railroad connecting its Biddy McCarthy and 
Monte Blanco deposits with the Tonopah & Tidewater 
railroad at Death Valley Junction, and a calcining plant 
at the Junction. In this plant the low-grade ore is 
roasted before shipment. The new railroad opens up 
some of the richest deposits in the Death Valley region. 
these being inaccessible heretofore owing to long over- 
land hauls by wagon. 

The Sterling Borax Co., with mines situated six miles 

fromLang. in Los Angeles county, is the second largest 

producer in California. A branch railroad connects 

these deposits with the Southern Pacific railroad. Dur- 

July 10, I'M.'. 

MINING and Scienl.dc PRESS 

rag the p.isi vnr the company is reported to have mi I 

iiIh.iu i.'i. i nii i tonaof ore Tins is divided into i«.. .lasses: 
"" anhydrous bona 

add, the second aboul 2H'. . All of tiie ore ia routed a( 
Ihe mini shipment, thereby eliminatiiig the im 

parities, which oonaial of .lay. pandermite, an. I water. 
Tli.. oolemanite content, upon being roaated i- reduced to 
a fine powder, while tin- .-lay an. I pandermite present re 
lain their original Bhape. The valuable portion is then 
iily separated by Boreening. 

After a period of idleness lasting Beveral years, the 
Bnaaell Borax Mining Co. has again resumed production 
at its mines in the Ventura district. The control of iliis 
company lias been acquired by the Stauffer Chemical • ',,. 
of San Francisco. Daring 191 1 the period of operation 
was about seven months, an, I 3800 tons was produced. 
This ore gave an average of between :>7 ami :t.v; a.B a 

Tli.' total production of borate ore in the United States 
for 1914 was probably aboul 65,000 tons, although official 
figures for this period are ool yet available. 

Befineries are operated in the United States at 
Hay., im,-. N. .)., Brooklyn, N. V.. New Brighton, Perm., 
Chicago, III., and San Francisco. The San Francisco 
refineries are operated principally to supply Pacific 
t '..ast and Japanese trade. 

At a point four miles west of Rich station in the 
Kramer district, San Bernardino county, colemanite was 
discovered in 4913 while drilling for water on a ranch. 
.Mineral locations were filed on the land, these being sold 
to John Ryan, general manager of the Pacific Coast 
Borax Co. The purchase price was $4000, ,,!' which +1000 
was paid in cash. The contest between the mineral and 
agricultural entrants was decided in favor of the former, 
the evidence showing that the colemanite body was en- 
countered at a depth of 369 ft. below the shale, and con- 
tinued until a depth of 410 ft. was reached. The testi- 
mony brought out the statement from Ryan and his en- 
gineers that the deposit was considered sufficiently valu- 
able to justify operation, the ore being exceptionally 
high-grade. Some of this ore gave an analysis of 47.9% 
anhydrous boric acid; theoretically, pure colemanite 
should run 50.9%. 

Chilean borate deposits have been the largest pro- 
ducers for many years, the yield from this country being 
usually about 75% of the world's production. The 
mines of Chile, as well as those of the Argentine and 
Peru, are controlled by the British company. 

It is expected that Peru will shortly become a large 
producer through an agreement made by Borax Con- 
solidated with the Peruvian government. This arrange- 
ment provides that the company shall build furnaces 
capable of treating at least 40,000 metric tons of borate 
ore annually, and at its option, the company shall con- 
struct either a railway or tram-line connecting the mines 
near Arequipa with tide-water. 

Some borate ores are annually mined from the British 
company's deposits near Tres Morros, Argentine. This 
ore is not sold, its production being incidental to the 
performance of annual labor required by the Argentine 
statutes. The cost of transporting this ore to a shipping- 

point, ami ..ther hjg] 111 likely proven) thi 

mcrcial exploitation of these deposits until the oh. 
• hausted 

i .' id Bt tan d M ioni i pb 

California tnagnesitc mines yielded about pj. ions 

in It'll, some of whiah »as s.hi at somewhat higher 

prices than those prevailing in the previous year. This 
industry will probably suiter s. • reverses during the 

present year unless producers are prepared to offer a 

.had burned product for us,- by steel manufacturers. 
American magnesite is purer than much of the foreign 

article, and when properly selected and burned, is highly 

satisfactory in Sorel or magnesian cement. As such it 
has round an increasing demand in the manufacture of 

30-called 'sanitary Boors. ' These tloors have distinct 

advantages over those of cement concrete and thej are 

cheaper than tile tloors. Magnesite floors may be laved 
over large areas in a solid mass without cracking, they 
do not absorb moisture, uor dust, as in the ease of con- 
crete. Building construction, however, is at a low ebb, 
and is likely to continue so lor the present. For this 
reason the demand lor light-burned magnesite has fallen 

off during the past few months, while there has I n 

active inquiry for steel-makers' grade. The latter does 
not seem to be available here, in spite of the disposition 
of purchasers to secure a supply here. Austrian mag- 
nesite contains an appreciable percentage of iron oxide, 
and is preferred in open-hearth work for this reason. 
The presence of this impurity results in the lowering of 
the point of fusion, and at a given heat the magnesite 
Incomes plastic. It is then tamped into place, and on 
continued heating it again becomes hard or 'sets.' On 
account, of its high degree of purity, the California ma- 
terial possesses no such virtues, although one California 
manufacturer has considered a plan of adulterating his 
product by the addition of hematite. 

Refining Manganese at Alameda 
After the many unforseen delays that usually precede 
every new enterprise, the Western Manganese Co. has 
commenced refining manganese ore in its plant at Ala- 
meda, California. In February of this year the company 
purchased the Old Ladd manganese mine in the Liver- 
more-Tcsla district, which was probably the largest, pro- 
ducer in the state 20 years ago. The mine was sold in 
1902 to the Louraine Alining Co. by the Caires. and sub- 
sequently passed into the hands of the now defunct Cali- 
fornia Safe Deposit & Trust Company. 

In the Western Manganese Co. 's plant, which was de- 
scribed in detail in the issues of the MINING AM) SCIEN- 
TIFIC Press of January 30 and February 13. the ore is 
crushed and refined to a high degree of purity in order 

to meet the requirements of the manufacturers of dry 

and LeClanche cells, glass, terra cotta, paint, and chemi- 

Since the purchase of the mine, development work has 
resulted in the exposure of a mass of excellent ore. This 
orebody had been reached by the workings of some prior 
owner and subsequently, for some reason, concealed by 
fills of waste rock. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 10. 1915 


Readers of the MlKINQ AND Scientific Press- are Invited to 
ask questions ami give Information dealing with technical and 
tatters pertaining to the practice of mining, milling, and 

Gypsum is soluble in 500 prats of water and com- 
plete!] soluble in boiling hydrochloric acid. 

Clastic is a geologic synonym for fragmental; it comes 
Erom the Greek word klastos, meaning broken. 

Amalgam is a mixture of gold with mercury, made 

easily on account of the tact that mercury exists in a 
molten state at the ordinary temperature. 

BoiiiMi HOLES in rubber corks is somewhat trouble- 
some. By wetting the cork and borer before and during 
the operation holes are easily made. Always start at the 
smallest end in boring corks. 

BALTIMORITE, a hydrous silicate of magnesia, is a 
white t<p hluish fibrous mineral associated with serpen- 
tine. It can lie used for packing steam-pipes, etc., and 
roofing material, like asbestos. 

WHERE two contiguous claims, one having timber on 
it and the other none, are held by one owner he may 
take the timber from one claim and use it for develop- 
ment work on the other. 

Mkkcikv solidifies at -40' < •. and boils at 360°C. It 
begins to vaporize at 1.") ('.. if not lower: ami of all the 
metals it is the worst conductor, its conductivity being 
5.:;:! as against silver at 100. 

Lead nitrate has been used as a substitute for had 
acetate at some South African cyanide plants, tin- sup- 
ply of the latter being cut off by the War. It was found 

in be satisfactory but more expensive. 

Wire-rope guides were used with great satisfaction at 
tin- main east shaft of the Inspiration mine. Arizona, 
while it was being concreted. During this work flexi- 
bility was desirable; the ropes proved to be so. 

SUN-POWEB for raising steam has been used on a work- 
ing at Meadi, in Egypt. There reflectors of silvered- 
glass throw the sun's rays on a thin long vessel, made of 
zinc ami painted black, through which the water passes. 

FLOURING is the minute sub-division of mercury by 

inical means, ami sickening' is the rendering of 

such a condition persistent by the coating of the globules 

"I' mercury with a film of foreign substance preventing 


Few claims within Fore8t Reserves that are presented 
for patent comply with all the Federal and State laws 
in every particular. This is usually due to lack of 

knowledge, as the requirements are different in dif- 

ferent states, and as most prospectors and miners operate 
in several states they confuse the various regulations. 

PUMPS mounted on scows were used for draining Kerr 

lake, Ontario, because the shore-line constantly changed 
as the water-lavel was Lowered. The scow was kept near 

the shore in order to avoid using pontoons to support 
the pipe-line. 

I 'iist of drill-Steel and sharpening includes not only 
the C08t Of the steel and the wages .if the blacksmith, hut 
also its proportion of total shop-cost, the delivery of 
sharpened steel to the faces, ami the returning of dull 
steel to the shop. 

Sintering devices, such as Dwight-Lloyd machines 
or Iluntington-IIeberlein pots, cannot be used with lead- 
ore mixtures that contain over 15 to lS<7i sulphur. 
Winn more is present, the ore must be subjected to a 
preliminary roast. 

CUT-OUT shots can be prevented to a considerable 
extent by using regular-burning fuses and allowing a 
longer time interval between the different shots. No de- 
tector devised to indicate cut-out shots has so far proved 
satisfactory in practice. 

Linarite is a basic sulphate of lead and copper, oc- 
curring often in deep-blue crystals. It ran la- distin- 
guished from azurite. the blue copper carbonate, by the 
acid test, for it will not effervesce when acid is applied. 
The mineral is named after Linares, in Spain. 

CAVING of ground in mines is usually accompanied by 
concussion of the air, which is destructive for consider- 
able distances from the cave itself. Broken rock occu- 
pies about 50% more space than when in place, so that 
a sudden caving displaces a great volume of air. 

Mine wateks may be acid near the surface, but are 
invariably neutral or alkaline in depth. In some mines 
the decrease in acidity with depth has been shown by 
analyses from different levels. The decrease of acidity is 
accompanied by a similar decrease in the salts of heavy 
metals present. 

Tube-mill pebbles are sold in eight sizes, the small- 
est varying between 1 and H in. diameter ami the larg- 
est between 4; and 7 in. diameter. Danish pebbles are 
preferred because of their homogeneous character, giv- 
ing the longest service and consequently the least cost 
per ton. They cost $11 per long ton in Denmark, $15 
per ton in New York, and much higher figures delivered 
at the mills. Thus at Round Mountain, 72 miles by 
wagon-road from Tonopah. the delivered cost is $62.50 
per ton. These figures explain why various domestic 
substitutes are not usually satisfactory — the delivered 
cost of pebbles, say. from California would not be much 
less than pebbles from Denmark, while the daily con- 
sumption of the latter is much less. The results of ex- 
periments on domestic pebbles in Nevada mills were 

given in the Press of January 23, last. 

JuU 10, 

MINIM; tnd SckniiBi I'Kl SS 

California Minerals at the Exposition 

mining mi 
in which the i 

'1(111. Thl- 
lo din ■ Hi, nrrnr. 

not have been mad* whsrebj an in 
: producing nearlj |10 , wan (Ivan prom- 

lid OVI r 

$30.000. ooppar ,>w IS, quicksilver about 1600.000, 

an, I building materials over flB.OOO.t ,,f th« total, yet 

eentatlve minerals ol thaai re ihown In three da- 


In the California Btate pavilion la a neat collection. Promin- 
ent reaturea ur,' the following: a life-else stat i .hum's 

Marshall, who ill^ 1,1 at Coloma. Eldorado county, In 

Jaminn ls4v 11, do* him nr, large Bamplea of ore from 
Amador. Butte. Eldorado. Nevada, Plumas, Shasta, ami Trinity 

counties. At the front of the exhibit at each end, is a square 
pillar composed of many California ores. Between these pill 
an are two round ones. Their hases are of Shasta lion ore 
and pig Iron supporting blister copper Burmounted by slabs or 
marble and tiles. A short "adit' shows part of the 'Cosmopol- 
itan Mines Consolidated' property. We reserve judgment on 

and ^ U 

this being .1 volume containing the Constitution and B 
■ ■I the Ancient and Ho der "i Independent '■' 

i ■ valley, California, Instituted March It, 

Mini mi wati is. Colu 

• b) the Pacific Oranlla Co., Rockllo county, 

00 \ [l M 

in it, i Metallurgy i another California 

mineral exhibit This is the result "i < ,■ ,i|,< ration ,>i some mln- 
d ill,' Btate Mining Bun au 

i " " - mi ns ami placer gold from 

Amador, Eldorado, Shasta, Sierra, Blsklyou, Trinity, and 

Tuolumne counties. Visitors t" ths r au In the Fi rrj build- 

111 recognise the t lei Union iron Works S-stamp mill 

here. Large cases and benches display the following: Cerro 
Qordo mine, mar Keeler, Inyo county' case "f silver-lead and 
copper orea, native sliver on lead carbonate, zim- carbonate, 
and galena; bench of building materials granites, basalt, 
lava, volcanic tuff, slate, pumice, and limestone; bench with 
large samples of ore from Calaveras, Kern, Mendocino, Santa 
Clara, Shasta. Siskiyou, Trinity, and Tuolumne counties; Cose 



this exhibit. At the mouth of the adit is an improved Matteson 
ore-car, made by the Joshua Hendy Iron Works. At the back 
at one end of the booth is a pillar of asbestos from the Stevens 
mine, Shasta county. Farther along is a pillar of Heroult iron 
and ferro-manganese from the same county. A 10-stamp mill 
(20 lb. each, by D. D. Demarest Co.), with plates, No. 5 Deister 
concentrator, driven by a Westinghouse motor, is instructive. 
It is operated; clean-ups have been made, and concentrate is to 
be shipped to the smelter. Part of Trinity county has been 
transferred to the booth. This county has contributed $200,000,- 
000 in gold. A model hydraulic mine shows the face, water- 
supply, two Hendy giants (Bouery patent), and sluice-boxes. 
A model Yuba dredge, described in the Press of May 29, and 
similar to the one in the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy, is 
ready for work. In addition to these features, there is a lec- 
ture room in which actual mining operations in the state are 
shown by moving pictures. 

Rather well arranged are eight safe show-cases, really steel 
safes, which are locked at night. They contain many thousand 
dollars worth of ore and placer gold. The Amador case dis- 
plays Kennedy, South Eureka, Gwin, and other mine specimens, 
Butte — gold ore, dredge gold, and diamonds; Eldorado — ores, 
nuggets, and leaf gold; Nevada — North Star, Golden Center, 
and other; Placer — fern-leaf gold and other shapes, owned by 
the county and other people; Sierra — gold ore from the Tight- 
ner, White Bear, Twenty-one, Ironsides, North Fork, and 
Empire: Trinity — ores and nuggets; and Yuba — a splendid lot 
of dredge gold and some platinum. 

In a number of large eases are samples of typical ores from 
226 mines in the following counties, with the number ef mines 
exhibiting from each: Amador. 18; Butte, 24; Eldorado, 32; 

of mica, garnet, quartz crystals, tourmaline, etc.: tungsten 
from Kern and San Bernardino counties, Atolia being in the 
latter; case of mercury ores and metal from Lake. Mendocino, 
Napa, San Benito, Santa Clara, San Luis Obispo, Solano, 
Sonoma, and Trinity counties; Kern county case of sulphur, 
antimony, gold, silver, kaolin, etc.. ores; Shasta county case 
with copper ores from Bully Hill. Mountain Copper, Arps, 
Minnie Haley, Afterthought, and Mammoth mines; asbestos, 
talc, magnetite, barite, and glass sand from Shasta county; 
copper ores from the Penn mine at Campo Seco, and Union at 
Copperopolis in Calaveras county; and other cases containing 
gold, fossils, and the rarer minerals. 

Of interest is the first pig iron cast by the California Iron 
Co. at Clipper Gap, Placer county, on April 23, 1881, and the 
iron made by the Nobel Electric Steel Co. at Heroult. Shasta 

With a painted background, representing typical California 
mountain mining districts, is a model hydraulic mine. It in- 
cludes in operation water supply, three giants, derrick for 
boulders, hydraulic-filled dam for tailing, and shows the use of 
the clear water for irrigation. 

Attracting a good deal of attention is the glass model of the 
Mammoth copper mine of Shasta county. The vein system and 
underground workings are easily followed. The company also 
displays ore, matte, blister copper, and photographs. 

All phases of mining in California are shown by numerous 

A novel, but very instructive reproduction of the oilfields of 
California is nearly complete on a platform above the mineral 
exhibit. Wells are shown by aluminum rods. The depth at 
which oil is struck is marked on them, and all are connected. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 11). L915 


As seen at the world's great mining centres by our own correspondents. 

Changes i\ Mike Ownebsegd?. — Pobteb Estate D&ainaok. — 
New Mills.— Pbofitable in are. — Sn doe-Mills. — Otheb 

A.i m 1 1 n-. 

Several zinc mines have changed ownership recently. These 
transactions have been caused by Ihe high prices of zinc 
blende. It is noticeable, however, that the majority of pur- 
chasers ore m>" who either live in this district, or who already 
had mining interests here. One of the deals at least involved 
a sum In excess of $100,000 while the others ranged in price 

from $50,000 down. The O. F. & L. Mining Co.. operated by 

I. own 4i Hastings, at Duenweg, sold its mill and first lease 
acres of the Boston-Duenweg land, to S. Y. Ramage. of Oil 
Oily. Pennsylvania, and associates. The Ramage Interests al- 
ready operate the Ramage-Center Creek mine at Webb City, 
Missouri, and are planning to construct three new concentrat- 
ing plants on fees recently purchased in the west .loplin dis- 
trict. Another 40-acre lease of the Schifferdecker land, in west 
.loplin, has been purchased by the Ramage interests for $30.- 
000. Other purchases by these people have been noted in the 
Pkkss. W. Kenefick, of Kansas City, president of the Mis- 
souri, Oklahoma & Gulf railroad, and his son-in-law. .1. W. 
Hoffman, of Kansas City, who operates coal mines in Oklahoma, 
purchased from Jamot Brown a first lease on 55 acres of 
land which Mr. Brown owns in fee at Porto Rico, six miles 
northeast from .loplin. The purchase price, which is reported 
to be $30,000, takes in the large electrically-driven mill of the 
Thanksgiving Mining Co. The new owners intend to place 
the mine in operation at once. It had been idle two years. 
Sheet ore, occurring at a depth of 1S5 to 200 ft., will be mined. 
The mill, which has a capacity of 300 tons per shift, will be 

worked double time. The Hurry Up Mining Co., of Webb 

City, of which James J. McClellan is manager, has purchased 
for $50,000 the 30-acre fee and mill of the Portia Mining Co. 
at Galena. Kansas. The mine and land was owned by S. R. 
Ping. Work will be carried on at a depth of 100 ft. The mill 
was built six months ago and has been a good producer since 

that time. Herbert Taylor has purchased from B. Painter 

and C. G. Townsend their one-third interest in the Open Air 
Mining Co. on the Crown Crest land at Duenweg. Develop- 
ment is being done at a depth of 130 to 150 feet. 

Several small companies are working on the Porter estate 
of 4n acres in what is known as the Kansas City bottoms, in 
the east-central part of Joplin. and plans are proposed by 
which several large pumps will be installed in the old work- 
ings of some of the famous mines that once operated on this 
tract. The old Kirkbride mine was one of the large pro- 
ducers of the Joplin district about 15 years ago, but owing to 
low ore prices that then prevailed, work was abandoned 
and water was permitted to accumulate in the old drifts. The 
task of draining this property has been considered difficult, 
but efforts will now be facilitated through the fact that large 
pumps are working in the immediate vicinity. Just to the 
south of the Porter estate, on leases of the Missouri Lead & 
Zinc Co., several large pumping plants are busy, and the 
ground has been drained to a depth of 100 ft. To the north of 
this land. B. P. Wurzel and associates have taken a lease on 
the Murphy land. They intend to begin pumping soon. 

Work will Stan soon at the Granby Mining & Smelting Co.'s 
new 500-ton mill on its own land at Granby, Missouri. Con- 
ion work on the mill was started two months ago. and 

is rapidly Hearing completion. This will be as large as any 

plant in the district. Another new mill that should mean 

an increased production is that of the Scott Mining Co.. of 
which Haywood Scott is manager. It is situated on a lease 
of the Ground & Irwin land at Duenweg. Missouri, some dis- 
tance east of .loplin. Mr. Scotl recently purchased the lease 
from J. M. Evans and others for $12,000. He has since refused 
an offer of $30,000 for the lease. He is undertaking some- 
thing new in mill building by employing men on night shifts 
who work by electric lights. A plant of 400-ton capacity per 
shift will be completed in L'li days. Tin- mill will be electric- 
ally equipped throughout. Mining will be conducted in sheet- 
ground at a depth of 190 to 200 feet. 

With blende selling for as high as $135 a ton, basis of 60'/ e 
metallic zinc, a figure never before dreamed of. old dumps have 
been leased. These old piles, once discarded as worthless, 
are yielding enough ore to make fair profits for those who 
cull them over. In many cases men, women, and children — 
whole families — are working on old heaps. Instances are on 
record in the past few weeks where a single man would clean- 
up as much as $200 in a week, although the average, of course, 
is far below this figure. For a hard worker to clean enough 
ore to net him $50 per week is not uncommon. 

The Sweetwater Mining Co., operating on a lease of the 
Connor land, west of Joplin, has added a sludge-mill of three 
tables to its plant. D. C. Wise and Pat Tabor recently took 
this mine over from D. M. Sayers, and opened some new 
ground. The old property, which had not been productive for 
two years, is now a steady producer of concentrate that is 

above the average. Another sludge-mill is being added to 

the equipment of the Liberty Bell Mining Co. on a lease of 
the Expansion Mining & Realty Co., west of Joplin. Five 
tables and concrete settling-tanks are being added at this 

Eight-four acres of the Ishpeming. the Knight, and the 
Avondale lands have been taken under lease by Van Haften 
and associates, operators of the Gopher mine at Duenweg, 
Missouri. Their newly-acquired tract is situated at Carl Junc- 
tion. Missouri, and one of their first steps will be to go into the 
old ground of the Chicago-Lehigh Mining Co.. and extend 
drifts into the new ground. The old Chicago-Lehigh fill will 
not be used, as the ore will be carried by tramway to the ad- 
joining mill owned by the United Zinc Company. The Feder- 
ated-Knight mill, of 250-ton capacity, situated on the Knight 
land, adjoining the ground acquired by Van Haften and others, 
has been purchased by T. F. Coyne. It is to be moved to a 
lease of the Connor land, south of Carterville, Missouri. 
There it will be constructed on a lease adjoining his Red Top 
mill, which is a heavy producer. 

The verdict of the jury on the coroner's inquiry into the 
death of the two miners in the Longacre-Chapman mine, re- 
cently, was to the effect that the fatality was due to water and 
tailing coming from a cave-in of th ury Lead & Zinc Co.'s 

ground. This company was found guilty of negligence in not 
keeping the water pumped out of the cave-in. Some time ago 
pumping was done for fear of such an accident, but for some 
reason not known this was stopped. 

During the week ended June 27 the Missouri-Kansas-Okla- 
homa district produced 4909 tons blende, 24S tons calamine, 
and 1167 tons lead concentrate, averaging $101.70. $66.10, and 
$61.74 per ton respectively. The total value was $587,641, and 
for 26 weeks. $11,SB3,654. 

Jul) 10, 1915 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



SK\A Um rOBl \ M' l'H»>-r 

Under the direction of J k Turner, wnmiUIng engineer 

fur i lit- Nevada C the latter eompan] li 

developing the Nevada Bmpreea mine, 16 mile* eouth* 

QoldAold and m the northern extremlt) .•( the Qold Mountain 

I This is -rai mine, which wai worked more 

than 40 year* ago and which in important nicim- 
the early production and nitnliiK history of southern 
Nevada Bpedmena ol ore from the Central and the nearby 
Oriental claims were awarded the hlgheel prlaa for oi 
hihits in the Centennial Bxpoaltlon al Philadelphia In 1878. 
The Centra] is credited with a total production of sonic i::m. 

most of the ore having been carried by mulee across 

mountain ranges and desert to a mill al Austin, over 160 miles 
distant, some to the old Thorpe mill near Bonnie Clare, and the 
owner, a 'squaw-man' and recluse, is reputed to have reco 
over $30,000 With his own hands, with the aid of a primitive 
arrastra. Another old-time miner and prospector, by name 
Vidovich, made his home in one of the adils. high up on 
the mountain, and in this adit his children were born and 
reared. Their makeshift hunks, shelves and fireplace, smoke- 
blackened and stained with grease, remain today as they were 
in us, Early mining operations consisted of four or five short 
adits, driven Into Uie steep mountainside, high above the 
gulch. These adits penetrated the vein and from them the 
old stopes were extended, in some places so narrow as to 
permit barely of passage by a man lying down, the richest ore 
only being extracted. Each adit, in turn, exposed a continuous 
fault-plane, beyond which no effort was made to find the ore. 
Stulls of pinion pine, with wedges of the same wood, placed 
in these stopes and drifts over 40 years ago. appear as if put in 
place yesterday and show no signs of weathering, discoloration 
or decay. All the old workings have been connected and all 
are absolutely dry. The country-rock is granite, exceedingly 
hard, but breaks freely when once drilled. About eight 
years ago the Nevada Empress Co. installed a Hathaway 
gyratory-mill, but this proved a failure. The property was 
acquired early this year by the C. S. Sprague interests for the 
Nevada Co-operative Mines Co. A cross-cut adit has been 
driven into the mountain about S00 ft., nearly 200 ft. below 
the old adits. This has reached the fault, and a raise is now 
being driven to cut the foot-wall. There is already a con- 
siderable quantity of good mill ore opened, and if the ore is 
found in sufficient quantity in the lower adit a stamp-mill will 
be installed. Ample water can be secured within a short 


End of Stratton's Independence, Ltd. — New Cyanide Plants 

The Independence mine has reached another turning point 
in its career. On June 29, the mine, mill, and all property 
of Stratton's Independence, Ltd. became a part of the Portland 
estate. At three o'clock on the above date the deeds were 
signed at Colorado Springs, and the purchase price was paid 
over. At precisely the same hour in Victor, the transfer was 
made a reality. Philip H. Argall, general manager of Strat- 
ton's Independence, Ltd., presented to Frank Smale, manager 
of the mine department of the Portland Gold Mining Co.. a 
tuft of grass with attached soil, a piece of ore, and a key. 
These emblems, according to an old English custom, symbol- 
ized the transfer from one company to the other of the soil 
with whatever buildings might be thereon, the underlying ores 
with whatever of precious metals they might contain, and 
the right of entrance to all the buildings. The Independence 
mine made the discoverer. "W. S. Stratton, famous and wealthy 
by reason of its large bodies of rich ore. It has brought fame 
to the past managers because of the new records made in the 

milling of i"« tradi i .i thai 

the mine mill has lomethlBJ in viner* 

ed iii. ii the Portland companj win si 

development Man) .. l..r leases ha\e I made 

Probabl) ail the old leaaeea under the Argall regime win be 
allowed to continue '•• work their blocks, Tin- non 
win he awarded as fast u they can be taken can 
Human an current in the effect thai the Franklin i 

<'.i. win build a cyanide mill in the dlatrtcl in the mar Future. 


This company was organized a few months ago, and has been 
working the Blue Bird property under lease. This estate is 
situated on the southwest side of Bull hill, not far distant from 
the Cresson mine. It is reported that the leasing company has 
secured an option on the entire holdings of the Blue Bird 
estate, and that Colorado Springs people have been interested 
in the property to construct a cyanide plant to treat the low- 
grade ores on the dumps and in the mine. 

It is reported that heavy shipments will soon start from 
the Hondo property. Situated about midway between the 
Portland and Golden Cycle groups of claims, the Hondo mine 
is apparently in a good position to develop into a sizable mine. 
In the early days some good ore was shipped from the Sitting 
Bull vein on the claim of the same name. This claim is a part 
of the Hondo estate. Robert Mullen and associates are sink- 
ing the shaft, and a station has just been cut on No. 5 level. 
It is reported that in sinking the shaft a large body of good- 
grade mill ore has been exposed. Shipments of this ore are 
expected to commence soon. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July ID. 1915 


In the U. S. Geological Survey's midyear review for 1915, 
Alfred H. Brooks reports that there is every reason to believe 
that the mining industry of Alaska has begun a prosperous 
year. The present high price of copper has encouraged the con- 
tinuation of development work on many copper properties on 
which operations were suspended in midsummer of 1914. It 
is probable that about a dozen copper mines will be on a pro- 
ductive basis in 1915, compared with six in 1914. A consider- 
able increase of copper production will, therefore, take place. 
The gold lode production from the southeastern Alaska, Prince 
William Sound, and Willow Creek districts will also be in- 
creased this year. The outlook for an increased output for 
placer gold is also encouraging. There will be more dredges 
operated on Seward peninsula this year than last. It is also 
probable that several new dredges may be in operation in 
other placer districts before the close of the season. In ad- 
dition to the dredges there are a number of other placer-mining 
plants of considerable size that will be operated this year for 
the first time. 


(Special Correspondence.) — Returning a few days ago from 
the Aniak river, I passed through the Bear Creek and Tuluk- 
sak River mining regions. A good deal of activity existed, 
preparing for this season's work. Lumber was being cut and 
supplies hauled from long distances from where it could be 
obtained. This hampers the development of that part of the 
territory, as a good many miners have to leave on account of 
supplies, and others who would like to come are kept out. 

A noteworthy discovery was recently made on Kwisiuk river 
that promises to be far better than any previously made. 
Drill-holes made by a home-made four-inch drill, from 4 to 12 
ft. deep gave results from 5 to 7c. to the drill-hole. This cer- 
tainly is promising. 

A Lapp woman last summer on Canyon creek panned $50 
from where the bedrock was exposed. The Canyon Creek 
properties were described in the Press of May 1, 1915. 
Those mines that were worked last summer were jumped this 
winter while the owners were down at Bethel, sending up 
supplies of which a good deal was already on the ground. 
The mines were jumped on the technicality that they were not 
recorded in Kuskokwim mining precinct. It appears to be a 
question of distinctive lines, between the Nushagak and Kus- 
kokwim precincts boundary lines. Miners called a meeting 
and appointed a recorder for that part of the country, until 
they could be informed to which mining precinct they belong, 
so they could forward the books of record to the proper au- 
thorities. The men who jumped the ground were at Bethel 
on March 27 for supplies, and went up to start work; while 
the owners who established a camp last summer, and have 
the supplies on the ground, are there making preparations for 
this summer's work. People here are hoping that serious 
trouble does not arise. It is regrettable that this has occurred. 
In this particular case there seems to be no question of title. 
The only argument is which precinct to record in. Until that 
time the records are on the ground free to inspection of all. 
It must he remembered that this particular place is over 100 
miles from the nearest recording office in direct line in winter, 
and nearly 300 miles in summer. The law could not be too 
severe on such aggression, which often ends in bloodshed. 

The United States commissioner at Aniak informed me that 
the McDonald & Bethles quartz mine near Kolmakofsky (Kus- 

kokwim river) improves as depth is attained. Some good 
specimens can be seen in the commissioner's office. 
Bethel, March 28. 


Arrangements have been made by Si Scrafford to ship 2000 
tons of antimony ore from the Chatham mine to San Fran- 
cisco. Reasonable freight rates will be charged by the Amer- 
ican-Yukon Navigation Co. Sacked ore, over 250 tons, will be 
about $15 per ton. 


The main adits at the Alaska-Juneau mine will probably be 
double-tracked, according to J. H. Mackenzie. 

According to B. L. Thane of the Gastiueau company, devel- 
opment at the Kensington, Bernev's bay. 60 miles from Juneau, 
has shown enough ore to warrant the erection of a 1000-ton 
mill. The first unit of 500 tons is to be designed by the fall; 
construction will start in spring. 



Spring clean-ups in the Ruby district are better than ex- 
pected. Half of the Selch, Deitz, and Walker dump has yielded 
$90,000, against $80,000 anticipated for the lot. On Long 
creek A. Larson has opened gravel yielding $7 per foot. At 
the end of May the town was short of provisions. 


Cochise County 

At the Calumet & Arizona plant two blast, three reverb- 
erator}', and twelve roasting furnaces are in blast. Large ship- 
ments come from New Mexico. The Copper Queen smelter is 

receiving a large tonnage of custom ores at present. Eight 
blast-furnaces are working. 

Under the sliding scale of wages, employees of the Copper 
Queen and Calumet & Arizona companies will be paid on a 
19 to 20c. basis, price of copper. The lowest wage in July 
will therefore be $1.80, and highest $7. 
Gila County 

One unit of the Inspiration mill started work on June 29. 
Greenlee County 

The Shannon Copper Co. has issued a report for 1914. For 
three months the property was idle, owing to the metal market. 
The smelter at Clifton treated 154,300 tons of ore from the 
property at Metcalf, and 38,997 tons from other claims. The 
yield of metal was 9.003,169 lb. copper, 1295 oz. gold, and 60,603 
oz. silver. Net current assets total $349, 38S, exclusive of 
Shannon Arizona Railway bonds. Experiments with leaching 
showed good results on oxide ore and tailing. On March 1. 
1915, operations were resumed at full capacity. 

Pinal County 
Underground mining systems of the Ray Consolidated Cop- 
per Co. are described by Lester A. Blackner of Ray in Bul- 
letin 102 of the A. I. M. E. With plans and photographs the 
paper covers 40 pages. Up to 8000 tons per day has been 
mined. The main orebody is a disseminated deposit in schist 
and porphyry formed by secondary enrichment. Most of the 
ore is chalcocite. The deposit covers 205 acres. It averages 
121 ft. thick, is up to 2500 ft. wide, and 5000 ft. long. The 
capping or overburden of leached iron-stained schist, averages 
252 ft. thick. There are about 80,000,000 tons of 2.19% ore 
available for extraction. Owing to the heavy overburden and 
the low grade of the ore, caving systems have been devised and 

Jul} I" 1915 

MINING ..nd Nirnhlu I'KI SS 


indBt in weakening « block 

ol ehi i I, i 

mining ud chattering Lba remaining plllara the on li drawn 
aUcally, Um napping eroahtng ud tattling gradual!) 

o\.r it Throughout all the work at Raj two ayatema have 
amely, the lub-level or motor-haulage eyetem, i-m 
! in thick uniform blocki of ore; and Um hand-tramming 
illower portions. 


t ruction of the United haters 160-ton mill la to ba 
i within the next two montha The rain opened «.-.-t ..i 


* mile road from Fali-port t" I 

Bl| ll U \ ..I Dl ■ ,.||l In IhIiik 

ii a -.111111 ih »! mk. 

Nil >n Col n i i 

1 101 hand Frame la i ■ i al Um Bruna> 
wick iiiin. Sinking i» to ba raaumed al the i i um on 

July 10 

\ ii" n head-fra Im to ba erected al the Qolden I 

mine by it. Hathaway. The new ahatl in t" ba aunk ll 

n a 800-gal aJbarger pomp lum baas ordered. 

the shaft at 5G5 ft. is $36.60 per ton over 22 ft. width. It is 
reported that this company is negotiating for the Telluride 
property. There seems to be some foundation for this rumor, 
as George Long, director of the United Eastern has consulted 
with officials of the Telluride. 

A custom mill is a possibility for the Oatman district. E. 
R. Holden and R. Kline have for some time been investigating 
the reserves of the mines without means of treatment. The 
plant may be erected on a flat southwest of Oatman. Ores from 
the district have been tested at Los Angeles. 

The Tennessee mine is now 1000 ft. deep. Electric power 
is to be obtained from Kingman. New machinery is to be 

Amador County 

At the Central Eureka the shaft is down 3250 ft. Forty 
stamps are crushing. One hundred men are employed in 
charge of J. E. Davis. 

Placeb County 
In the Forest Hill district there is considerable activity In 
re-opening mines and prospecting. Lessees are also busy. 

Plumas County 
It is reported that the Plumas Eureka mine at Johnsville, 
and the Monitor at Gibsonville are to re-opened soon. 

Shasta County 
Farms along Clear creek, near Redding, have been bought 
by L. Gardella and others of Oroville. The area contains good 
gravel, and a dredge will be erected there soon. 

At Heroult the Noble Electric Steel Co. is making 10 tons 
of ferro-manganese daily. This is worth $115 per ton in the 
East. There is 1300 tons of ore awaiting reduction. Eighty 
men are employed. 

Siebea County 

A cyanide plant is treating tailing at the Sacred Mount mine 
at Sierra City. Some of the material is high grade. J. C. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 10, L915 

Folsom Is in charge. Although men are busy getting fire- 
wood and timber for the Bellevue Gravel Co. at Slate creek, 
ii is inn expected thai the mine will he worked until after the 

War. Scotch people control the property. At the Gardner 

Polnl gravel mine near Port Wine, six men are driving a 

lower adit. A cross-cut adit nearly 4000 ft. long has been 

driven in the Sierra Buttes mine. Good quartz has been 
opened on the hanging wall. About 35.000 tons of tailing 

awaits treatment at the plant. At the Young America 

mine San Francisco people are to treat the 60,000 tons of $1.75 
to $?75 tailing there. 

Trinity Cm XTY 

Fifteen hundred acres of placer ground on Trinity river and 
Coffee creek, from above Carrville to below Trinity Center, have 
been further optioned till November 1. A large sum is in- 
volved if the ground is purchased. E. A. Wiltsee has pros- 
pected the area, drilling costing $75,000 so far. More is to be 

Clear Creek Cihnty 

In the Waldorf mine near Georgetown the rich stope shows 
from 18 to 42 in. of ore. The last shipment assayed $118 per 
ton. It contains a little more lead and less copper than before. 

Lessees are also doing well. The Bard Creek company's mill 

has made its first shipment of 25 tons of lead and copper 

concentrate. The Mineral Chief mill is being overhauled. 

No. 6 level of the mine can supply plenty of ore. The 

Capitol mill is working steadily on ore from the numerous 
lessees, who are doing fairly well. The assayer at the mine. 
D. Kennedy, is busy testing samples of ore from many pros- 
pectors in the region. Work proceeds as usual at the 

Virginia City. Key West! and Onondaga mines. 

Dolobes County 

At 4114 ft. in the Rico-Wellington mine a 4-ft. vein of zinc 
carbonate has been cut. Other parts of the mine are looking 

GiLriN County 

The Iron City mill has now a capacity of 80 tons per day. 
A re-grinding machine is to be installed, increasing the 
tonnage to 100. It has been said that a good deal of mineral 
has been lost from Gilpin county mills in the residue run into 
the creeks. Two weeks ago J. P. Ruth, Jr.. had permission 
to treat slime at the Iron City mill by a flotation process. He 
expected to recover up to $6 per ton. but of 16 samples the 

highest was 40c. per ton. A 10-stamp mill is to be erected 

at the Two-Forty mine on Pewabic mountain. Good results 

atv being obtained at the Belden adit, in the Quartz Valley 

Gunnison County 

Lessees at the Doctor mine are about to commence shipping 
25 tons of zinc carbonate per day. The Forest Hill com- 
pany is working its mine on Trail creek, south side of Taylor 
park. The 50-ton mill is being re-modeled. There is about 
50,000 tons of $9 zinc-gold-silver-copper ore in the mine. L. G. 

Cavnah is superintendent. Some mines in Pie Plant gulch 

will be re-opened this summer. 

Montrose County 
Mining carnotite and uranium ores is now very quiet, accord- 
ing to O. B. Wilmarth. The Standard Chemical Co. has paid 
off 200 men and shut-down its plant at Ford. It has tested 
its new concentrating plant on the San Miguel river. 

Oubay County 
In May the Camp Bird mill treatetl 2440 tons of ore. The 
profit was $23,000. 

Saguache County 
Sixteen miles southeast of Gunnison is the old town of 
Iris, which has been quiet for 20 years. Here the Denver City 
mine is being unwatered and the machinery overhauled. The 

mine will be examined to see if the zinc and copper veins are 
worth opening. 

San .Ii an COUNTY 

In the Silverton district some interesting work is being 
done at the Flagstaff. Highland Maty. Columbus, Intersection, 
San Juan Chief, Hermes. Broad Gauge, and Whale mines. 
San Mn.i EL Cot vi v 

At Ophir, W. H. Staver. formerly at the Liberty Bell, is pre- 
paring for extensive work at the Suffolk and Carbonero mines 

and mill. Considerable Improvements are to be made by the 

Tomboy company at its mill this summer. An addition is 

being made to the cyanide plant at the Smuggler-Union at 
Pandora. A transmission-line is being constructed from the 
upper Sheridan workings of the Smuggler-Union on the Tellu- 
ride side to the Humboldt workings on the Ouray side of the 

range. Ore from the Good Hope and other claims of N. 

Juricb is to be treated at the Carribeau mill. There is said 

to be a good deal of property in Marshall basin available for 


Shoshone Coukty (Coeub d'Alene) 

On July 3 the Bunker Hill & Sullivan company paid dividend 
No. 214. This amounted to $81,750. The total to date is $10,- 

282,500. At the Frisco mine, at Gem. new crushers, rolls, 

etc., are to be installed, costing $25,000. 

New York people, represented by E. P. Howard, are negoti- 
ating for the Rex mine on Nine Mile. F. C. Bailey of Spokane 
is in charge of the business. The sum of $250,000 has been 
offered for the property, which is equipped with electric 
hoist, compressor, pumps, 250-ton mill and other plant. The 
Rex lead-silver mine is near the Interstate-Callahan zinc mine. 
The latter distributed $575,000 on July 1. On July 5 the 
Caledonia company paid 3c. per share, equal to $78,150. 

The first shipment of lead-silver concentrate from the Marsh 
mine in 13 months was sent to Tooele. Utah, on June 29. The 
shaft is down nearly 1175 ft. from the surface. At the mine 
75 men are employed and 15 at the mill. 

At the Horst-Powell mine near Kingston, the lessees, A. Page 
and A. Devlin, have let a contract for a 150-ton mill. About 
15.000 tons of ore awaits treatment. On July 1. the Frisco, 
Green Hill-Cleveland, Morning, and Tamarack and Custer 
mines were connected with the lines of the Montana Power Co. 
Previously they got current from the Washington Water Power 
Co. Competition has lowered rates. 

It is rumored that the Hercules company contemplates erect- 
ing a smelter at Osburn. as it is not able to make a new con- 
tract with the A. S. & R. company. 

The Stewart Mining Co. has declared a dividend of 30' 
share, amounting to $371,608. The total for 1915 is $743,017, 
and $1,919,590 to date. 

Houohton County (The Coppbb Country) 

On August 2 the Mohawk company will pay $5 per share. 
The new steel rock-house at No. 5 shaft is well underway. 

Underground conditions are excellent. The Franklin mine 

is milling about 1000 tons per day. Fourteen machines are 

opening the conglomerate lode. The Winona is producing 

about 500 tons per day. Costs are being reduced. Con- 
glomerate and amygdaloid from the New Arcadian is to be 
sent to the Franklin mill for a test. 


Jasper County 

On June 28 over 1500 miners in the Webb City-Carterville 
district struck on account of a reduction of wages. The men 
marched to the mines, demanding that others stop work. 
There was no violence shown. The cut in wages is from 25 to 
50c. per day. and $4c per can for shovelers. 

Webb City miners last week tried to induce Joplin men to 

.Ink 10, I'M:, 

MINING Sdenti&i I'KI SS 

it Joplln. 

miners nml mln 

ound i» i" receive leas than $* per shift 
Folios Be null. ! i '.» machine 

men's helper*, $i molars, trimmoi ■, and trtnuni ra' halpi 

| mi. booki 
Hi man, $.'• BO; )u mi 
man, $i. aeraan man, 13.60; motor men - 

.■ b I"" lb. "i 

Mln' handled, The prloi ol ■ 1 lb can would i»- 10c., fur 

ind i.m 1650 lb. l •• ' ...iitM. 

he I i. Young tracta 7000 ft. of drilling in to be d ■ 

Two hole* have cul 'Jack' at 116 i" 136 


Flln.i B Cot n n 

(Special Correspondence.) a large amount nf good-grade 
gold ore is opened In the clalmB of Frank (Unlaw unci Benrj 
Aiiistir on the north side of the Judith mountains near Mow 
Year. They have done over 4000 ft. of work. Cyantdlng will 
suit the ore, 

The Cold Acres Mining Co.. adjoining the New Year mine. 
Is said to have an outcrop of mineralized formation toi 
ft. on Its claims. Samples averaged 17.18 per ton. Lime part- 
ings will reduce this average somewhat. Condemnation pro- 
ceedings have been successfully concluded by which the com- 
pany obtains five acres adjoining its property for use as a 
dump and building-site. Two shifts are now working on a 
1600-ft. adit, together with cross-cuts and a raise which, it is 
hoped, will expose the deposit so that a better idea of the 
tonnage and value of the ore can be obtained. 

Three prospectors are re-worklng the placers in Alpine gulch 
where gold was first discovered in the Judith mountains 35 
years ago. The unusually heavy rains have supplied abund- 
ant water. The men claim to be making $7 or $S per day. 

Lewlstowu, June 2v 

Part of the Anaconda company's Washoe plant was dis- 
abled last week, and the mines were closed for a time. At 

2500 ft. in the Davis-Daly the shoot has been opened for 150 
ft. It is 6 ft. wide, containing from 5 to "'} copper. 


'Ground-Water in Southeastern Nevada' is the title of Water- 
Supply Paper 365 of the U. S. Geological Survey, by Everett 
Carpenter. The area covered in the report comprises 6000 
square miles in Clark. 8500 in Lincoln. 300 in White Pine, and 
2000 in Nye counties. Pioche, Calicnte. Lund, Moapa, and Las 
Vegas are in the territory. This lies in two drainage provinces, 
the Great Basin and Colorado River basin. The most char- 
acteristic topographic features consist of a series of parallel 
north-south ranges, and intervening broad debris-filled valleys. 
Pine and other trees to native grasses grow from the moun- 
tains down. Rainfall is from 3.42 to 11.99 in., the latter at 
Pioche. The report discusses the occurrence of ground-water, 
springs, artesian water, quality of water, watering places on 
routes of travel, and the Railroad Valley district. 
Clark County 

The Goodsprings district is benefiting from the high price of 

spelter. It is reported that the A. S. & R. Co. has purchased 

the Whale property. The Azalea, Mobile, Bill Nye, Sultan, 

New Year, and others are shipping ore. A mill, using a Plumb 

jig, is working at the Frederickson. Rich silver ore has 

been opened in the Akron. 

Esmeraloa County 

The estimated production of the Goldfield Consolidated Mines 
Co. during June is as follows: ore mined, 32,206 tons; gross 
extraction. $310,000; operating expenses, $169,000; net realiza- 
tion, $141,000. 


:iini direct cyanldlng \» much ai 609 was obtained In th.> 

hours' treatment 

than i In actual mining, u Hun in an- 

ticipated mi lit i" ISO ore, Silver is the prim I pal mi lal i be 

"'in is in i i the ni" i up-to-date In Nevada it will have 

a capadt] ol i"" ilog i ii i b There 

will be a gyratory-crusher, ihIIh. trommel tee! 

:. b) ii pebble-mill, Dorr da is-ft 

pebble-mill, Dorr cyanide equl| int, Oliver Alter, and sine 

dust precipitation, K. Freltag Is metallurgist and constructing 

Rochester, Jum 

M thi Nevada Packard thire is at i s inns of 111 to 

|22 ore mi i in- dumps. Thirty-five nun are employed. Under 
ground developments are excellent 

The new 12-drlll motor-drivrn compressor al the portal ol 
the Friedman adit of the Rochester Mines Co is working. 
Tin- adit Is In 300 ft. The refinery al the mill is complete. 
Grading for the railway is finished in upper Rochester. On 
July 2 bullion worth $40,000 was sent to Lovelock. 

Following are the most Important Items from Wlllard: 
Lessees at the Sheepherder's Dream recovered gold worth $125 

from ISO lb. of ore. Prospects are considered g I ;ii depth. 

There is 25 tons of $100 ore waiting shipment. A. Gordon, 

of Minneapolis, has an option on the Bull Dog and Banjo 
claims, next to the above mentioned mine, for about $10,000. 
At the Honey Bee a contract has been let for 100 ft. of driv- 
ing. Cross-cutting is under way ;it 60 II. in the Oddie-Malley- 

Cole lease. The Borland-Healey lease adit is in 65 ft. 

Frost and Cahill have a wide vein of rich ore.- Work at the 

Paulson and Hunter and Grey leases is satisfactory. 
Lincoln County 

On August 2 the Prince Consolidated will distribute 2%C 
per share, amounting to $25,000. Another dividend of equal 
amount was paid last week. Drilling has revealed encouraging 

Lyon County 

Near Yerington is the Pittsburg-Dolores gold mine, one of 
the leading producers of the district. There is about five years' 
ore opened in the mine for the mill and cyanide plant of 70 
to 80-ton capacity. E. J. Schrader is manager. .1. Perry mine 
superintendent, and C. R. Olsen mill superintendent. 
Nye County 

Following are the most interesting events at Tonopah last 

Six companies and lessees produced 10,100 tons of ore worth 

$207,760. The Tonopah company dispatched bullion worth 

$42,000. On August 2 the Jim Butler company will pay 10c. 

per share, the first, amounting to $171,802. The balance on 
hand is about three times this sum. Development continues 

to be very satisfactory. The Tonopah Midway shaft is down 

1280 ft. At 1350 ft. the Extension has cut the foot-wall vein. 

It is 5 ft. wide of good grade. The Belmont's report for the 

quarter ended May 31 shows that the revenue was $632. S22. and 
net profit $260,973. Cash. loans, and silver are worth $1,529,- 
891. Dividend No. 24, of 12%c per share, equal to $187,500 has 
been paid. The total is $7,455,510. 


Juab County 
Ore shipments from companies and lessees in the Tintlc 

district last week totaled 169 cars. At the Lower Mammoth 

the 1000-ft. level is now producing $15 silver-copper ore. Ten 
blocks of ground in the mine are worked by lessees. One lessee 
at 1500 ft. shipped a car of 40o; zinc ore. A 100-ton capacity 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Julv 10, 1915 

ore-house has been completed at the Chief Consolidated. 
Twenty blocks are being mined by lessees. The total output 

la<i week was 20 cars. Motor-driven pumps at 1600-ft at the 

ll are ready lor work. 

Salt Lake Ountv 
Idi ruble activity continues in the Big and Little Cotton- 
wood districts. Genuine prospecting and development is notice- 
able. At the Columbus Extension the drift to the Toledo 

Assure is out 180 ft. In heavily mineralized formation. Ten 

men are employed. At the Alta Con. machine-drills are now 

in use. Air comes from the Wasatch compressing plant. 

In the Sells, drifts are in the quartzite-limestone contact. 
•Ipha and Skipper fissures are expected at a vertical 

depth of 1000 ft Machine-drills are working here. Also 

at the Emma copper mine in limestone shale. Forty-five 

ti ama are hauling 100 tons of ore per day from the Cardiff. 
The output is to be increased. Fifty men are working at the 

mine. Electric haulage is to be used. The Cedar-Talisman 

has shipped some lead ore and will also market zinc ore. 

The Price company has started its adit into Montreal hill. 
Three units of the Ohio Copper mill are treating over 2401) tons 
of ore per day. Concentrate is sent to the Garfield smelter. 
Mining is cheaply done by the caving system, 3,056,000 tons 
having been extracted since December 1909. Over 200 men 
are employed. 

The Utah Copper Co. is employing 1590 men at the mine, 250 
on the railroad, and 1500 in the mills, a total of 3340. The 
payroll is now over $200,009 per month. The scale of operation 
is greatly benefiting thousands of other Utah people. 
Summit County 

Park City mines last week shipped 291T tons of ore. 

Fourteen sets of lessees are busy at the Old Daly, mostly at 

800 ft. On the 500-ft. level of the American Flag mine 30 in. 

of 2 oz. gold and 30-oz. silver ore has been cut. Ore from this 
property goes to the Park City Mills plant. 

The Silver King Consolidated has issued an interim report 
along with No. 8 dividend. Early in 1915 the output was only 
35 tons daily. From March to June bad roads prevented this 
quantity being shipped. Everything now is in order for a 
large output. Higher lead prices have increased profits. Ore 
between No. 3 and 4 raises occurs as a wedge not less than 150 
ft. long and 34 ft. high. Prospects at 1800 ft. are excellent. 
Washington County 

The population of Goldstrike is nearly 200. A three-stamp 

mill is to be erected at the Bee Bee mine. The Goldstrike 

Mining & Leasing Co. has a plant of similar capacity. A 
visiting engineer is reported to have said regarding the ore 

of Goldstrike, "Go down and you have got it." A 70-ton mill 

is to be built for the Goldstrike Consolidated Mining Com- 


Kittitas County 
I Special Correspondence.) — The owner of the Golden Rule 
placer claim, H. D. Harkness. last week recovered about 11 oz. 

gold. The largest piece was worth $18.25. Powers and 

Sugars have taken a five-year lease on the Trilby placer claim. 
The drainage adit is in about 200 ft. They expect to cut bed- 
rock in the next 40 ft. The upper part of the claim has been 
piped off for about 300 ft., and about $11,000 was extracted. 
The present lessees will open the remainder of the ground, the 
channel is narrow, and the ground being cement-gravel, stands 

well. Craven and Renney are starting to open their placer 

claims on Lion's gulch. A. E. Norcross has leased the gravel 

dumps of the Enekel mine. He is now ground-sluicing. 

J. E. Powles is also sluicing the dumps of the Discovery 

claim. Johnson and Anderson have started work at the 

Bigney mine. They expect to cut the north run of Williams 

vein within two months. B. Kilsen, of the Hope quartz 

mini, took out some fine specimen ore in the shaft recently. 
His arrastra is steadily grinding a good grade of ore. 

George (Marshall of Vancouver, B. C. has charge of men at 
the Cougar mine. Thomas Meagher and others are pros- 
pecting Nanem creek on Table mountain. Near the summit 
there Is a flat of over 200 acres: almost anywhere there fine 
gold can be panned. There is plenty of black sand which has 
made it difficult to save the gold in the sluice-boxes. They 
are prospecting the ground carefully, and may devise a scheme 
to work it on a large scale. It is likely that the state high- 
way will lie built through Liberty. This will give mining an 
impetus. It will give a first-class road up the Swank and over 
the Blewitt pass. 

Liberty, June 26. 

Stevens County 

A bid of $12S,000 for the Copper King mine at Chewelah, by 
Danson, Williams, and Danson of Spokane, in behalf of the 
J. Grier Long estate, H. H. Herbert and A. F. McClaine of 
Spokane, was rejected on June 25 by Judge W. H. Jackson in 
the superior court at Colville, and the bid of $125,000 presented 
by J. W. Douglas, of Orient, associated with Volney William- 
son of Spokane, was ordered accepted. 



In two volumes issued by the Department of Mines at Ot- 
tawa, the petroleum and natural gas resources of Canada are 
discussed by Frederick G. Clapp and others. No. 1, with illus- 
trations and maps, covers 378 pages. The production of the 
Dominion in 1912 was 243,614 bbl. of 35 gal. each, worth $1.42 
per bbl. The output of natural gas in that year was approxi- 
mately 15,286,803,000 cu. ft. valued at $2,362,700. Ontario 
yielded 12,529,463,000 and Alberta 2,583,437,000 cu. ft. 
British Columbia 

After several months' shut-down the Standard silver-lead 
mine at Silverton is again in full operation. The monthly 
output of concentrate is between 1200 and 1500 tons. The com- 
pany is shipping this to the Consolidated company's smelter 
at Trail, a new contract having recently been made. 

Six ears of zinc concentrate sent to Bartlesville, Oklahoma, 
from the Rambler-Cariboo mill in June netted $13,000. Other 
cars are not settled yet. On account of the expiration of the 
zinc smelting contract zinc concentrate is being stored at the 
mill at Three Forks. 


On July 20 La Rose Consolidated pays $74,931. Since 1908 
the total distribution has been $5,322,189. 

The Foster mine at Giroux lake has been re-opened after 
three months' shut-down. The Glen Lake Mining Co. controls 
the property. 


El Obo 

Esperanza. Limited, the English company controlling the 
Esperanza Mining Co., operating at El Oro. has issued its 
report for 1914. The former's profit was $153,000. Out of this, 
$101,000 was paid as dividend No. 57 on March 26, 1915. The 
balance carried forward to 1915 is $20,200, against $14,000 
brought forward from 1913 to 1914. Dividends to date amount 
to $12,000,000. 

Owing to the revolution in Mexico, milling ceased on April 
21, 1914. In August work was resumed, continuing on a small 
scale until the end of February of the current year, when treat- 
ment was suspended. There were then no facilities for 
transport of supplies or bullion. The property has suffered no 
physical damage. 

Development on 14 levels totaled 13,277 ft. Of this, 4918 ft. 
was on the San Rafael vein, 3353 ft. on West vein No. 1. 1130 
ft. on West vein A, and 3616 ft. on San Carlos vein. The total 
was an increase of 130 ft. over that of 1913. Openings to date 
are 155,467 ft. Much of last year's work resulted in further 
opening orebodies and old filling. A 4-ton Jeffrey electric 
locomotive was installed on No. 2 level. Reserves are estim- 

Jul, I" 1915 

MINING and Scienlibt l'KI SS 

not In. tODI o( tailing <mi Hi. 

dump Ventilation in the Math • i>*t ..< the mint was much 

■ niln.- .n. aw Of 

ol old tall ; 111 ' ; ^ In 

Bullion and worth 11,0 

Tin- » ..i km -; profli was 1402.426 Deducting special ■djuat- 
ITl, tin. nei profli was t 
i amounted to 1157,500 Tot balance at the 
and ol tin- rear ».i> H65.767, against 1303,289 at the beginning. 
The output to di yielding 1*71.289, 


I'.i IHA.I1 v tO 

At tin 1 end of .him- the throe principal mining companies 

operatloc at Guanajuato had to ahut-down owing to the lack ol 

.ii> supplies. The pumps will be kept going, and a tow 

nun will be retained at each mine to protect roadways and so 
forth. All the Million extracted since the beginning "I April 
has been allowed to accumulate, together with the concentrate. 
The Camilla forces have held Guanajuato for nearly three 


months, with short intervals of occupation by Villa's troops. 
Recent decrees of Carranza impose heavy taxes, retroactive to 
November, but as his authority is precarious, it is hoped that 
they will not be collected. 

In May the Santa Gertrudis mill treated 13,670 tons of ore 
with an estimated profit of $24,000. 


At Nacozari the Moctezuma continues to operate at full 
capacity, in spite of the railway being closed. A large tonnage 
of copper concentrate is accumulating. It is possible that the 
line may be re-opened in about two weeks. Four bridges were 

Work has been resumed at the Democrata mine and smelter 
near Cananea. About 350 men are employed. H. McKey is 
•general manager. 


ii c Hit 1 1 m.i ii i» at Nea fork. 

Hi «\ mil II S \ m.i it- bun gone to Brazil. 
mi Bonds Ih m Tarkwa, Waal Africa, 

id n m n ii \mm.> in expected al Berkelej 

Ki.u Mm ii Watson la "ii iii - waj to the Malaj Bti 

C. ii Mi Mm lias returned from Col bla to New fork. 

.i. k Hi LsxEi baa returned to Bngland from South Africa. 

,i O. i.w\\. consulting engineer to Barnato Bros., Is on a 
rial! to Loudon. 

.i. k. Ti ii via. <>r Ooldfleld, has been Inspecting the prospects 
at Willard, Nevada. 

Amiiiivv C. LiAWBOit, 0. II. Ill Usui i. ami l-'ui D Sunns have 

returned from Juneau. 

Mil Mm Rum ins has lu-i-n visiting on the Comstock lode and 
Is now in San Francisco. 

MvNsiin.i. Mi meiMAN is the new president of the American 
Society for Testing Materials. 

A. H. Lawiiv. superintendent of the Montana-Tonopah 
mine, has gone for a trip to Australia. 

WILLIAM J. Priestley, Jb., has been appointed superintend- 
of the Comet mine, at Basin, Montana. 

J. B. Tvrrki.i. has been elected president of the geological 
section of the Royal Society of Canada. 

J. V. N. Dorr will spend most of the month of July in Colo- 
rado. During August he will be in San Francisco. 

J. Norma N has been appointed consulting mechan- 
ical and electrical engineer to the Canadian Mining & Finance 
Co., Ltd. 

George I. Adams is now professor of geology at Peking Uni- 
versity. Franklin R. Barker has been appointed as the suc- 
cessor to Mr. Adams at Pei Yang University, Tientsin, China. 

F. Fikeiia. chief metallurgist of the Ikuno mine of the 
Mitsubishi company of Japan and Messrs. K. Hishida and S. 
Negishi, of the Kuhara Mining Co., were in San Francisco 
this week and have left for a tour through the principal metal- 
lurgical plants of the United States. 

Albert Birch has resigned as consulting engineer to the 
Goldfield Consolidated Mines Co. and as vice-president and 
general manager to the Aurora Consolidated Mines Co.. to take 
effect at the end of this month. He intends to devote more 
time to general engineering practice. 


On June 25, Scott Ei.dridge. engineer of the Kerr Lake mine 
and W. B. Foote, a mining investor of Geneva. New York, who 
was visiting the mine, were instantly killed by a blast that 
went off at the 250-ft. level w-hen they were in the stope at 
the 140-ft. level. 

George B. Crooks died at San Francisco on July 4. For 
many years he was connected with John Taylor & Co., the 
first firm to engage in the sale of assaying supplies on the 
Pacific coast, and later with its successor, the Braun-Knecht- 
Heimann Co. He was well known to mining men throughout 
the West and leaves many friends. 

Schools and Societies 

The International Gas Congress will meet in San Francisco 
during the week beginning September 27. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 10, 1915 


Weekly Summary of Metal Prices and Notes on the Markets* 

Metal Prices 

San Fi July 8. 

Ant ninny 35 — 35%i 

Electrolytii pper 2014 — 20% 

i>u lead 6-OC— «-95 

kallver (per Mask) W6 

Spelter -- —--'• 

Tin -11 — «fc 

Zinc-dust, 100-kg. ztnc-llned eases 30 

( i:y wire from New fork.) 
mow y/ORK, July B. — Copper is dull, the market still wait- 
bul firm; spelter is very firm, with a steady 

►lytic In New fork, In cents per pound. 

July . 

5 19.75 

I Sum. 
5 Ho] 


1 1.46 



i 1.91 






131 4 . 1915 


1 l ::s 
l 1.80 

i v:i 
in. ::, 

Average week ending 

:6 iv- 1 

.In, i. .' 18.67 

;i 19.89 

" Ul 

13 j 

" 10 20.00 

July 7 

19] i 

.h 18.86 

12 24 

Sept 18.02 

Oct n. la 

N,,v 11.75 

Dec 18.76 

Exports during the wee* ended June 2fi totaled 6,955,353 lb., 

valued at 81,208.775. < if thit lb. wei England, 

68 lb to Russia (Europe), an, I 1.11:1:1. lip, to Italy, Im 

ports "f all kin, is pper amounted t" 12.418,070 n>. worth 

Tin- estimated output "f Michigan in I 87.000,000 lb. 

The White Pine contributed about 180, lb ol 60$ 1 iral 

The Anac 1 1 leld In .1 line was 22,1 

Or Juni !9 the hrst unit of the Inspiration mill started work. 
During the last two weeks of June the Braden mine, Chile, 

! I. 100,000 11'. from 17,079 tons Ol 

in m were: Ch 6,442,000; Nevada Con., 5,271.- 

5 167,717; an. I Utah, 1 1,058,765 poui 
The Following dividends are to be paid about July l: 

I '<■:■ share. 

1 $10.00 

a naconda 

I n 

Neva, la I 'oil s, , I i , la t , d 

North Unite 

Old I lomlnlon 



Sated 0.375 

i I pper 1.00 

a 50 

11 875 
3 00 


A no, nnt. 

I 500.000 




17.'. nun 
93 163 
M7.ii 1 2 


Below are given the average x,\v York quotations, in cents 
line silver. 

1 late 
July 1 18.26 

2 1V27, 

:: 18 25 

1 Sundai 

."> Hoi 


7 17.7a 

Monthly averages. 

Average week ending 

May 26 in 7 7 

June 2 lit. Hi 


" lfi 19.31 

" 23 48.97 

" ::« 18.40 

July 7 4s. 10 


1 1 1, 



7,7 :,:: 

58 111 

m 15. 

IS. 17. 



Jul! 54.90 


Aug 54,35 

s. pt r.:i.75 

Oct 61.12 

Nov 1 !i. 1 2 

Die 19.27 

Uness in silver eontlnues. In London the market litis 
'" en hi). nail, anil interest taken by 

From the United Stati een 

i India ami China be ten strength. 

Exports from London to those countries up to .inn, k. wei ap 
proximately 11. ,000 oz. loss than in that period of 1911. 

Storks in London are ahoin 1 1; On .Inly :t a shipment 

1,000 oz. went to China from San Pranclsco. A rdlng to 

tin- las, I,. Ton h Belmont compa ny, [1 

iivcr store,! worth $837,456, say, 1,674,910 ounces. 


Lead is quoted in cents per pound or dollars per hundred 

pounds, New York delivery. 

July 1 

4 Sunday 

5 Holiday 

... , ., 


Average week ending 
May 26 1.20 



•• 16. 

" 23. 

" 30. 
July 7. 


I', l. 
.M< I 


Ma y 

I an, 


. li 1 

. 3.86 
. 3.90 

. ::.!in 

Monthly averages. 
i :i 1 7,. 


r, it 




S, pt, 



. 3.80 
. 8.86 
. 3.82 

. 3.68 
. .1.80 

Zinc is quoted as spelter, standard Western brands. St. Louis 
in cents per pound. 

Average week ending , 

Mav 26 17.7:i 

June 2 22.10 

9 26.17 

" 16 22.83 

" 23 1S.71 

" 30 20 58 

July 7 22.IH 






l 22.00 

2 22 mi 

3 22.1111 

t Sunday 

.'. Hollda: 

6 22.00 

7 22.7,11 

.Monthly averages 
lull. 1916 

5.1 I 

S i: 

7,, 12 


.lime 1.84 


9 U7 






S. PI 

191 I. 

. 4.77, 

. 4 47, 

. £.16 

. 1.77, 

. 7,. II I 

. 5.40 


Producti t zinc and Lead ores from the Mlssourl-Kansas- 

Oklahoma region for the first half of 191", was as follows: 

Tons. Value. 

Zinc-blende 188,145 19,772,548 

line 11,285 179,964 

id 21.277 1.1111,1 I I 

inpiiii p'opi, predict tltat zinc-blende will advance to 
8160 per ton by October 1. ami the vear's total a1 (26, .000. 

«l KKSll.VEIl 

The primary market for quicksilver is San Pranclsco, Call- 
torn ' being the largest producer. The price is fixed in the 

open market, anil, as quoted weekly in this column, is that at 
Which moderate quantities are sold. Buyers by tile carload can 
usually obtain a slight reduction, and those wanting but a Bask 
or two must expect to pay a slightly higher price. A' 
weekly ami monthly quotations, In dollars per ilask of 77 lb., 

i v iv,-n below: 

Weekending I June 23 :: 

June 9 90.00 " 3d ••: 

16 90.00 I July 7 95.00 

Monthly averages. 

1914. 1915. 

Jan 311.25 51. no 

Feb 39.00 60 00 

Mch 39.00 78.00 

Apr 38.90 77.50 

May 39.00 75.00 

June 38 60 90.00 

191 1. 

July 37.50 

Aug 80.00 

Sept 71.27, 

Oct 53.00 

Nov 55.00 

Dee 53.10 


Prices in New York, in cents per pound. 
Monthly averages. 

1914. t!U7, 

Jan 37,85 34.40 

Feb 39.76 37.23 

Mch 38.10 18.76 

Apr 36.10 4K.27, 

May 38 y 39 28 

June 3H.72 m -i 

191 I. 

July 31.60 

Aug 50.20 

Sept 33.10 

Oct 30.40 

Nov 33.51 

Dec 33.60 

On July 7 tin was quoted quiet at 3S.75 to 39.25 cents. 

i" mis 

MIMV, ..nd Scienlifi. I'KI SS 

Eastern Metal Market 

ngthent 'i in lb* 

■ 1 Ic . Mid ii li !irm ill iil»> 

New York prompt delivery, The lawst lead Intereal baa held 
v York, for several dan The quotation <» others 

• ml nil are now in nearly 00 »0 equal 

basis. Copper is strong, io tar aa the prodaoere an 
earned, as the] anticipates renewal ol war buying, bul lecond 
hands ar.' offering com In tin, the market bat 

niihir uneventful, the principal feature being tin' June sta- 

which showed deliveries ol SI torn In June Anti- 
mony i» strong. Aluminum Is scarce for early delivery and Its 
in |i ,- is maintali 

:;ii business is showing s decided betterment, Great 
encouragement is drawn (nun th,> fact that the Improvement 
is fell outside of the circles which are profiting from war 
business. The steel mills :m* steadily growing busier; higher 

are being asked, and the betterment must radiate in all 
directions. All know that the steel business has been called 
a 'barometer of trade.' Mure large war orders are in prospect. 


For several days the market has been characterised by quiet 
amounting to dullness, but the Quotations of first-hands have 
continued firm. The presence of several large Inquiries from 
manufacturers of munitions of war has sustained the belief 
that a buying movement of good-sized proportions will start 
soon, probably after the Fourth of July holiday. The pro- 
ducers have therefore adhered to their quotations of 20.25 to 
SO 50c, SO days, delivered, for electrolytic. Second-hands have 
offered metal at concessions, particularly in the past two or 
three days, but it is understood, generally, that not a great 
deal of re-sale copper is available. For July delivery second- 
hands might accept as low as 19.62 'ic but most of them con- 
tinue to quote 20c. for spot metal, with the quotation nominal. 
In Lake there has been a slight show of interest, and occas- 
ional carloads have been available at concessions. Quotations 
from 20.50c. for common grades to 22.50c. for choice 
brands. The exports in June totaled 15.751 tons, compared 
wiih 38,193 tons in .May. 


Since the last report lead has gained in strength and there 
has been a steady drawing together of the prices quoted by 
independent producers and those of the A. S. & R. Co. On 
June 2-1. 25, 26. and 28 the independents were quoting 5.50c, 
Xew York, while on each of those days the largest interest 
quoted 5.75c, New York. The re-sale metal which was offered 
at low prices has been steadily disappearing under buying at 
the concessions offered, and it is intimated that there is some 
hidden influence behind its absorption. However that may be. 
the quotations in the open-market advanced June 29 to 5.60c 
and June 30 to 5.70c, the A. S. & R. Co. continuing to quote 
5.75c on both days. Its quotation is still unchanged. That 
there is still considerable irregularity in the market is evi- 
denced by the fact that a sale was made June 28 at slightly 
over 5.75c, New York. The London market is so far below 
New York parity that it is difficult to see how export sales 
can be made, unless producers are willing to take on export 
business less than the domestic price. The London quotation 
yesterday was £25 15s. per ton. The June exports totaled 660G 


On June 25 there was a sharp advance in spelter, some of 
the producers asking on that day 20 to 20.50c, or 2c. more 
than had been ruling for prompt metal. For some days the 
market had been practically dormant at IS to 1S.50C. The ad- 

and i further upward trend which followed, wi 
i i,. ,. betterment in the demand ami to laboi (roubles 
in the Webb Clty-Cartervtlla ore district, ..i 

i thai ibf trouble win be "t Ion With the 

i speltei "inn- it is. it Ik thought blgblj ible thai 

the in l mis will be granted th In wages thej demand. 

On June 2:1 the London market advanced '.'■ 1 H pel ton, which 

additional stn ogthenlng Influence "n this mat el B] 

June '■'■". 22,. was asked for prime Western, prompt delivery. 

dais were quoted al SS to 
choice brands such as Bertha and Horsehead, aa much 
was offered. The July and August Buppl] ol ordinary grades 

Is not over plentiful, in 11 arly pari "i the 

June future deliveries could have been bad al ICc later they 
advanced to over 20c The recent decline in the ■ letter mar- 
ket, from 28 i" 18c, caused the quotation for galvanised 
sheets to become easier. The present quotation inr No. 2X 
gauge is l.EOc, mill, bul the situation is render d doubtful by 
the new upward turn of spelter prices. The < eporl thai 

the galvanizing trade of England Is in an unsettled condition 
because of the scarcity of zinc, and because of the Govern 
ment's statement thai ii may take over the control of the 
entire supply. The exports in June totaled 2746 urns. The 
highest New Y'ork price in June was 28c, and the lowest 18c. 
The highest price in London was £110 and the lowest £87 10b. 
per ton. 


Trading has been light and the trend of prices has been 
downward. On June 25 the spot price touched 41.25c, having 
advanced from 41c quoted the previous day, but the quotation 
dropped on June 2S to 40.50c, on 29th to 40c. and on 30tb to 
39.37%c. On July 1, the following (lurry of buying of future 
positions the market went to 39.75c On one or (wo days in 
the week there was fair business in spot metal and early ship- 
ments from London, but no really large quantities changed 
hands on any one day. Quotations are pursuing a more even 
course than is usual with tin for the reason (hat the restric- 
tions placed on trading by Great Britain have practically 
eliminated speculation. The necessity of giving guarantees 
specifying the ultimate consumers of the metal is a hindrance 
to free buying and selling. The deliveries into consumption 
in June reached the excellent total of 3900 tons, 900 of which 
arrived at Pacific ports, destined for the East. The total of 
deliveries for 6 months. 21,575 tons, shows a decrease of 1525 
tons compared with the same period last year. Shipments 
from the Straits in June, 6665 tons, were 795 tons larger than 
for the same month last year. In six months Straits ship- 
ments were 862 tons larger than in the same period last year. 
Australia shipped 141 tons in June, compared with 153 tons 
in May. The stocks, including on dock and landing, July 1. 
totaled 2319 tons, and there was afloat on that day 7410 tons. 
The total visible supply June 30 was 15,927 tons, against 
16,027 tons June 30, 1914. 


Some slight pressure to sell stock on hand led to a softening 
of prices for Chinese and Japanese antimony in the week, but 
the easiness was only temporary. Spot metal sold at 36.25 to 
36.50c. duty paid. The general quotations range from 36 to 
37c. On one or two days there was fair buying, but the needs 
of ammunition makers seem to be supplied for the present. 

Prompt metal is scarce and quotations are firm at 31 to 33 
cents. Aluminum consumption in the United States in 1914 
amounted to 79.129,000 lb. Bauxite production was 219,318 
tons, worth $1,069,194. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 10, 1915 

ASSKSBMKM Work — Prima Fai ii: PBOOF OF 

The location of a junior mining claim has the burden of 
proving that the senior conflicting claim was forfeited by 
[allure to do the required annual assessment work. Where It 
appears that an affidavit by the senior claimant was of record 
to the effect that ibe work had been done and there was no 
i io the contrary, the Court must presume, under Civil 
Code Section 1426m. that the work has been done. Where 
a corporation owns the claim in question a stockholder 
therein may perform the work and it will inure to the benefit 
of the corporation. 

Mtisser V. Fitting (California!, 148 Pacific, 530. March 13 

Mining Corporation — Sale Set Aside 

Where the directors of a non-operating mining corporation 
sold the properties of the Company to the Anaconda Copper 
Mining Co.. for a stock consideration and assumption of out- 
standing debts by the latter company, and it did not affirma- 
tively appear that the consideration was wholly adequate, upon 
the suit of minority stockholders a re-sale was ordered to be 
made in the open market, with the proviso that if no better 
price could be obtained, the first sale might stand, and the 
minority stockholders be paid a cash consideration equivalent 
to the market value of their pro rata of the Anaconda stock. 
Geddes v. Anaconda Copper Mining Co. (Montana), 222 
Federal, 129. May 1, 1915. 

The mine in question was the Alice at Butte. The decision 
was published in the Press of May 8. 

Oil and Gas Lease — Gas Wi i i DEFINED 

Where the lessor under an oil and gas lease had permitted 
his lessee to operate a certain well for seven years as an oil- 
well, and during that period paid no attention to the small 
amount of gas which was produced from it in non-commercial 
quantity, he could not at the end of that period, when the oil 
production commenced to decrease, recover from the lessee the 
minimum gas rentals provided for in the lease. A 'gas-well' 
was defined as a "well having such a pressure and volume of 
gas. and considered with respect to its location, its proximity 
to the market, as could be operated profitably, and the gas 
utilized either on the leased premises or disposed of commer- 
cially to others." 

Prichard v. Freeland Oil Co. (West Virginia), S4 South- 
eastern. 945. April 20, 1915. 

Placer Claim — FORFEITURE Denied 

A placer claim was located by plaintiff in 1905. Little work 
done on it until 1913. although the defendant moved into a 
house on the claim in 1910. In 1913, extensive dredging opera- 
tions having taken place in the vicinity, and the land within 
the claim having been known to contain gravel deposits, 
plaintiff expended time and labor to the value of $135 in 
clearing off brush on the claim so as to prepare it for dredging. 
Early in 1914 defendant filed a location notice claiming the 
ground as having been forfeited by plaintiff for non-perform- 
ance of assessment work. Held: that whatever may or may 
not have been done in the way of assessment work during the 
years intervening between 1905 and 1913 by plaintiff, the 
work done during the latter year and before defendant's at- 
tempted re-location intervened, operated to prevent a forfeiture 
and plaintiff's claim was held valid. 

Rlchen i>. Davis (Oregon). 148 Pacific 1130. May 25, 1915. 

Potash in the Texas Permian. By J. A. Udden. Bulletin 
17. P. 59. Maps* University of Texas. Austin, 1915. 

The Deterioration of Lumber. By Merritt B. Pratt. Bul- 
letin 252. P. 20. Illustrated. University of California. 
Berkeley, 1915. 

Boone County. West Virginia. By C. E. Krebs, D. D. Teets, 
and W. Armstrong Price. P. 64S. 111., maps, charts, index. 
Morgantown, 1915. 

John Wesley Powell. Biographical Memoir. By W. M. 
Davis. P. S3. Illustrated. National Academy of Sciences. 
Washington. D. C, 1915. 

The National Domain in Canada and Its Proper Conserva- 
tion. By Frank D. Adams. P. 4S. 111. map. Commission of 
Conservation, Ottawa, 1915. 

The Basin and Grey Bill Oil and Gas Fields, Bighorn 
Coi niy. Wyoming. By F. F. Hintze, Jr. Bulletin 10. P. 62. 
111., map. State Geological Survey. Cheyenne, 1915. 

The Radium-Uranium Ratio in Carnotites. By S. C. Lind 
and C F. Whittemore. Technical Paper 88. P. 28. Illus- 
trated. U. S. Bureau of Mines. Washington, D. C, 1915. A 
resume' of this paper has appeared in the Press. 

U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C, 1915: 

RESULTS of Spirit Leveling in Utah, 1897 to 1914. Bulletin 

566. P. 77. 111., index. 

Production of Filler's Earth in 1914. By Jefferson Mid- 
dleton. P. 6. 

Potash Salts in 1914. By W. C. Phalen. P. 25. Map. 

Results oe Spirit Leveling in Minnesota, 1897 to 1914. 
Bulletin 560. P. 190. 111., index. 

Results oe Spirit Leveling in Idaho. 1896 to 1914. Bulletin 

567. P. 130. 111., index. 

Tm: Coalville Coal Field. Utah. By Carroll H. Wegemann. 
Bulletin 5S1-E. P. 27. 111., maps, index. 

Lavas oe Hawaii and Their Relations. By Whitman Cross. 
Professional Paper 8S. P. 97. 111., maps, index. 

Composition oe Muds from Columbus Marsh. Nevaoa. By 
W. B. Hicks. Professional Paper 95-A. P. 11. Map. 

Lathes: Their Construction and Operation. By George W. 
Burley. Scott, Greenwood, & Son, London and D. Van 
Nostrand Co., New York. P. 228. 111., index. For Sale by 
Mining and Scientific Press. San Francisco. Price, $1.25. 

The lathe is one of the most important of modern machines, 
for on it depends the successful construction of most other 
machinery. After a brief, historical review of the subject, 
the present volume takes up the different classes of modern 
lathes, namely, hand-turning, engine, turret, vertical and 
special lathes. The general characteristics and field of use 
of the different types are considered and there are a number 
of illustrations showing the principal kinds of each type of 
lathe. A chapter is devoted to such lathe accessories as 
chucks, mandrels, etc.. and their uses explained. The subject 
of lathe tools is discussed in connection with tool steels and 
some space is also given to the questions of feed and cutting 
speed. Another chapter is devoted to lathe-work in general. 
The appendix contains tables of gear-wheel combinations for 
cutting different screw-threads. While the treatment through- 
out is entirely practical, the underlying principles involved 
are considered, and the book will be of value to the student 
as well as to the practical machinist. 

July i" 1916 

MINING and Scientific I'KI SS 



asinimes a 


Inronnfiilon bim.-.i on latter* and cmnloK i. - from manufacturer* 

Electrlclt> at the Exposition 

Prominent!] connected with tha Panama Pai m 
U iln- General Electric Co of Bchenectady, Nan York. ) 
us own aztanalTa exhibit* in tha Palaea or Transportation, tha 

brilliant lighting effort is tha work of this company'! engi- 
neers. These do not cover tha i! k displays, us a complata 
electrically-operated bungalow, tarmed tha 'Home Electrical,' 
la open for inapeetloD in tha Palace of Manufactures. Many 
(!. K. motors were employed during tha construction or the 
Exposition buildings. In the 'Zone' or amusement part of the 
Fair. Q. K. products are large!) n 

In the large artistically arranged court-yard of the 11 1 

Electrical the company shows a Mazda' service research 
laboratory for the well-known Incandescent lamp Raw ma- 
terials, and parts In process of manufacture, explain construc- 
tion of the lamp. Nearby Is the commercial Incandescent lamp 
exhibit, which includes from the grain of wheat size to the 
large 1000-watt gas-filled lamps. All kinds of other apparatus 
are displayed. Nearby again Is one of the Exposition sub- 
stations, using G. E. products. It consists of a 1000-kw. motor- 
generator set. 250-kw. balance set, transformers, switchboard, 

The main exhibit of the company covers 9000 sq. ft. in the 

tons. t«" are, however, coupled together for freight 

to form a locomotive weighing 160 tons. The c blnatlon 

fr.ic.lit locomotive* an- hauling main line trains ol 1000 ions 
at a speed ,,( 16 miles per hour against the ruling grade 
and at :'! mile* l» r hour on level tangent tr:o k 

ton* ol ore and suppllee are carried annuall] on this road. 

The electric mining loco live* consist of a large 10-ton 

trolley type equipped with three motor* and * six -ion comblmv 
tion trolley and Btorags battery locomotive equipped with two 
motors, ail of the commutatlng pole type. Tha latter is so 
arranged that it may be operated on tha storage batter] 
gathering beyond ii» point where the trolley wire extends, 

the ban Bins charged From a small cbarglni 

mounted in the locomotive and operating on the trolley volt- 
age, thus obviating the necessity of laying up the locon 
while charging or changing the battery. 

Mining men will find the above traction apparatus of great 
Interest. They will also see many other electrical products in 
the G. E. exhibit, too numerous to mention here. The General 
Klerlric Rerieu- for .lune especially covers the firm's exhibits, 
also the use of electricity In many Industries. 

Combined Water-Wheel and Motor-Drive 

At the Snowstorm mine, Larson, Idaho, an air-compressor 
had been in use for a number of years, driven by an impulse 
water-wheel, the buckets of which were attached to the rim of 
what served as the flywheel. The supply of water was limited. 


Palace of Transportation. Of this, 7735 sq. ft. is for apparatus 
display, the balance for trackage. The show is ornamental in 
design. The exhibit comprises electric locomotives for various 
classes of service from underground mine haulage to heavy- 
steam railroad electrification: railway motors and all kinds 
of apparatus for electric railways, representing the latest devel- 
opments in modern city and interurban electric service; signal 
accessory electric devices; electric apparatus and equipment 
for railway shops: electric illumination for cars, shops, etc. 
All essential parts of electric traction are demonstrated in 

An impressive exhibit is the electric locomotives, of which 
five different types are included. The Butte, Anaconda & 
Pacific locomotive, occupying the central space of the group, is 
one of four units that have recently been built for this road, 
and is a duplicate of the original 17 units put into service in 
1913. These are the first direct current electric locomotives 
for operation at 2400 volts ever built. Each unit weighs 80 

COMBINED WATEE-WHEKL ami motor-drive. 

so that at certain seasons it was almost impossible to operate 
the compressor, according to A. O. Gates. Electric-power be- 
came available from a reliable supply. It was decided to in- 
stall such equipment as would allow the utilization of all the 
water-supply, and keep the compressor supplying the maximum 
demands of the mine. 

Two water-wheels and one motor, mounted on shafts having 
the same centre-line, connected together by a flexible-coupling, 
supply the power to drive the compressor. The smaller water- 
wheel is designed to operate at the full speed of the motor, the 
two to drive together, the motor delivering the excess power 
over that available from the water-supply. This varies, of 
course, with different seasons of the year. When there is less 
demand for air from the mine the water is diverted to the 
larger impulse-wheel, which runs at about the same peripheral 
speed as the smaller wheel (water having same spouting ve- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 10. 1915 

locity), but at about two-thirds the relative speed, the com- 
pressor now delivering a proportionate amount of air, and 
taking less power. The motor is disconnected from the power- 
line, but turns with the wheels. Thus, by the use of two 
wheels, the most efficient conditions for water-wheels are 
maintained during varying loads, the amount of peak elec- 
tricity being kept at a minimum. On the compressor, the old 
wheel was replaced with a split cast-iron rope fly-wheel with 
18 grooves for lj-in. rope. The compressor runs at 90 to 95 
r.p.m. at full speed, and about 60 r.p.m. at reduced speed. 
Abou 350 hp. is required by the compressor at full speed. As 
the motor is rated at 275 hp., it must run at an overload during 
rare intervals when no water is available. This obtains 
a better efficiency from the motor at the partial loads of nor- 
mal operation. 

In this plant is another similar compressor, but driven by 
means of a belt from a single motor. The rope and belt drives 
of same capacity side by side, offer some interesting compari- 
sons. One or these is the practical noiselessness of the ropes, 
while there is a hum and crackle to the belt. The rope drive 
is cheaper in its first installation, and the cost of maintenance 
is much less than that of belt. 

New Gasoline Locomotive 

To meet the demand for cheaper transportation in mining 
and the allied industries, various types of locomotives have 
been developed. These are propelled by steam, electricity, and 
gasoline. Among the self-contained units that have resulted 
is the 'Plymouth' gasoline industrial locomotive. The cost of 
operating the gasoline locomotive is claimed to be one of the 
numerous advantages of this type of machine. 

The model N locomotive shown in the accompanying photo- 
in-ai'li is equipped with a four-cylinder 23-34-hp. motor. The 


cylinders are 3'.. in. bore, with 5-in. stroke. They are made 
from a special grade of reverberatory-furnace iron. The water- 
jacket heads are east separately, and being retained by screws 
are easily removed. 

The crank-case is an aluminum casting and the oil-pan is 
of pressed sieel. The enclosed valves are mechanically oper- 
ated on one side of the motor by a single cam-shaft. The 
inlet and exhaust-valves are interchangeable. The pistons 
are of the same grade of metal as used in the cylinders, and 
are fitted with three diagonally split-concentric expansion- 

The connecting rods are of I-beam construction. The cam- 
shaft is drop-forged, as is also the crank-shaft. The bearings 
are of nickel babbitt. A thermo-syphon cooling system and 
a combination of force-feed and splash-system of oiling is 
employed. A Bosch magneto is used for ignition. Hyatt flex- 
ible roller-bearings and friction-drive transmission are parts 
of the equipment. A heavy two-piece cast-iron frame adds 

tractive force to the locomotive and makes a very rigid frame. 
The shafts and axles are of high carbon steel. The ordinary 
speeds of the locomotive are from 3 to 10 miles an hour. The 
draw-bar pull for the 3-ton locomotive is 1200 lb., at 5 miles an 
hour. The hauling capacity on the level is 27 tons, or 7 tons 
on a 4% grade. Every part of the locomotive is accessible, 
and any part easUy removed when necessary. 

Commercial Paragraphs 

A 4s-in. Symons disc-crusher, made by Chalmers & Williams 
of Chicago Heights, has been installed by the Garfield Smelt- 
ing Co., Garfield, Utah. 

'National' Bulletin No. 20 of 32 pages is an index for National 
Bulletins No. 1 to 20. It is in considerable detail, the idea 
being to offer pipe information readily accessible to the editor, 
contractor, dealer, or consumer. The index is issued by the 
National Tube Co., Pittsburg. 

An article entitled 'Dragline Cableway is an effective Tool 
for Sand and Gravel Plants.' by W. H. Wilms, reprinted from 
: ing Record, June 5, 1915, has been sent us by Sauer- 
nian Buns.. Chicago, who manufacture the Shearer & Mayer 
patented bucket used in the excavator described. The require- 
ments of the buckets are severe. 

In Bulletin Ka, the Mesta Machine Co.. of Pittsburg, is a 
useful horsepower chart for transmission machinery including 
gears and pulleys. The chart appears as a cube with sides 3'- 
in. square. By writing to the company anybody interested can 
obtain a blue-print 16 times the size of this chart. Other 
machinery catalogues have been issued. 

According to the New Jersey Meter Co.. Plainfield, New 
Jersey, its air-meter is the only type of compressed air-meter 
which shows instantly, in cubic feet of free air per minute, 
the actual flow of air in a pipe or hose. It measures the con- 
sumption of any tool, machine, or apparatus driven by air: 
determines the net actual capacity of compressors and detects 
losses due to leaks, wear, and inefficient tools. 

In its 48-page catalogue for 1915 the Werer Chimney Co., 
Chicago, states that over 1000 cf its reinforced-concrete chim- 
neys are in use in the United States and other countries. A 
long list is given. The largest is at the Colusa mine, Butte, 
Montana, and is 350 ft. high. Twenty-three pages illustrate 
construction methods and finished stacks. Some interesting 
discussion is given on the Weber 'coniform' chimney. 

Centrifugal pumps, (double suction volute), turbine cen- 
trifugal pumps, centrifugal pumps, (single suction volute), and 
two-stage house pumps, are described in Bulletins 150, 151. 152, 
and 153 respectively of the A. S. Cameron Steam Pump Works, 
11 Broadway, New York. No. 104 covers the regular piston, 
boiler feed, long stroke piston, outside packed, sectionalized 
vertical plunger sinking, and other pumps made by the com- 

The R. D. Nuttall Co., Pittsburg, has issued two cata- 
logues. No. 12 covers mine-haulage locomotive gears, pinions 
and trolleys, mining machine gearing, mine-haulage and 
general data for ordering industrial gears. No. 13 gives gen- 
eral data on Nuttall railway motor-gearing for Westinghouse 
and General Electric equipments, Nuttall trolleys, harps and 
wheels, flexible couplings of the spring and buffer type, and 
electric railway compressor-gears. 

A 'Pneumercator' is a new accurate and practical apparatus 
for measuring and indicting the levels of liquids in stationary 
or marine tanks, such as water or fuel oil. It will also in- 
dicate the draft and displacement of ships. The instrument 
is simple in operation, air being forced through a pipe into 
the pneumercator by the liquid trying to enter a balance- 
chamber below the surface of the liquid. At the Exposition the 
Pneumercator Co., Monadnock Building. San Francisco, has 
this apparatus displayed. 

, — _ 

Mining ' Press 

Volum. Ill 

EJilrd by T. A. RICKARD 


Numbrr 3 

f tihue Tdi 


I ^RQM the various mining districts of the West we receive 
*■ news of the resumption of work at old mines and the begin- 
ning of work at new ones, such as that shown in the photogragh 
above. The high prices of the base metals is provoking keen 
interest and general activity among enterprising operators, from 
Lake Superior to the Rio Grande. The news columns of our 
paper reflect this general revival of mining. 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 17, 1915 



Because you obtain greater strength 
and service for same cost. 

Because they weigh at least one-third 
less than a cast-iron frame hoist and yet 
are literally unbreakable. 

Because they are readily knocked 
down and rebuilt with little expense - 
a decided advantage when transports 
tion is difficult. 

Because every part is properly de- 
signed. The clutch is powerful yet 
easj to adjust and maintain. The gears 
are 25 to 50$ heavier than usual on 
any other make of hoist. 

Send for Special Catalog 


T A Hl.'KAKI' 

TBOM tfl T UK u> 

Associate I 

M \v ron ukunkw itz 

Mining . z t* Press 


■ tin. 




I Publlshli 
CHARI.1CB T in i • HINSON, M i 

A W 

- ■■ Junto 

■ 11 
U . II S hl,.v 

C W. PurlnsHon. 
C. F. Tolmnn. Jr 

lalllr.l idtiy 

I DU per Copy 

San Francisco, Ji i v 17, 1915 

Advcrtlten CndMc— IasI Pair* 

Huy.TH Directory — Fas* S 



Ni'i i * 73 

J A H"lMi- "4 

lb of the organizer and Director of the Bureau of 


Am k nit Wab 75 

During the next few years, possibly tor a decade, the 
American mining Industry will flourish as never 

Mi MM. Ill 111 M 75 

An active and useful organisation which deserves pub- 
lic support and Intel 

Diaz ami Menu " 76 

Some of the states are disposed to declare their inde- 
pendence pending the return of the rest of the country 
to its senses. 

Precipitating a< nos of Carbon in Cyanide Soil thins. 

By 0. C. Ralston 77 

The precipitation is due to adsorbed CO, and the phe- 
nomenon is explicable by known laws. 

Relative Erbob in Alluvial Sampling. 

By Charles S. Haley 79 

Sampling by drill-holes should be checked by shaft- 
sinking. Results mainly depend on the judgment and 
experience of the man who does the work. 

Condi noss in Soxoba. 

By An Occasional Correspondent SO 

Unless some one of the contending factions' is recog- 
nized by the U. S. government and permitted to 
strengthen itself the United States will be compelled 
to intervene. 

Act iiiknt Prevention by the Steel Corporation. 

By A. A. Willoughby S2 

The accident rate per 1000 employes has been de- 
creased 40'/r since 1906. Accidents from delayed blasts 
have been reduced to a negligible quantity. 

Flotation in Australia. 

By Charles S. Oalaraith S3 

The history of the developments that led up to the 
introduction of flotation, and of the subsequent litiga- 

Ma no uk S6 

A naturally occurring bituminous substance that has 
valuable qualities. 

Notes ok Homestake Metallurgy. 

By Allan J. Clark S7 

Compactness of plant, saving of first cost, and of labor 
and supervision are the advantages of the heavy 


stamp. Operatli given, n has been round 

Ible to disp.-iis,- with protective aJkalinlt] In 

Fl oi am. in w BaOKES Hill .,, 

or zinc tailing 222, tons was treated. The cost of 

treatment by the Horw I process was 30c. per ton the 

total working cost i2.B0 per ton. 

A Mine-Owning Tribe or Indians. 

By Lucius L. Wittich 92 

The Indians prefer cash in hand to the prospect of 
inline royalties and the Government has been 
ouliged to Intervene in order to prevent then, from 
parting with valuable mining rights for a song. 
Leaching at Yeringtiin g t 

The Walker River Copper Co. is planning to leach its 
oxidized ores by the Midland process. 

Hi am-Fuknace Gases in Silver-Lead Smii ii\ 94 

If oxygen is present in excess of 1>:,% reduction is 

Mining in Arizona. 

By Charles F. Willis 95 

The American Smelting & Refining Co. has bought 
the Gila Sulphide Copper Co. Mining is active in the 
southern part of the state. All the copper mines are 
pushing production. 

Russian Copper Production 9g 

The copper output of Russia decreased in 1914, as the 
War led to the shutting down of some mines and less- 
ened the number of workmen at others. 


Concentrates 97 

Recent Patents gg 

Review of Mining 100 

Special correspondence from Platteville. Wisconsin; 

Cripple Creek, Colorado; Goldfleld, Nevada; London. 

The Mining Summary 103 

Personal 107 

The Market Place: 

Metal Prices log 

Eastern Metal Market 109 

Book Reviews no 

The Overland Route: A Guidebook of the Western 
United States. Materials of Construction. By Adel- 
bert P. Mills. Design of Steel Bridges. By F. C. Eunz. 
The Railroad Taper. By Leo Perkins. 

Company Reports m 

Alaska Mexican Gold Mining Co.; Alaska Treadwell 
Gold Mining Co.; Alaska United Gold Mining Co. 
New Machines and Devices: 

Time-Study Watch 112 

Rotary-Converters in Coal Mining 112 

Commercial Paragraphs 112 

Established May 24, 1860, as The Scientific Prena; name 
changed October 20 of the same year to Mining and Scientific 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class mat- 
ter. Cable address: Pertusola. 

Branch Offices — Chicago. 300 Fisher Bdg.; New York, 1308-10 
Woolworth Bdg.; London, 724 Salisbury House, E.C. 

Price, 10 cents per copy. Annual subscription: United States 
and Mexico, $3: Canada, $4; other countries in postal union, 
21s. or ?5 per annum. 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 17, 1915 

More or Less Air 
by Shifting Brushes 
of Fan Motor 

"100 H.P. Brush Shifting Motor." 

Install this variable speed brush shifting motor 
when the air demand is low — for new slopes or levels. 
As the working face recedes and the air need in- 
creases, shift the brushes to give any speed increase 
desired within a three to one range. 
At all speeds this motor is very efficient. 
From full speed to standstill all speed changes are 
obtained without external control equipment — simply 
shift the brushes. 

General Electric Company 

Atlanta, Ga. 

Baltimore, Md, 
Birmingham. Ala. 
Boston, Maa. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Butte, Mont. 
W. Va. 
\ Chattanooga, 

Cincinnati, Ohio 
Cleveland, Ohio 
Cclumhu', Ohio 
Dayton, Ohio 
Denver, Colo. 
Dei Moinei, Iowa 
Duluth. Minn. 
Elmira.N. Y. 
Erie. Pa. 
Fort Wayne, Ind. 
Hartford, Coon. 
Indianapolii, Ind. 

For Mirhiuan business refer to 
General Electric Company of 
Michigan. Detroit. Mich. 
For Texas, Oklahoma and 
Arizona business refer to 
Southwest General Elec- 
tric Company (formerly 

Hniisim Electric Co.), 
Dallas, El Paso. Hous- 
ton and Oklahoma 
ForCanatlian bus- 
iness refer to 
Canadian Gen- 
eral Electric 
Limited. , 

General Off ice : Schenectady, N. Y. Omaha. Neb. 

Jacluonville.Fl.. Minneapolis Portland, Ore. 

JcpJin. Mo. ^_ M no. Providence R. 1. 

Kansas City. Mo. /2Ti\ Nashville. Tenn. Richmond. Va. 
Knoxville, Tenn. 
Lot Angeles. Cal, 
Louisville, Ky . 
Memphis. Tenn. 
Mi. w*ii Lee. Wi*. 

Julv 17. 1915 

MINING and Scientific I'KI SS 


T. A llli'K kRD 



Anx'tlittp Bdltor 

r pilK American Mining Congress meets here on Sep- 
A (ember 20, 21, and 22, in the Bame week as the in 
ternationaJ Engineering Cong 

AMONG tlio freight going through the Panama I 
■ oopper ore from the Eennecotl mine, in 

Alaska, to ili'- Perth Amboy smelter, New Jersey. 

SIIA'KIM.KA1> ore Erom the Yukon is being shipped 
t<> San Francisco. One shipmenl of 600 inns, assum- 
ing 15 to 20% lead ami 100 to 200 ounces silver per ton 
has just been received at the Selby smelter, and there is 
more of tin' same kind to follow. It. comes Erom tin- 
MeWhorter claims, near Minto Bridge, in the Klondike 

/CESSATION of fighting in South Africa, upon the 
^ conclusion of General Botha's successful campaign 
in German South-West Africa, should prove favorable 
to mining, by restoring many of the volunteer soldiers 
to their ordinary work and by preventing further in- 
terruption to peaceful industry. 

TMMIGRATIOX for the fiscal year just ended was the 
•*■ smallest since 1899. It was about 460,000, as against 
1,403,081 in the previous year. Moreover 362,642 aliens 
departed, so that the net gain was only 43,000, as 
against 769,276 the year before. Obviously these facts 
have a direct bearing on the supply of labor. 

~]I/I"ET ALLURGICAL patents are interesting to our 
-"-■- readers; so we have selected, for brief description 
and illustration on another page, the chief of those re- 
cently granted at Washington. This we shall continue to 
do at intervals. Patents have a large element of the un- 
known and unsuspected. Some of the apparently least 
important may prove epochal. Incidentally we note that 
these efforts to turn ideas into private property include 
much that seems trivial. The Patent Office Gazette 
chronicles the patenting of gloves, ties, drapery hooks, 
clothes-pressers, combination garments, bath-room fix- 
tures, and the like. Attempts to make non-refillable 
bottles, resilient wheels, shock-absorbers, lock-nuts, and 
calculating machines are numerous as ever, but why a 
"device for attracting submarines"? 

T^HE misfortunes of the Treadwell group of mines 

*- prove to have been exaggerated. In our last issue 

we gave the facts as they were transmitted to us. We 

are glad to state now that the accidents both at surface 

and underground ar nsidered of minor consequence. 

The break to the Bhafting of the hoisting-engine at the 
Central shaft was repaired by obtaining a i>i of shaft- 
ing 13 Peel long from Seattle, this pi upled 

onto a portion of the original. By reason of this quick 
repair, it was possible to resume hoisting at the end of 
last week. During the interval ore-crushers were placed 
at the No. 2 shaft, so as to supply the 300-stamp mill 
fully a week before the Central shaft became available. 
To obviate the possibility of any similar interruption 
to production it is intended to sink the No. 2 shaft, to 
ili.- same depth as the Central, and to keep s duplicate 
shafting in the engine-house. In regard to the caving 
of ground, we arc informed officially that the loss of ore 
will not be serious and the workings arc not endangered. 
We are also informed thai Mr. Mackenzie's presence at 
Juneau was a mere coincidence, for he had gone thither 
in connection with the affairs of the Alaska Juneau mine. 

TXTERESTING, if true, is the comment to be made on 
■*- many non-technical statements on technical sub- 
jects appearing in the daily press. A paragraph is going 
the rounds to the effect that the fume collected in the 
hag-house of the Mammoth smelter, at Kennctt, has sud- 
denly become marketable, by reason of its zinc content, 
for $8 per ton. This is wrong; the fume has been, and 
remains, unsaleable, because it is not amenable to profit- 
able metallurgical treatment. The fact is that while the 
fume from the smelting of zinc-lead ores, as at the 
Selby or Midvale works, can be treated satisfactorily, at 
least for its lead content, the corresponding product of 
smoke condensation from complex copper-zinc ores can- 
not be beneficiated profitably by any method as yet dis- 
covered, although the Reed process gives promise of 
proving effective. As regards the lead-zinc fume, al- 
though the lead is recovered, the zinc passes into the 
slag, so that here also there is an opening for metal- 
lurgical inventiveness, such as is likely to be stimulated 
now. the price of spelter being equal to that of copper. 

COCIALISM is a word so loosely used that it has be- 
^ come discredited, for in the minds of not a few it is 
regarded as a cross between sentimentalism and anar- 
chy. Socialism with an S may signify something like 
that; but socialism with an s merely asserts that co- 
operation is productive of better results, on the whole, 
than individual untrammeled activity. This latter kind 
of socialism lies at the foundation of this republic of 
ours. When the United States came into being the indi- 
vidual states agreed to forego the right to impose import 
and export duties at their borders, to meddle in interna- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July IT. 1915 

tional affairs, or to advance their interests at the expense 
of their neighbors, tn industry as well, socialism is 

yearly I oming more important. Much of our industrial 

progress may be traced directly to it. The activities of 
the United states steel Corporation that were described 
in our issue of March 27 constitute socialism of the must 
practical kind. It is interesting I te thai the oppon- 
ents of Socialism are among the most ardent advocates of 
socialism. As an instance, we may (incite from the testi- 
mony given by Mr. W. L. Saunders, chairman of the 
board of directors of the Ingersoll-Rand Company, be- 
fore the Federal Trade Commission. He said: "The 
desirability of cooperation for foreign business is made 

acute by the importance and almost the n ssity for 

having a varied line of products. A man who started 
in with a brake-shoe business, and who has reached out 

into foreign fields finds thai he must also furnish axles. 

wl Is. trucks, cars, and things of thai kind to enable 

him to keep up a large selling organization, and a large 

volume of business, so as to keep his cost down in dull 

times. And if small concerns are able to combine and 
co-operate for foreign business, they would naturally 
bring into thai combination a varied product." There 
can be no doubt thai Mr. Saunders is exactly right in 
thus diagnosing the fundamental requirements of foreign 
trade development ; we merely rise to remark that if this 

is OOl socialism, we do not know the meaning of the 

VVTE publish an article on flotation in Australia. In 
"' (air next issue we shall be aide to give our readers 
the results of some good work with this process in 
Mexico. .Meanwhile we note that in Australia just now 
it is easier to make ;i concentrate by frothing a mixture 
of water, oil. and ore than it is to sell the resultant 
product. At the annual meeting (in London) of the 
Zinc Corporation, the chairman. Mi-. F. A. Govett, spoke 
plaintively regarding the inability of his company to 
sell zinc concentrate under contract with European buy- 
ers and the equal inability to cancel these contracts with 
a view to making new arrangements. To do the latter it 
was necessary to hale I he alien enemy into court, a pro- 
cedure blocked by sundry physical obstacles. Various 
schemes to build a /in,- smelter in England had been dis- 
CUSSed, and abandoned. The duration of the War was a 
factor so uncertain as to undermine the stability of such 
an enterprise, for any additional smelting capacity 
would probably !»■ at a discount when peace was restored. 
This was the gist of Mr. Govett's remarks. In the ab- 
Sei E some measure of tariff protection or State assist- 
ance, it was inadvisable to incur a big expenditure for 
new plant. Moreover, as regards the erection of any 
new zinc smelter in Australia, it had to be remembered 
that the present production of concentrate is based 
mainly on old accumulations of mill-tailing that are 
fast nearing exhaustion. The current supply of tailing, 
or of ore. at Broken Hill will not justify an increase in 
smelter capacity in Australia, even if. as in England, 
tlie labor question did not loom in the background. Mr. 
ett stated that 14,000 tons of zinc concentrate had 

been sold by his company on the American market, but 
the terms were by no means such as to warrant the ex- 
pectation of persistent business. This aspect of the mat- 
ter has been anticipated in our columns; in view of 
the extra freight and tariff', it is altogether unlikely that 
much Australia* zinc concentrate will be sold in this 

ON another page we review one of the four guide- 
books to he issued by the Geological Survey for the 
use of travelers on the transcontinental railroads. Any- 
one reading the preface by Mr. George Otis Smith, the 
Director of the Survey, will realize that this useful ad- 
dition to Hie technical library is a minor result of the 
War, which, by placing an embargo on travel in Europe 
has diverted the intelligent curiosity of the American 
public to the less known regions id' their own vast do- 
main. In view of the stimulus to home journeys, it was 
decided "to entertain the traveler by making more inter- 
esting what he sees from the car-window." The enlertaiii- 
nicnt is enhanced by making the interest more intelli- 
gent, and that in turn is effected by giving the traveler 
not only maps and photographs but geologic sections 
and industrial notes covering the physical and human 
history of the country traversed. These foot-notes are 

rich concentrates of information, summarizing researches 

scattered over the pages of many volumes. We con- 
gratulate the Survey on an achievement so manifestly 
useful. Knowledge, like charity, should begin at home. 
The globe-trotter who wanders across creation from 
China to Peru while remaining ignorant concerning his 
own country makes a great mistake, especially if his 
native land happens to be of such continental extent as 
to afford air, scenery, and industry of a variety not to 
be excelled by the rest of the world. He is only less 
mistaken than the man born in the New World who fore- 
goes the chance t0 see I he Old. 

J. A. Holmes 

With deep regret we record the passing of Joseph 
Austin Holmes. Director of the United States Bureau 
of Mines. This organization was created largely on his 
initiative and it was proper that he should have been its 
first administrative chief, having regard also to his fit- 
ness for its duties. He died at Denver on July 13 from 
a pulmonary illness that was known, among his friends, 
to set a definite limit to his life-work. Like Clarence. 
King, under similar circumstances, he went first to 
Phoenix and then to Denver, without avail. Only 56 
years of age. he had been Director of the Bureau of 
Mines for just five years, and a technologist on the Geo- 
logical Survey for the six years preceding, during which 
period he had achieved honorable distinction as a clever, 
energetic, and persuasive official. Indeed, he combined 
tact with sincerity, technical ability with the humanities, 
energy with foresight, to such an exceptional degree as 
to render him peculiarly suited to direct the splendid 
work of the Bureau. He has set an example for those 
that follow. That is his legacy to his professional friends. 

.IhIv 17. 191 ■ 

M1\I\C .iii.l Scientin. l'KI SS 

After the War 

W 1 1 : 1 1 most of as know aboul the oouna of the War ia nearlj aa interesting u whal we don'l know. I.. any 
attempts to forecast the result our wiah is s.> much the 
father to >>ur though! thai unbiased judgment is oul of 
the question. As to its duration, that alao introduces 
which wa know accurately so little Ihal pre- 
diction is futile, We may hazard the belief thai the in- 
tensity of the conflict makes for brevity. We may 
assume the foi a Beting for peace will gain mo- 
mentum. In short, being optimistic, aa any sane man 
must be in face of so much to make l.i..i pessimistic, we 
look forward to the end of the Great Horror. Where- 
upon the question arises: how will the restoration of 
affect the mining industry It ia apparent, i.. the 
first place, that the financial status of country will 
have li.'i'i . enormously strengthened and aggrandized by 
the misfortunes of the European nations. A large ac- 
cumulation of capita] will be available for new enter- 
prise. Next, the destruction of capital and of industry 
in Europe will cause a big demand to be made on the 
products of American manufacture. In the interval that 
must elapse before the commercial and industrial ma- 
chinery of Europe is fully rehabilitated there will be 
abnormally large purchases of machinery and food 
supplies. For several years after the War the price of 
labor in Europe will he so high as to lessen the handicap 
under which the American manufacturer hitherto has 

had to compete. The. heavy taxation and the increased 
COSt of living will produce economic conditions highly 
unfavorable to European industry. We say these 
things in no feeling of exultation but merely in the effort 
to envisage the future. It is likely that immigration, 
which has almost stopped during the past twelve months. 
will be resumed in accumulated volume, for, once the 
warring populations are released from military service, 
there will be thousands anxious to leave scenes of 
horror and devastation in order to start a new life on 
this side of the Atlantic. Thus, if the United States is 
not dragged into the War. there should he an unprece- 
dented opportunity for this country to be the manu- 
factory of all that Europe will need for the great work 
of restoration and reconstruction. All of this will re- 
quire the use of the metals; during the War for muni- 
tions; afterward for the resumption of peaceful in- 
dustry. The amount of machinery that has been, and 
is yet to be, destroyed is enormous; the same is true of 
domestic utensils and appurtenances; moreover, the re- 
building of the world's mercantile marine, decimated 
by the torpedo and the shell, will call for big tonnages 
of copper, zinc, and tin. For steel there will be a de- 
mand such as the world has never seen. The amount of 
steel and cement required to repair the ravages of war, 
in railways, bridges, and buildings of every kind, is 
enough to stagger the imagination of any engineer. In 
short, civilization in its material aspect — unfortunately 
the one aspect emphasized by this scientifically organ- 
ized calamity — can be restored only by a vast consump- 

tion of the metals That means intensified mining, It 
means that during the next few miner will have 

io provide the materials required tor re building all that 
war has destroyed, «».. this continent the exploitation 
of mineral deposits is already feeling the stimulus of a 

great demand, but. unless we are greatly mistaken, it 

is ,,ni. ;, beginning, We have see., s extraordinary 

ris,-s in tie- pine of metalfl; We shall see more, and some 
of them will not he t rausitnry. During the next lew 

years, possibly for a decade, the American mining in- 
dustry will flourish as nev.-r before. The mineral re- 
sources of this eoiitioent, owing to its .let ncli ..lent from 

the War and the accumulated capital available in this 
country, will I xploilcd with a vigor ami a profit be- 
yond the expectation Of the most sanguine. 

State Mining Bureau 

Time was. not many years ago, when the office of State 
Mineralogist suggested political Corruption rather than 
the organized application of science to industry. Cali- 
fornia's political at sphere even now has not the purity 

of the mountain tops, hut it. has hern enormously clar- 
ified sii the social upheaval that followed the ilays of 

the earthquake in 1!M)6. Nowhere is the improvement 

more marked than in that part of the Ferry Building 
where the Mining Rureau is domiciled. Most of those 
engaged in mining in California have now a kindly feel- 
ing for this headquarters of useful information, and for 
the men at work there. The chief of the department, 
Mr. Fletcher McN. Hamilton, is a graduate from the 
State University and in his person represents the high- 
est type of citizenship developed at that seat of learning. 
He succeeded Mr. W. H. Storms in January ]:tl3; need- 
less to say our good friend Mr. Storms was no relic of the 
corrupt past, but, let us say, the victim of the interreg- 
num that divided it. from the present dispensation. Sine- 
Mr. Hamilton took charge, the Bureau has done a great 
deal of hard work, despite a financial backing that is ill 
proportioned to the magnitude of California's mineral 
production. An excellent volume on the 'Minerals of 
California,' by Mr. Arthur S. Eakle has been published; 
Much useful labor has been directed to the oilfields, re- 
sulting in a report entitled 'The Petroleum Industry of 
California,' written by Mr. Roy P. McLaughlin, assisted 
by Mr. R. A. Waring. A complete geological map of 
the State is being prepared, besides mineral maps of the 
individual counties, indicating the distribution of I he 
commercial minerals. The compilation of information 
on this subject has now been clone for 35, out of the 58, 
counties. Naturally the finished work applies to the 
principal mining districts. Moreover, a large quantity 
of varied information is given, from day to day, in re- 
sponse to correspondence. This is not the least exacting 
function of the State Mineralogist's office, which thereby 
gives a helping hand to individuals desiring to exploit 
the mineral resources of the State. It is a pity, however, 
that a good deal of the statistical work done by the State 
Mineralogist should be duplicated by the local offices of 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 17, 1915 

the U. S. Geological Survey and the Bureau of Mines, 
despite a friendly effort to avoid needless overlapping. 
It would be to the gain of the community if these various 

iicaJ activities could be co-ordinated systematically. 
Meanwhile we can only congratulate the taxpayer that 
all of these agencies of exact knowledge are giving him 
a handsome return on his money. For the State Mining 
Bureau we have a particularly kindly feeling, for it is 
a b ime organization that has come through troublous 
years into a position of respect and appreciation. We 

amend the mining population to make more use 
of it. to go to its library and museum, and give it the 
active support of a personal interest. 

Diaz and Mexico 

The passing of Porfirio Diaz may not be so significant 
as his resignation four years ago, but the event serves to 
punctuate the close of an era during which Mexico won 
a recognized position in the comity of nations. His life 
covered most of the history of the southern republic. 
He had served in the war that resulted in the transfer of 
California and the Southwest from Mexico to the United 
States. It is interesting to recall that the transfer was 
made under the form of a purchase for $15,000,000 only. 
He saw the Hapsburg attempt to found a throne in 
the land of the Aztec; he emerged successfully from the 
civil strife that followed, and finally with his strong arm 
fought his way to power as President. For 34 years he 
was the chief executive of Mexico. That was a long time 
for an unconstitutional ruler, since the successive elec- 
tions were but a farce repeated. Yet he won respect and 
recognition, so that to this day there are many who think 
that his enforced exile was the worst thing that could 
have happened to Mexico. They forget that despotisms 
have one great defect: they do not perpetuate them- 
selves. In the ordinary course of events a despotism 
ends as it begins, in a revolution. No constitutional suc- 
cessor is available; it is no case of "The King is dead! 
long live the King," nor is it the simpler way whereby 
the Vice-President of a representative government takes 
the chair as soon as the previous occupant has been sum- 
moned by a higher power. The downfall of Diaz gave 
Mexico a brief term under Madero and three years of 
misrule thereafter. That, misrule should have had no 
suggestion of the unexpected. In the 55 years between 
the rejection of Spanish sovereignty and the day when 
Diaz took firm grasp of the reins of power, Mexico had 52 
changes of government, all of them established by vio- 
lence. That average of one per annum has been fully 
maintained since Diaz was driven into exile. To expect 
forthwith to establish representative government on the 
ruins of military despotism is to expect the impossible. 
Despotism thrives on serfdom. To substitute representa- 
tive government requires that the foundation also shall 
undergo radical change. A stream cannot rise higher 
than its source. Constitutional government cannot stand 
on a basis of peonage. 

That is the problem in Mexico. It cannot be solved by 

the wave of an enchanter's wand. A compromise is the 
only thing possible until such time as the native popula- 
tion is given education and freedom. That takes time. 
Meanwhile the co-operation of those responsible, inside 
and outside Mexico, may succeed at least in ending the 
anarchy that h#s prevailed for three years. Events ap- 
pear to be marching to that desirable consummation. 
The man who killed Madero and insulted the American 
flag has had the impertinence to come to this country and 
to trespass upon its hospitality by plotting one more 
revolution. His arrest at El Paso, in company with 
Pascual Orozco, a bandit who formerly led a revolt 
against him. is a minor incident in the sordid melodrama. 
So is Orozco 's escape while under bond. Meanwhile 
Pablo Gonzales has led Carranza's troops to the success- 
ful capture of the city of Mexico, defeating the Zapatis- 
tas in some minor engagement; but the capital has no 
military importance, and not much political prestige, 
now that the treasury has been emptied ana the city 
looted in the course of repeated incursions by various 
factional commanders. Mexico City is most important 
as a terminus of the railway to Vera Cruz and a place 
where many foreigners still linger. Other reports of 
battles at Aguascalientes and Monclova have come to 
hand, but the results are stated in terms as conflicting as 
the official news from Berlin and Paris concerning the 
fighting in western Europe. As a matter of fact, the 
fighting in Mexico has been reduced to guerrilla warfare, 
injurious mainly to peaceful onlookers. In response to 
the pronouncement from Washington, Carranza remains 
truculent, while Villa says he is willing to further a 
compromise, and peace; so say Angeles, Zapata, and 
others. If Carranza succeeds in further lessening Villa's 
control in the North, it may prove advisable for Mr. 
Wilson to recognize him as provisional president of 
Mexico. That is now probable. 

Meanwhile the policy of 'watchful waiting' has proved 
more pleasant to the spectator than to the victim. Gaunt 
famine now stalks the land and pestilence like a buzzard 
flaps his wings. The bodies of dead men hanging 
from telegraph poles give a picture of something that is 
not exactly war. From many centres of population 
comes the cry of starving women and children. The 
people are weary of misrule and brigandage. Non-com- 
batants, and that means about 99i% of the population, 
are tired of pseudo-military domination and long for 
the peaceful revolution that is to end the sanguinary 
turmoil. The state of Oaxaca has declared its independ- 
ence of all the revolutionary gangs and announces boldly 
that it will maintain its sovereignty until the rest of the 
republic has come to its senses. The merchants of 
Oaxaca are quoted as saying that they are tired of the 
exactions levied by the successive factions. Other states 
may be expected to follow the lead. A Federal govern- 
ment that does not govern is an unnecessary expense. 
Will the Mexicans accept the aid of their northern 
neighbor, who has now proved his entire good-will and 
his disinterested desire to aid in the restoration of 
order ? We believe they are coming to that. 

July 17. 1915 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



Our r.mlora »ri' Invited to uao thla department f"r the dlacui. 
. pertaining to mining ami metallurgy, Th>, Editor ■ 

hit own, believing that careful erltlolnn la morn vnulablo than oaaual compliment 

Precipitating Action of Carbon in Cyanide 
The Editor: 

Phe r hi article in your journal on the above 

subjeot by W. K Peldtmann and one on much the Bame 
aubjeot by Morris Green, both of which have appeared 
in the /'■■• of the Institution of Mining ami 

Metallurgy, have g< tar toward clearing up the 

mystery thai baa surrounded the action of charcoal and 
related products on gold in cyanide solutions. It might 
be will, however, to '-ill attention to the fact that the 
two papers mentioned together constitute a strong case 

for backing up the assertion that this phenomenon ran 

now be explained in terms of known laws. 

For many years the precipitation of gold on charcoal 
has not been understood, and we have been prone to ac- 
cept the facl as due to some special peculiarity of amor- 
phous carbon which it would be hard to classify with any 
other phenomenon known. However, since the property 
of adsorption of ions by colloids has been firmly estab- 
lished, there have been more or less serious attempts to 
timl an explanation for the precipitating action of car- 
bon in cyanide solution, but those doing the work have 
either been unsuccessful or forced to assume that the 
adsorption of gold-hearing ions in the pores of charcoal 
was of a slightly different kind than the absorption of 
ions by other colloids, or of other ions in charcoal itself. 
But the work described in the two papers, above men- 
tioned, would seem now to offer an explanation of how 
gold is adsorbed into charcoal and why it does not be- 
have like ordinary adsorptions. 

In the development of colloid chemistry it has been 
found that there is a class of 'amorphous' substances, 
such as charcoal, meerschaum, colloidal gels, starch, cot- 
ton, wool, glass, coal, etc., which have the property of 
absorbing great amounts of gases, vapors, liquids, and 
even ions from solutions on their surfaces. Why crystal- 
line substances do not exhibit the same phenomenon, at 
least in a measurable degree, is hard to explain, but 
crystal faces, and molecular orientation, with consequent 
close packing of the molecules, seem to prevent adsorp- 

It has been known since 1777 that charcoal would 
adsorb gases, but the only work that has thrown any 
light on the real nature of the process has been done in 
recent years. Mr. Green has clearly shown that char- 
coal containing adsorbed carbon monoxide is capable of 
precipitating gold ; that charcoal which has been ex- 
hausted in a high vacuum at elevated temperatures 
shows a very low precipitation value, but that its pre- 

cipitating value is restored by allowing the co i,, he 

orbed, or by heating tl harcoal in air. Such 

being the case, it may be well in this connection to call 

attention to the r nt work of Khead and Wheeler on 

the mode of combustion of carboi al of the 

Chemical Society, Vol. 113, pp. 461 and 1210, 1913 . 

They found that the Charcoal examined would adsorb 

oxygen, which later combined directly with the carbon 

of the charcoal, forming a "loose physico-chemical" 
Complex that later broke up into carbon monoxide and 
carbon dioxide, depending on the amount of carbon 
monoxide left adsorbed on the surface of the charcoal. 
This fact explains the sudden evolution of a gnat. 
volume of oxides of carbon when Mr. Green heated his 
charcoal in rmuo to 500°C. Based on Mr. Feldtmann's 
inference that a carbonyl aurocyanide is formed by the 
inter -action of the adsorbed gold-bearing ions ami the 
ai Ism -bed carbon monoxide, we have an explanation of 
the phenomenon in terras of colloid chemistry. The 
aurocyanide ions, are doubtless adsorbed in the charcoal 
in the same way that permanganate ions are, and could 
be washed out again with an excess of cyanide solution 
if it were not for the fact that these ions react with the 
carbon monoxide held adsorbed in the charcoal, forming 
an insoluble compound, which can doubtless break up 
still further to form the metallic gold that Mr. Green 
reports that he saw. When a solution capable of dis- 
solving the compound of gold is used, the charcoal will 
give up its load in the same way as it gave back the 
unaltered aurocyanide ions, as shown in the column of 
figures headed "adsorbed gold" in one of the tables pre- 
pared by Mr. Feldtmann. However, even with all of 
the gold merely adsorbed, there will always be a loss of 
some gold held adsorbed on account of the fact that there 
is a definite equilibrium reached between the solution 
and the adsorbed ions and that the latter can only be 
completely removed by an infinite number of washes. 
These conclusions are based on colioid-chemical prin- 
ciples. I am of the opinion that it would be well to take 
these facts into consideration in connection with Mr. 
Feldtmann's work, ejen to a greater extent than was 
done by him. For example, he was able to re-dissolve 
all of the gold in alkaline sulphide solutions, but it would 
have been a most interesting experiment if he had ap- 
plied another cyanide wash after all of the insoluble 
carbonyl aurocyanide had been removed from a sample 
of charcoal saturated with gold. This might have shown 
whether there was any free gold formed in the pores of 
the charcoal that had been protected from solution in 
cyanide by the insoluble carbonyl aurocyanide. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 17, 1915 

It is easy to Bee, in the light of Rhead and Wheeler's 
work, why charcoal is re-vivified for the precipitation of 
gold by simply heating in air, as more carbon monoxide 
-I in the pores of the charcoal; It is also easy 
why freshly-heated charcoal has a higher precipi- 
tation power than charcoal that has stood some time, as 
the freshly-ignited charcoal is doftbUesa saturated with 
carbon monoxide, while in the older samples, part of the 
carbon monoxide had diffused away faster than the 
carl -oxygen complex could break up at ordinary at- 
mospheric temperatures. Moreover, the fact shown in 
Mr. Feldtmann's tallies of figures that the charcoal 
never becomes quite saturated, but continues to precipi- 
tate gold slowly, is to be coupled with the slow breaMng- 
up of the "physico-chemical" complex into carbon mon- 
oxide and carbon dioxide, due to the removal of CO by 
combination with the aurocyanide ions. Mr. Feldtmann 

ascribed this latter effect to soi ther chemical reaction 

that might he set up. lmt the figures upon which he 
this surmise show only one figure that could up- 
hold his assumption. This table is quoted below, to- 
gether with an additional column of figures, showing the 
ity of precipitation of gold during each successive 

interval observed by Mr. Feldtmann: 

Contact, Gold preclpl- Mg, gold 

hours. tated, mg. ner hour.* 

3 14.0 4.67 

6 16.2 ».::: 

9 18.0 0.60 

12 19.6 0.53 

18 20.6 0.17 

24 20.8 0.03 

36 22.0 0.10 

18 24.2 0.18 

•This column I have added. 

If the figure for the 24-hour period were discarded, it 

would he hard to draw the same inference as .Mr. Feldt- 
mann. Not knowing the care exercised in these experi- 
ments aod how much reliance .Mr. Feldtmann is ready 
to put on one figure. 1 am not prepared to criticize the 
observation further than to call attention to the fact 
that a continued precipitation of gold could easily he 
explained on flu- ground of facts already known about 
charcoal, and which do not call for the assumption made 

by Mi-. Feldtmann. 

.Mr. Green was not able to make carbon monoxide re- 
act with a cyanide solution of gold by simply bubbling 
tile gas through it, but felt that the high state of pres- 
sure of the adsorbed gas in the pores of the charcoal 
might easily account for the reaction taking place. In 
this. I fully concur. The work of Dewar indicates that 
the density of several adsorbed gases is greater than, or 
nearly equal to. the densities of these same gases when 
liquified. Thus CO s when liquified at a temperature of 
15 C. has a density of about 0.8, while the density of the 
CO a adsorbed in charcoal is at leaSlW.7. These measure- 
ments made by Dewar more or less justify Ml', (ireen's 
inference, and only illustrate the magnitude of the 
- at work, tic they those of adhesion or what not, 
that cause the concentration of films of gas or of liquid 
on the surfaces of this kind of amorphous substance. In 

the case of water adsorbed on starch grains' it has been 
estimated that tic- force acting is 'JoT.'i kilo, per sq. cm. 
( Rodewald and Kattcin. in /n't. Phystk. ('him.. Vol. 33, 
pp. ..4H..-.44 and 593-604, 1900). For this reason it is 
not at all surprising that Mr. Green was able to make 
small amounts oi gold precipitate on charcoal that had 
I... n heated in a high vacuum to 500 <'.. as a perusal of 
Rhead and Wheeler's work will show that they went to 
much higher temperatures without being aide to remove 
all of tin' adsorbed gases from the charcoal. Further- 
more, it is a matter of common knowledge that there is 
a film of adsorbed air. moisture, etc., on tic surfaces of 
ylass vessels, that cannot be completely driven off. even 
•'■i, ;it temperatures as high as the softening point 
of Ltlass. This fact has been observed repeatedly in the 
incandescent lamp industry. 

All of the amorphous substances mentioned, such as 
charcoal, meerschaum, etc.. when immersed in solutions, 
likewise lend to adsorb some of the ions from the solu- 
tions, and in amounts varying with the substances in 
question. The laws of adsorption have been set forth in 
text-books on colloid chemistry, and have been referred 
to for some time as a possible explanation of the precipi- 
tation of gold on charcoal, but it was not until Green 
had proved that it was connected with the adsorbed 

carboi toxide and the formation of an insoluble com- 
pound I hat we really gained an idea as to the true situa- 
tion, lie fried some of the other amorphous substances 
mentioned and got no precipitation. Supposedly there 
was no adsorbed carbon monoxide to cause reaction in 
these other substances. 1 am not greatly surprised that 
Mr. Green did not get appreciable precipitation on 

anthracite coal, as it is too highly compressed a product 
to have much pore-space, though some action on coke 
might be expected, but not having descriptions of the 
history of the coke samples used, it is hard to judge. 
My own experience with the lower-grade coals, however. 
is that they act much like charcoal, are capable of ad- 
sorbing permanganate ions, and that they adsorb oxygen, 
with which they combine later (at ordinary tempera- 
tures) liberating carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and 
water i see Technical Paper No. 65 of U. S. Bureau of 
Mines I. 

Mr. Feldtmann's observation that the use of oxidizing 
agents such as bromo-cyanogen in the cyanide solution 
hastened the precipitation rather than assisted in re- 
solution of the precipitated gold, accords with another 
known property of the charcoal, that property of yield- 
ing a mixture of CO and C0 2 when treated with solu- 
tions of oxidizing agents. See Hofman. Sehumpelt. and 
Ritter in 'Berichte des Deutschen Chemischen Gessels- 
chaft,' 1913, 46:2854.) Therefore I feel justified in 
adding to Mr. Feldtmann's conclusions the statement 
that facts already known about charcoal, taken in con- 
junction with well-known colloid-chemical principles, 
further support the work of himself, as likewise that of 
Mr. Green, in an explanation of the phenomenon of the 
precipitation of gold on charcoal. 

0. C. Ralston. 

Salt Lake City, June 5. 

Julj ir. T'i • 

MINING .ml Scientist I'KI SS 

Relative Error in Alluvial Sampling 
The Editor: 

Sir Probably no two alluvial engineer* are agreed aa 
in the moal effective method of sampling gravel The 
different t> pea of drills, both hand and power, have their 
own adherents; and in the same way, different systems 
of shaft sampling find varying favor. The tendency of 
every individual is to favor the methods which have 
brought the beat results in his own particular experience. 

Everyone realises that the personal equation of the 
examining engineer is the determining factor in the 
sampling of any property, uo matter wbal the method 
used. For tins cause, the accuracy of any method of 
sampling may often be brought into disrepute, when the 

machinery of the sampling itself may not have I n 

entirely at fault. There are, however, certain factors of 
unreliability which may generally be conceded to be pres- 
ent in all methods of sampling; and it is of a few of 
these that I wish to treat. 

The best known forms of hand-drill are exemplified 
by the Empire, or Banka, type; and the besl known 
form of power-drill is, of course, to alluvial men, the 
Keystone. It will suffice for my present purpose to show 
the chances for error that commonly attend each one of 
these methods of sampling, in the case of drill-holes. 

Again, in shaft sampling, then' are two distinct 
methods commonly used, each of which has its failings. 
One is the washing of the entire material taken from 
the shaft through a sluice: the other the sampling of the 
sides of the shaft by open-cut after it has been sunk. 

To begin with the methods of drill-sampling, let us 
take the ease of the Keystone. The commonest form of 

this drill used in placer pros] ting is the No. 3 traction. 

The weight of stem and hit is about 800 pounds, and the 
inside diameter of the casing is (i inches. The diameter 
of the bottom, or flare, of the shoe, is 7A in.; hence in 
order to be assured of the proper core within the casing 
after a drive of one foot, approximately 18 in. of ma- 
terial should be within the easing. It may be possible 
to maintain this ratio. Personally, I have never been 
able to do it, except within wide limits. Where the 
driving is being done in pay-gravel, the whole question 
of allowance to be made is simply up to the judgment of 
the engineer. No established rule will fit the varying 
conditions of the gravel. Then, having drilled your hole, 
the best method of saving your entire core is, of course, 
to pump directly after driving, without using the drill, 
wherever it is possible to do so. It is possible only in the 
ease of fine gravel. In most eases, the driving-blocks 
have to be taken off, and the heavy drill lowered into the 
hole, there to punch out part, of the core from the casing. 
How much ? This can only be judged by measuring 
each pumping — for every drive, that is — and applying a 
factor of expansion, as well as making allowance for the 
run-off in slime. This method is absolutely incompatible 
with making any speed, and the usual practice is to 
$ measure up only when the sluice-box begins to get full, 
or nearly so. 

So, you probably do not have the core that you should 

have for your drive, and you don't know how much ol 

tl re you have saved. The -mu total ol measured 

volume may, if your luoV is good, come somewhere near 
the estimated theoretical volume of the cure. Winn you 
come to estimate the yardage-value for the hole, you 
eomi ly use a cross-section thai Ins between thi 

of the flared Shoe and the area of the inside nl" ll using. 

The experieni I manj engineers lias shown ilia: 

ford's factor, of 0.27 ft., cornea somewhere near giving 
satisfactory results in the majority of cases. In other 

words, in Slimming up results, we assume that all Other 

assumptions with regard to the volu f con 

which the gold obtained was secured, and of which it is 
supposed to represent the average content, have been 
covered bj the use of Radford 'a factor. 

Consider next the error that enters into hand-drill 
sampling. As the usual Empire casing generally used 

is 1 inch, and the weight of the tools is much less than 
in the Keystone, the chances are that the errors above 

mentioned do not enter nearly so far into calculations. 

Tin-re is less material to handle, the rotated pipe mi 
doubtedly docs help in securing the proper amount of 
ei, re. and the total core for the drive may readily he 
measured up and cheeked with the theoretical core with- 
out cutting down the speed of drilling. In this ease, a 

flexible system of keeping the log is applicable such as 
is impossible in the ease of the Keystone. 

On the other hand, the Empire has faults peculiarly 
its own. The hall-valve pumps certainly drive a portion 
of the core out when they encounter a pebble too large 
to go into the opening. A new tool has recently been 
supplied by the Empire people, called the Knox tool, 
which is supposed to overcome this difficulty by enabling 
the removal of large pebbles before pumping. How 
effectual it is, I am unable to say, not having used it 
as yet. 

Also, in encountering larger than 4-in. boulders with 
the Empire, a. certain amount of error is caused by the 
pushing aside of material. As there is no flare to the 
Empire shoe, the factor for one foot is taken as 0.1134. 
This should be subject to a discount — or rather an in- 
crease that will act as a discount factor — just as much as 
in the case of the Keystone. An arbitrary cutting clown 
of yardage-values by 15% will accomplish the same re- 
sult, however. This discounting is, of course, a confession 
of weakness and evidence of a desire to remain on the 
safe side. 

Consider next shaft-sinking. I have contended else- 
where, and still contend here, that no ground is properly 
prospected without the information derivable from a 
number of shafts. However, unless the cost of examina- 
tion is to become prohibitive, no ground can be thor- 
oughly prospected by means of shafts, for obvious 
reasons. Here again comes the question of the judg- 
ment of the examining engineer. How many shafts need 
to be put down before the drill-sampling may be consid- 
ered properly checked, and how shall they be placed so 
as to give the maximum of information for the minimum 
of expense 1 The answer to this problem will depend en- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 17, 1915 

tirely upon sets of conditions, which are never the same 
for any two properties. 

When all of the material is taken from a wet shaft 
and put through a sluice-box, and the content of the 
ground calculated from the recovery and the amount of 
material taken from the shaft, error is certain. Where 
pumping is necessary, the suction of the water is liable 
to draw in gold from all around the shaft. I had occa- 
sion to check some shaft-work of this type in Oregon re- 
cently. The gold was rather light and flaky, and it was 
evident that the shafts had been unintentionally 'salted' 
in the above manner to a high degree. In this case, the 
drill proved to check much closer with the real value of 
the ground than the shafts. On the other hand, I recall 
a case of shaft-work done in northern California in ex- 
actly the same manner. In this case, however, the holes 
were absolutely dry. When I came to hydraulic the 
property afterward, the clean-up results checked start- 
lingly well with the shafts. Had the ground not been 
pretty even in its gold content, this would never have 
been the case, of course. 

My personal preference of all sampling is to take a 
measured open-cut down through the bank, and weigh all 
the gold in it. For this reason, I am an advocate of the 
second method of shaft-prospecting, namely, that of 
sampling one or more sides of the shaft after it has been 
sunk. In the case of wet ground, this method affords 
some little difficulty, and must be done with extreme 
care; and in the case of running or loose gravel it be- 
comes almost impossible of accomplishment. Wherever 
open faces are available, as in old hydraulic workings, 
this method is applicable, and in Peru I have sampled 
tailing by dropping shallow shafts and open-cutting the 
sides. In firm ground, without too much water, this 
method is, to my mind, the most accurate of all. It may 
be necessary sometimes to drain the shaft from a sump 
in the bedrock for a day or two before the ground be- 
comes sufficiently firm to sample in this manner. 

However much opinions may vary as to methods, I 
think it will be generally agreed that the whole thing 
depends upon the judgment and experience of the man 
who is doing the work. We naturally expect our drill- 
manufacturers to be enthusiastic regarding the sim- 
plicity and ease of operation of their respective ma- 
chines; they would be poor optimists did they not — and 
also poor salesmen. However, most firms prefer to fur- 
nish with the drill a man who knows how to operate it, 
from a mechanical standpoint, but the furnishing of an 
engineer to direct the examination is naturally some- 
what beyond their scope. 

We hear a great deal about the accuracy of estima- 
tion that is possible through improved methods of drill- 
ing, but very little about the possibility of error in the 
various types of prospecting machines, and the necessity 
of the use of judgment in eliminating and discounting 
this error. To me, this is a factor that cannot be em- 
phasized too strongly, even at the risk of being mis- 

Charles S. Haley. 

San Francisco, July 12. 

Conditions in Sonora 


My own experience is largely confined to the north- 
western part, of Mexico, particularly the state of Sonora. 
The present confused conditions are due largely to an 
agreement made with General Scott, of the United States 
army, whereby the Yillistas, or followers of Francisco 
Villa, were diverted to Nogales while the Carranzistas, or 
followers of Venustiano Carrauza, were centred at Agua 
Prieta. The intention of this friendly American inter- 
ference was to prevent promiscuous shooting across the 
boundary, but in Mexico the agreement produced a con- 
dition approaching chaos. The Villistas were ordered by 
the U. S. authorities not to attack Agua Prieta, but the 
Carranzistas in Agua Prieta were allowed to raid the 
Villista country south and west; thus an absolutely im- 
possible condition was created. The railroads running 
from Nogales to Cananea were destroyed by the Car- 
ranzistas, while the railroads running from Agua Prieta 
to Nacozari and El Tigre were destroyed by the Villistas. 
Strenuous efforts were made by the mining companies to 
adjust matters to such an extent as to enable them to 
continue or start operations, for Cananea was shut-down 
for several months. These were aided somewhat by the 
State Department, after Mr. Bryan 's withdrawal. Thus 
eventually permission was accorded by both parties to 
operate the mines, and to repair the railroads, each side 
retaining 100% of the war taxes now imposed, these 
taxes being two or three times greater than those levied 
before the revolution commenced. 

In consequence of the depreciation of Mexican cur- 
rency and the absolute shortage of provisions throughout 
northern Sonora, the mining companies and the sur- 
rounding population have resorted to what is practically 
barter. The farmers, when bringing supplies to the 
mines, will often refuse money, preferring to be paid in 
coffee, sugar, or clothes. The miners themselves will 
work for three or four days only, and draw food and sup- 
plies from the store, but immediately the mining com- 
pany refuses to give out any of its limited stock and pro- 
ceed to pay wages in paper, they cease work. The miners 
will no longer do a day's work for paper money. In 
order to offset this, the Cananea mining company, whose 
mines have been closed for several months at a cost of 
considerably over half a million dollars, and are now 
resuming operations, paid their men last week in Mexi- 
can silver dollars, which were purchased and shipped 
from China, to the amount of about $400,000 American 
currency. This action on the part of the Cananea man- 
agement has resulted in a strong migration, not only 
from the mining camps of Nacozari and El Tigre to 
Cananea, but from the rival contending armies. 

The struggles of the Villistas and Carranzistas in 
Sonora can have no effect whatever on the final pacifica- 
tion of Mexico ; their performances partake of the char- 
acter of opera bouffe, were it not for the enormous cost 
to the American industries operating in that state. 
These are the chief sufferers. It will be understood that 

July 17, 

MINING ..i.J Scientific PRESS 


do white labor is now employed in Dorthern Sonora, u 

IT supervision .iii.l technical work. On ti unt of 

tin- J. indition of the railroad south of Ague 

Prieta snonnous qnantitiai of oopper ebnoentrate have 
aonunulated at Naoosari and it is reported that the Bl 
Tigre mfatng company 1ms as much us $.'100,000 worth 
of bullion and ooncentrate on band Of Bourse, accumu- 
lations of tbia kind serve to invite the d ed ele- 
ments of the country to attack and raid the mining set- 
tlements, aa they did some two years ago when 'General' 
i - u raided the Tigre 'camp' and stole some 
th rot> tons of bullion. When his band of 875 men left 


they were loaded with provisions and supplies as heavily 
as possible. The company at that time was fortunate in 
that Federal troops were already on the way from the 
north, and Salazar's band was quickly stampeded, leav- 
ing the silver and other loot tied to burros that wandered 
over the mountains. The bars of silver, each weighing 
about 200 pounds, were so heavy that when the burros 
lay down, they were unable to get up again, so that, hav- 
ing been abandoned, they died. The Tigre miners, who 
were searching the hills for the lost bullion, were able to 
locate it by means of the buzzards circling overhead. As 
a matter of fact, every bar was recovered and Salazar 
was thoroughly defeated by General Obregon, now the 
right-hand man of General Carranza, in his first battle 
of any importance. 

Power is supplied to the Tigre mine by means of a 
power-line 65 miles long transmitting 1000 horse-power 
through a current of 40,000 volts. This line has been 
repeatedly cut by the contending factions, but it is prob- 
able that if it were not in existence, the mine would have 

d operation! many months BgO, as, 0D —v.-riil 

us. all tin- horaea and mulea belonging to the 
freighter! working for the company have been stolen. 
So far it has Im.ii poBfiblc to repair the Line at soon as it 
has been out 
There baa been vary Little actual fighting in Sonora. 
have l »< ■• ■ n do pitched battles, (he fighting being of 
a desultory character, It would almost appear aa if the 

Object Of both tactions was to get into such a position 

that they could t;i\ the mining companies. The Large 
Land-owners have escaped isvto the United States; the 

Crops planted this year arc of small extent, and. while 
there does not appear to be any case of actual starvation 
in northern Sonora, conditions could hardly be any worse 
than they are, the only redeeming feature being the fact 
that the three large mining companies continue operat- 
ing to the besl of tlcir ability. While unhappily they 
furnish funds to the contending factions, they also sup- 
ply a livelihood to the surrounding population. 

Nacozari and Tigre will both, no doubt, be compelled 
to adopt the Cananea plan of paying in Mexican silver, 
although the Villista faction now in control in Sonora 
(with the exception of Agua Prieta) is already objecting 
to the abandonment of the use of the paper currency 
printed by them. There is no doubt that the payment of 
silver itself to the miners will tend to expand the barter 
now in vogue, as all the various paper issues, which now 
amount to many millions of dollars, are legal tender, and 
are refused by everybody who can. Speaking generally, 
the outlook is that unless some one of the contending fac- 
tions is speedily recognized by the American government 
and permitted to strengthen itself by means of foreign 
loans, the United States will be compelled to intervene, 
willingly or unwillingly. If the United States fails to 
recognize any government in Mexico, the present condi- 
tions can only grow steadily worse, as none of the parties 
can receive enough support to establish permanent pacifi- 
cation throughout the entire country. The working pop- 
ulation shows in many ways that it is absolutely tired of 
the never-ending strife, but the absence of public spirit 
and the inability to express public opinion make its de- 
sires of little importance to the revolutionary leaders. 

As between the various leaders, Villa is a good soldier, 
and, with a small army under his personal direction, has 
been generally successful. As soon as he endeavors to 
undertake administrative work, or military work on a 
larger scale, his efforts are no longer successful. Car- 
ranza, on the other hand, is not a soldier, and while it 
has not been possible for the State Department in Wash- 
ington to handle him as satisfactorily as it has Villa, he 
evidently is a better representative of the Mexican con- 
stitutionalist movement. Zapata is of an inferior type 
to both of the other leaders; he is merely a glorified 
guerrilla leader without real political purpose. 

Panama canal is making an operating profit. In 
April, tolls amounted to $442,416. The profit after 
paying for operation and maintenance was $84,108. 
From June 30, 1914, to May 1, 1915 the revenue was $3,- 
337,716, and expenditure, $3,377,196. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 17. 1915 

Accident Prevention by the Steel Corporation 


Iii tin- article on the Safety, Sanitation, and Welfare 
Bureau of the United states Steel < (orporation which ap- 
pei red in the Mining and Scientific Pkess of March 27. 
1915, mention was made that the 1014 figures would 
shortly be available. It is now possible to give these in 
completed form as a sequel to the article, which was the 
first to appear in a technical magazine describing the 
activities and giving the various expenditures of the 

During the period from January 1. 1911, to January 
1, 1915, $24,874,892 was expended by the Bureau under 
the direction of < '. I.. Close, its manager. The following 
table shows by years the various expenditures and the 
apportionment to the different funds. 

1911. 1912. 1913. 1914. 

Relief for men in- 
jured and families 

of men killed $1,637,000 $2,587,516 $3.013, fi3S $2,253,901 

at prevent ion. 750,000 595,649 660,593 565.334 
Sanitation and wel- 

1,250,000 1,068,253 1,600,242 j 

ion Fund — 
Pension payments... 200,000 358,780 422. si. 5 
Additional benefit, pay- 
ments 56,175 43,379 

To permanent fund. 500,000 500,000 500,000 500,000 
Allowances to em- 
ployees under stork 
subscription plan.. 750,000 1.000,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 




Totals $5,287,000 $6,166,373 $7,240,667 $6,017,845 

Grand total of $24,711.8*5. 

The percentage of hand-labor accidents to all other 
accidents by months from April 1913 to March 1915, is 
Of interest: 1913— April, 47.96; May, 46.77; June. 43.93; 
July, 44.58 j August. 47.51; September, 43.83; October, 
46.11; November, 45.25; December, 44.54. 1914: — Janu- 
ary. 42.4d: February. 42.611; March, 46.33; April. 44.33; 
May, 47.34: June. 45.25; July. 45.44; August, 44.65; 
September,!>; October, 46.93; November. 45.12: De- 
cember, 41.81. 1915— January. 46.21; February, 48.07; 
March, 48.12%. 

Of most interest are the figures showing the percentage 
of decrease in the accident rate since 1906 per 1000 thou- 
sand employees ; 

Number saved 

from Per cent 

serious injury. decrease. 

1907 532 10.40 

1908 783 18.21 

1909 1,236 25.28 

1910 .2,215 43.49 

1911 2.012 41.26 

1912 2,023 36.06 

1913 2,273 38.29 

1914 1,748 40.52 

Owing to a change made in the reporting of accidents 

since January 191 1. more accidents are classed as serious 
than formerly, but the decrease is steady; a most favor- 
able showing for the efficiency of the Bureau. 

In recapitulation and for purposes of comparison, the 
classification of causes of accidents in the various lines 
of industry represented in the Corporation's activities 
for 1913 and 1914 are herewith given: 

1913, 1914. 


Hand-labor 43.88 45.04 

Railroads 4.22 4.0J 

Mines 15.10 13.76 

Machinery 5.20 4.73 

Burns 6.94 6.44 

Falls 7.73 8.79 

Eyes 5.11 

All other causes 16.93 12.11 

In studying the above it is to be seen thai there is 
little fluctuation from year to year. A perceptible de- 
crease was made in the mine group. The percentage 

ascribed to mines includes the following: 

1913. 1914. 

Haulage or skip track 35.23 36.71 

Slate, rock. ore. or coal falls — 

From roof 26.62 15.66 

From side 16.76 27.1 I 

From face 0.93 1.75 

Slides or cave-ins 6.95 5.67 

Steam-shove! in open pit 4.11 2.20 

Live stock 2.25 3.12 

Chutes and raises 0.99 2.20 

Gas and smoke explosions 0.73 1.25 

Cage accidents 0.53 0.74 

Shaft accidents 1.06 1.22 

Premature explosions 0.47 0.42 

Delayed blasts 0.26 0.06 

Blasting operations 3.11 2.46 

In this connection it is interesting to note in the classi- 
fication of causes that accidents clue to delayed blasts 
have been reduced to a negligible quantity. The three 
leading causes, haulage and skip-track, and falls from 
roof and from side still holds a large percentage, al- 
though the falls from roof showed a healthy decrease 
during the past year. 

Metal output of the Eastern or Appalachian states in 
1914 was as follows : mines, 45 gold placer, 36 deep gold, 
7 zinc, and 7 copper; gold output, 8397 oz.. increase of 
380 oz. ; silver, 100,727 oz., a decrease of 10,487; copper, 
19,555,362 lb., (mainly from Tennessee), an increase of 
409,367 lb., lead, 254,000 lb., a large decrease; and 
spelter, 169,716,954 lb., (mainly from New Jersey and 
Tennessee) an increase of 8,749,994 pounds. 

Electric power generated by the plant at Gatun. 
Canal Zone, in May totaled 2,367,000-kw. hours. 

.1 ill % 17. 19] ■ 

MINING and Scientific PRI.SS 

Flotation in Australia 


My tirst contael «iiii -nil flotation' «;is the reading of 
an article on Elmore's Brat patented process in 
I ma then metallurgist to the Lake George Minis, in 
N.-u s.mtli Wales, endeavoring t" make sufficient funds 
by oyaniding the limonite gossan ore in the apper levels 
of the Lake George lode in order to extend development 
into the immense bodies of complex sulphides below the 

water-level. The inten liate zone between gossan ami 

dense sulphides — had been successfully smelted in blast- 
furnaces, bul this amenable ore had 'enl out 1 and the 
smelter plant was idle, After thorough experiment with 
the gossan, the facl was established thai a small profit 

seems certain, bul in 1900 a sample- parcel senl to tin- 
Elmore people in England was reported unprofitable, 

"«int; to tl nst for oil. It will be remembered thai 

Elmore's Brsi process was that of suspension of minerals 
in oil— which has long since been abandoned for the 

'greasing' of the mineral particles with oil. Lake <i •ge 

ore is in I the many problems of the kind thai will be 

profitably solved the huge bodies of the Mount Beid and 
Boseberry districts in Tasmania are others -when the 
money and the man are available. 

Broken Hill is far famed, and the history of the metal- 
lurgy of that district is of particular interest. The 


could lie made, but the quantity of ore available was in- 
sufficient to justify' the erection of further plant or 
supply funds for deep development. So a 'close down' 
was ordered. The sulphide orebody is of a very dense 
nature with extremely finely divided mineral particles, 
the gangue being silicious. Blende (representing 14% 
Zn), galena (representing 5% Pb), and pyrite (repre- 
senting 1% Cu) were the principal minerals, but gold 
(2 dwt. per ton ) and silver (3 oz. per ton) were the 
fascinating additions, which, together with the size of 
the lode, led to so much hard work and money being ex- 
pended on a solution of the problem. Wet concentration 
was out of the question owing to the fineness of the min- 
eral grains. The mine went into the hands of a firm of 
second-hand machinery merchants, and when last I 
heard of them they were making quite an income from 
continuing the operations of pumping and precipitating 
the copper contained in the mine-water with scrap iron, 
which, alas, abounded on the premises. That this par- 
ticular ore is amenable to modern flotation treatment 

Broken Hill Proprietary mine was discovered about the 
year 1882 and the original syndicate shares issued at 
five shillings ($1.20) rose to t"420 ($2016 ) each. In those 
days, native silver was dug out in tons, ami chlorides 
were easily reduced to the metal. Next came, the carbon- 
ates (still obtained in some of the leases, notably Block 
14 and British) and although this zone was not such a 
'gift' as that above, the metallurgical problem was still a 
'cinch.' Fortunately for the lucky shareholders the car- 
bonates (rich in lead and silver) lasted for a decade. 
The third period was marked by the sulphide problem, 
which will last indefinitely. The upper regions of the 
unoxidized lode-matter were rich in galena with only a 
trace of blende, consequently wet concentration was 
straight-forward; although it must be remembered that 
modern concentrators did not then exist, and jigs were 
followed by canvas belts and Prue vanners, etc., later. 
Today the deeper levels of the mines are rich in blende, 
while the galena is gradually disappearing. The Pro- 
prietary mine and Block 10 are the deepest on the field, 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 17. 1915 

and both are now zinc propositions; in these mining 1ms 
been for the present practically confined to prospecting 
work. The presence of rhodonite in the gangue makes 
both mining and concentration of the comparatively low- 
grade deep-level ore very difficult and expensive. Rho- 
donite a manganese silicate with specific gravity 3.5 and 
hardness about 7. is exceptionally tough and difficult to 
crush. It constitutes undoubtedly the worst bugbear to 

the Broken Hill mill-man. Steel in the stupes refuses to 

cut it. and crushing machinery 'on top' shirks its work. 
sliming the mineral particles while it leaves the rhodonite 

in large grains. Wet concentration consequently is not 
ideal. Therefore Charles Ilyltcm. formerly mill-superin- 
tendent at the Proprietary, was well content to send ">4', 
lead concentrate to his company's smelters at Port Pirie. 
The 'free milling' ores of the North and South mines — 
where zinc is low and rhodonite rare — give a better re- 
covery anil a higher grade i up to 72% Pb) of concen- 
trate, hut these mines are fortunate and are not so deep 
as the Proprietary. 

During the lead period, with no means of separating 
the zinc sulphide, and no market for it. the concentrates 
consisted wholly of 'lead' (galena averaging about 6% 
Pb) and the zinc tailings were stacked, pending solution 
of the 'zinc problem.' There were SOTru dumps at Broken 
Hill. About 1905, experiments having been continuously 

cairied out by various chemists and metallurgists, not- 
ably Potter, Delprat, and the .Minerals Separation Co.. 
on Broken Hill ores, then' was a sudden rush to buy the 
zinc tailing. Syndicates were formed hurriedly; all 
available tailing-dumps or 'heaps' ami most of the mill- 
outputs were secured. The zinc- era had commenced. 
Though not the first in the rush, the Zinc Corporation 
was by far the largest buyer, obtaining both the South 
mine dumps, and those of Blocks ]0 and 14. The North 
mine dumps and output were secured by the de Bavay 
Treatment Co.. now the Amalgamated Zinc. Ltd., which 
by arrangement, has also undertaken the treatment of 
output from both the South and Block 10 mills. The 
Proprietary has. of course, held on to its own, and was 
the first to succeed with a practical notation process, the 
Delprat. The Central mine, controlled by the Sulphide 
Corporation, also treats its own tailing and output, by 
the Minerals Separation process. At the Proprietary 
mine, the Delprat process was evolved by the company's 
staff, beaded by the general manager, G. D. Delprat. and 
has been most successful. The Proprietary company, 
unlike any of the others except the Sulphide Corporation. 
which smelts its lead concentrate only, ships bullion. 
It has both lead and zinc smelters of its own, and is in- 
deed so enterprising that it has now erected and is operat- 
ing the only steel works in Australia, utilizing its Iron 
Nob ore, in South Australia, which is high in iron and 
was developed for flux at the lead smelters years ago, so 
that it can well afford to produce" a concentrate of lower 
grade than those other companies, which, prior to the 
"War. shipped their product to Germany. The penalties 
imposed by these German smelting works on concentrates 
i f comparatively low zinc-content were so severe that an 
i rcrease of V", zinc meant a corresponding increase of 

about thirty shillings I $7.20) per ton of concentrate. 
Shipments assaying 47', zinc and over were well sold; 
those under 4.")', zinc were a poor product. A sliding 
scale was recognized by the German buyers, and as no 
credit was allowed for lead content, the aim of the seller 
of concent rate »as to keep the zinc high, while a domestic 
smelting company, such as the Proprietary, could he sat- 
isfied with a product containing only 4(1'; zinc or under. 
To see the Delprat units at work even in 1907 was an 
eye-opener to observers, who. by the way. were numerous 
and freely invited whereas the equivalent of "fix bayonet, 
guards" had to be passed before entrance could be 
obtained to the opposition mills, and in some instances 
would not be allowed at all. A Delprat unit consisted of 
a large spitz-box, fed continuously by an automatic 'push 

eccentric' feeder, the falling (dry) pulp meeting an up- 
ward stream of hot salt-cake solution ( acid I, the mineral 
was 'elevated' (while the gangue 'dropped' i. and floated 
with the overflow into the collecting launder. The tail- 
ing was released from the bottom of the 'spitz' inter- 
mittently (as it accumulated, and so as to save loss of 
solution) upon a 12-in. belt-conveyor, and thence carried 
to a 'pass' for mine-filling. The concentrate-launders 
discharged into bins, with drainage-bottoms and the 
liquor was pumped back, to be made up to the required 
strength by the addition of salt-cake. Bach unit or 
spitz' has a capacity of 20 tons ('long') per hour. 'Out- 
put.' 'economy.' and 'profit earning' were all so obvious 
that the freely confessed low concentrate did not w^orry 
the thoughtful onlooker or diminish his admiration. 

While the 'Delprat' was operating successfully in 
1906-1 "107. other processes at Broken Hill were under 
experiment, to be scorned and ridiculed in turn, par- 
ticularly the plant to which 1 had just been appointed 
manager, the Amalgamated Zinc. The Zinc Corpora- 
tion was in 'some state.' and varied both process and 
management about once per month. Spelter was high, 
$105 per ton — as was lead also. A boom was on. Share- 
holders argued that if the 'Delprat' was a success, and 
the 'Minerals Separation,' also why then couldn't the de 
Bavay, Zinc Corporation, and other companies get on the 
dividend list and obtain the advantage of the boom 
prices? Hysteria reigned, and it was not until that was 
cured, probably in the case of the Zinc Corporation by 
H. ( '. Hoover and W. J. Loring, that a solution was 
found. It must have taken excellent and influential fin- 
ance to save the Zinc Corporation from entire collapse, 
and, although the cost was tremendous "more power to 
those responsible for the present happy result." In a 
smaller degree the Amalgamated Zinc Co. (de Bavay's) 
had its hysterical period, but strong financiers held the 
controlling interest in this ease, and the small holders 
were kept quiet. M. de Bavay, a- Frenchman who has 
occupied the position of chemist to the Foster Brewing 
Co.. Melbourne, for many years, and who is also a 
vigneron in Victoria, entered the lists of flotation paten- 
tees in a peculiar way. When the Potter v. Delprat liti- 
gation commenced — Potter being another brewer — they 
called in de Bavay as an expert chemical witness. Pot- 
ter's argument was that the acidulated solutions, when 

Jul) 17, 191 • 

MINING and Sciential I'KI SS 


in itac| with the pulp, generated II 8 and 11 bj per 

tial decomposition of the mineral graina, Delpi 

ther hand, inaisted thai the aolutiona generated CO, 

tion "ii tin- carbonatea of the gangne M de 

Bavaj would nol allow the latter argument and in order 

to prove tn himself that CO waa not generated, In- per 

fon I tin- following experiment in bia own laboratory. 

A small quantity of ground pulp waa submitted to treal 
nifiit by carbonia aoid gas in order t.i remove all trace 
of earbonatea Tin' intention was subsequently to treat 
the residue with acid solution in order to prove the 
chemist's contention. However, the intention was for 
gotten if' interim when a surprising result — one of those 
accidental discoveries so often seen when a different ob- 

.iii. I tin- Jndge who lias tin- decision of 
"wlui lias prior rights to ■ paten) iu a flotation pro 
has m) sympathj So much is problematical Delp 

experiments were practically contemporary with 
thus,' nt' Potter, lait quite independent won tin- suit in 
tin Civil Court Delprat had gone further than Potter 
ami established a commercial process Potter bad not 

gone be> I the Laboratory. Potter appealed t" the 

High Court, however, ami the Broken 1 1 ill Proprietary 
company settled tin- case by payment t" tin- Potter Treal 
men! Co. of El 0,000 ami forming an amalgamation be 

tween tin mpanies negotiating both patents. 

Tlir Potter company si safully defended an objec- 
tion tn amend nta in reference tn their patents by the 


ject is in view — occurred. "When the contents of the 
receptacle were emptied into a beaker, a thick clean layer 
of 'black jack' sprang to the surface of the liquid, while 
the white clean gangue was precipitated to the bottom." 
Those are essentially M. de Bavay's descriptive words, 
to me, on his discovery. He commented: "Well, I knew 
if I could put that into practical application I had a 
pretty good thing." So he developed a flotation pro- 
cess with carbonic acid as the essential reagent, and later 
the first de Bavay plant at the North mine, Broken Hill, 
was established on those lines! Commercially it was a 
failure, and when in 1907 I commenced pulling down the 
retorts, the old man was quite affected ; but as the space 
was required, they had to go. He had substituted the 
'universal' combination of acid and oil, apd had his 
patents with the rest. His way of treatment varies from 
the others — they all vary a little — but acid and oil are 

Minerals Separation, Ltd., in June, 1909, before the High 
Court of Australia ; and the Potter patents are duly 
recognized and established in Australia. Unfortunately 
the inventor — as is also usual — got nothing out of all his 
work, worry, and brain power. Charles V. Potter was 
still a poor man, when he died, no doubt poorer both fin- 
ancially and spiritually than prior to his great invention. 
However, in this world a man who invents a process 
is 'looking for trouble' and when, not having engineer- 
ing knowledge of his own, he persists in doing the en- 
neering development of his chemical results, he is mak- 
ing trouble both for himself and his backers. The aston- 
ishing thing is that these latter, generally hard astute 
business men. allow such a course. To hark back to the 
de Bavay 'movement.' It took quite three years, and an 
expenditure of about £80,000 (the company admitted 
£65.000) to get through the experimental stages. And 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 17, 1915 

it was only when the inventor was 'put aside' and the 
management allowed to 'get to work' thai success — so 
obvious so much earlier to engineers "as achieved. 
Further, the 'tables' that were finally adopted 'cone- 
shaped' were condemned by the inventor in 1907. This 
is an amusing poinl to me, for 1 tried SO hard to introduce 
the 'cone tables.' to overcome the absurd .system of me- 
ehanica] beaters then in use. that would not run a day 
without breaking down. The principles of de Bavay's 
process are 

1. Friction to clean mechanically the particles of 
mineral, particularly in weathered material. 

2. Treatment with sulphuric acid with heavy agita- 
tion to remove the oxidation skin. 

:i. Subsequent double washing, with agitation, to re- 
move insoluble sulphates resulting from acid treatment. 

4. Oiling with agitation, so that all mineral particles 
obtain a film of oil on their entire surfaces. 

•">. Aeration, partly in an agitator with oil, and sub- 
sequently by beaters' and on transit over tables (now 
conical and corrugated) in a thin pulp-flow with water. 

6. Increase of surface tension by addition of a small 
quantity of emulsified oil (colza oil used to be em- 
ployed i. water-borne, just prior to the pulp flowing onto 
the tables. The concentrate floats over on the overflow 
of spitz-boxes, into which the tables dip. A series of 
four tables is sufficient to 'clean' the tailing. 

The process is ' tedious' but it is a true flotation, involv- 
ing no frothing, and no uplifting L'as-huhhles .is in I hi' 
Potter and other methods. I understand de Bavay 
patents are now combined with those of- the Minerals 
Separation and T. J. Hoover, in his excellent work on 
the subject ('Concentrating Ores by Flotation,' 1912) 
prophesies that not much will he heard of it in future. 

Personally. I have a great regard for this process, used 
judicially and perhaps in combination with other meth- 
ods. The great advantage is the high grade of the mn- 
eentrate. This is all important, where shipment of the 
product is essential, a large saving in freight being ef- 
fected. The Amalgamated Zinc Co.'s concentrates assay 
up to 48.. r > r ; /.ine quite regularly and in 1907 I shipped 
parcels of 48.9 and 49.1% zinc. The disadvantages are 
increased cost of operation, ami the fact that slime is not 
amenable to this process, so far as trials have gone. 

Slime is the mill-man's In I, iwir in all operations of 
concentration. For chemical processes they are 'the 
thing.' Perhaps a combination of flotation and lixivia- 
tion may be the future 'way out.' 

In conclusion a few remarks on 'oils' may be of ad- 
vantage. Much has been written on the use and efficacy 
of oils, but, even at the risk of being considered 'heathen,' 
I am emphatically of opinion that any particular oil for 
each particular ore is 'bunkum'! Oil is a means to the 
end. not the end. At the North Mine plant expensive 
'valve' oil was used, costing about 90c. per gallon, and 
three months later truck' oil at 25e. per gallon gave 
equally good results! Both the above were mineral oils. 
but subsequently crude 'eucalyptus' oil (distilled) from 
the leaves of the indigenous eucalyptus (those wonder- 
ful trees that supply the strongest constructional timber 

in the world I has been used in Australia with great 
success. Refined eucalyptus oil — used medicinally with 
good effect for strains, rheumatism etc, and internally for 
colds — is expensive. But I judge crude eucalyptus oil 
for flotation processes could be imported quite cheaply 
from Australia if the demand was sufficient. However, 
witli proper judgment, good plant design, and legitimate 
experiment. 1 consider that success can be obtained in 
most cases in the treatment of sulphide ores without any 
great worry as to the kind of oil to be employed. 

Man jack 

In outward form and general appearance manjack is 
not unlike fine coal and is essentially a bituminous sub- 
stance. It is an oil residuum occurring in lenticular 
scams between walls of peculiar clay, which appear to 
have absorbed the oil under very heavy pressure. It is 
jet black in color and resinous in its nature and has long 
been known for its insulating properties in the manufac- 
luie of electric coils, dynamos, and generators. In the 
island of Trinidad there are large deposits of manjack, 
especially in the San Fernando district, where are the 
Yistahella and the Marabella properties. During the 
past decade 18.000 tons was exported in a enule state. 

The Vistabella manjack properties are worked under 
a long lease by an American company, which, besides 
exploiting and exporting manjack in its natural state. 
has undertaken the manufacture of certain well-defined 
compounds. One of these is a high-grade black manjack 
paint for use on smokestacks and on boilers, both inside 
and out ; another is a preparation suitable for greasing 
pipe-threads, dressing wire-rope, etc. 

Chester W. Martin, U. S. Consul at Georgetown, sub- 
mitted in 1913 a lengthy report on the mineral resources 
of Barbados. British West Indies, in the course of which 
he said, relative to manjack: 

"Manjack has been known to exist in the island almost 
from the first settlement, and a governor's report, dated 
1676, states: 'There is a kind of metal much resembling 
cannel coal in Lancashire, called 'moniak. ' with which 
sugar is boiled.' The surface outcrops have been fre- 
quently dug and used as fuel on sugar estates in the dis- 
trict in which it is found, but no systematic attempt was 
made to mine it. until 1895. Starting with the idea of 
mining a cheap fuel, those so engaged were not long in 
finding that some of the mineral sold to the railway com- 
pany as fuel was an almost pure bitumen of great value 
to the paint and varnish trades. Since that time the 
working of the mines has been continuous to the extent 
of supplying the demand for export. 

"Barbados manjack is of two varieties, the conehoidal 
and the columnar. The first is the more valuable, and 
a newly fractured specimen cannot be distinguished from 
jet. so far as outward appearance is concerned." 

The cargoes of manjack invoiced at the Georgetown 
consulate for shipment to the United States in 1914 
amounted to 59 tons, with a declared value of #6159. 
against 112 tons, valued at $9435, in 1913. — Daily Com- 
iiii rvi Reports. 

•IiiU 17. 1915 

MINING and Scientific PKI SS 

Notes on Homestake Metallurgy 


•Intbodui roBY. The mineralised slate and schist that 
constitute the ore vary considerably in composition, but 

the unoxidiaod ore, istitnting the major pari of the 

ontains either chlorite or hornblende, with 
quarts, carbonates of lime, magnesia and iron, and ar- 
senopyrite, pyrite, and pyrrhotite. Perrons minerals 
predominate and this fact 1ms been an important factor 
in determining the metallurgical treatment. 

With one or two exceptions the minerals noted arc of 
relatively high specific gravity, and the ore as a whole 
eptionally heavy, many determinations giving an 
average specific gravity of 3. This nigh specific gravity 
presents one decided advantage, when the cost of treat- 
ment is compared with operations elsewhere, in that the 

ton, :il st universally the basic unit, represents a 

volume probably less by I 11 ', than that of many gold 
ores. <>n the other hand, this high gravity renders more 
difficult the discharge of pulp Erom mortars, its dis- 
trilmtion on amalgam tables, and its transportation in 

In the same way. as attesting the usual balance of 
such variations of different ores, it may be noted that 
the needlelike fibres of hornblende (cummingtonite), in- 
terlacing throughout the mass, render the ore more diffi- 
cult to Crush, but on the other hand assist in maintain- 
ing free leaching in both sand and slime treatment, re- 
taining their characteristic form as far as they can be 
traced with the microscope. 

The metallurgical equipment consists of: 

At the South Side: 

:; stamp-mills (660 stamps) with 36,356 sq. ft. of amalgam 

1 re-grinding plant, with independent cone system and 540 

sq. ft. of amalgam plates. 
4 hatteries of cones for classification. 
3 clarifying-tank houses. 

1 sand-plant. 
At the North Side: 

2 stamp-mills (360 stamps). 
2 tank-houses. 

2 cone-houses. 
1 sand-plant. 
At Deadwood: 

1 slime-plant, treating the combined slime from South and 
North sides. 

A flow-sheet is given in Fig. 1. 

The ore supplied to the North Side mills is usually 
drawn from the upper levels of the mine, and is at least 
partly oxidized. It ismore easily penetrated by cyanide 
solutions than is the unoxidized ore, and satisfactory ex- 
tractions arc at present made from the sandy portion of 
the mill-tailing without further reduction in tube-mills. 

'Abstract from paper to be presented at the September meet- 
ing of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, San 

Stamp Milling. The stamps, when newly shod, weigh 

900 lb. and drop 111 in., making s s drops per minute. 

Pulp discharges through No. s diagonal needle-slot 
screens. Inside amalgamation is practised, quicksilver 

being led to the mortar, and a cupper clmck bolt, about 

"i.l in. wide, being placed inside the nmrtar. below the 
screen. Tii facilitate discharge and distribution of the? 

pulp over the amalgam plates, water is liberally used. 

the usual ratio being Erom 1<> to 11 parts, by weight, to 
one of solids. 

Electric drive, now iii use for more than two years, 


i mi roni ptt i'.ij 

rtATtR T*N*S 


lltiuledb) 1 Air Ltw QinoUVt 

Mill t 

1.U.1J WW ID. 


:■ : . ■* I'. . Mi 



W.OTt Sq.Ft 



Gobi Ultra 













CoIUclad «uJ Inched id (I 









C) jnue 

— K 

Blug to Waste— [ REFiNERr L. Sialic Sold 
Gold ndrs 


To V.S Asauy OlBco 

permits more nearly continuous operation than formerly. 
A 25-hp. back-geared motor drives each 10 stamps, trans- 
mitting motion by a 16-in. belt. 

Chuck-blocks are cleaned in rotation, the usual inter- 
val between cleanings being about two weeks; outside 
plates, except those of the fourth row, are cleaned and 
dressed daily. Fourth-row plates are dressed at inter- 
vals of two days. At the foot of the rows of plates are 
traps, from which the sand is removed every second or 
third day. This trap-sand is run over a special silvered 
amalgam plate, the tailing rejoining the main stream of 
tailing. It was formerly the practice to clean these traps 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 17. 1915 

daily, bul this is not necessary since the development of 
the re-grinding plant, which acts, in effect, as a large 
trap for all the mills. 

Amalgam is retorted three times each month, oil- 
tired retorts are used, the resulting bullion being melted 
in coke-fired furnaces. The loss of quicksilver in retort- 
ing is almost nil; the subsequent melting loss, which 
averages slightly more than 1'. of the weight of the 
eru le bullion, includes some quicksilver not driven off 

ill the retorts. 

lie imoxiilizcd ore. although carrying large quanti- 
ties of sulphides, amalgamates well, but not go lively us 
old r ids show to have been the case in earlier years. 

when less of this class of ore came to the mills. A longer 

time is apparently required to properly incorporate the 
quicksilver with the pulp, and tin- resulting amalgam is 
recovered somewhat farther from the battery. The re- 
sults given in Table I illustrate this tendency. 

Table i. — Compakisob of Amalgamation Results os Ores oi 


Column I. All mills, three-month period in 1910. 
Column II. One mill, crushing unoxidized ore exclusively, 
three months, 1915. 

Of the total extraction by 

amalgamation, there was I. Cumulative. II. Cumulative. 

recovered from : ' , % ' '■ % 

Batteries 49.4 49.4 35.6 35.6 

First-row plates 37.5 86.9 42.9 78.5 

Second-row plates 4.4 91.3 8.1 86.6 

Third-row plates 2.3 93.6 3.5 90.1 

•Fourth-row plates 0.9 94.5 2.0 92.1 

Skimmings 4.0 98.5 6.9 99.0 

Trap-sand 1.5 100.0 1.0 100.0 

Percentage of ore-value 71.7 ... 69.7 

•Only two mills (440 stamps I equipped with a fourth row of 

The 'skimmings' are recovered from re-treatment of 
the foul amalgam, sulphide particles, etc.. removed from 
the clean-up sink during the clean-up of the chuck-Mock 

and plate amalgam. 

These cleanings are re-treated with an excess of mer- 
cury in a small barrel 24 in. diatn. by 302 in. long, in 
which iron halls or pebbles are placed, the mineral par- 
ticles being ground and the amalgam recovered. The 
rejected sulphides, carrying perhaps .^lOOO per ton in 
gold, arc briquetted with water-glass and charged to the 
blast-furnace, when smelting cyanide precipitate or by- 

The increased proportion of the amalgam recovered 
from the skimmings during the second period under re- 
view is a natural result of the increased percentage of 
sulphide particles in the ore. The tendency of fine sul- 
phides to collect in the slight depressions in the surface 
of an amalgamated plate is well illustrated at the re- 
grinding mill, where it is necessary to wash such a film 
from the surface several times each day. 

It is perhaps not customary to report inquiries that 
have failed of definite conclusions. The following notes 
of such an investigation are not without interest, despite 
the lack of decisive result. Records of all six mills were 
tabulated over a period of one year, in an effort to de- 

termine what relation, if any. existed between the amount 
of quicksilver fed to the batteries, the amount of bullion 
recovered, and the grade of the ore crushed. As was to 
be expected, individual determinations varied consider- 
ably from the average, but for four of the mills, and 

these fortunately including those crushing ore of the 
two extremes in value, the points coincide reasonably 
well with a curve represented by the equation 

_ SS, B H 


T = Value of ore I dollars per ton i. 

ff = Troy ounces of quicksilver led to batteries. 

B==Troy ounces crude bullion ($lii peroz. recovered. 
Of the two remaining mills, one was crushing surface 
ores with comparatively coarse particles of free gold. 
This, not unreasonably, showed values for // about in', 
below the values indicate.! by the equation. The sixth 
mill gave results nearly 2(1', higher than might have 
been expected. This mill, on account of an insufficient 
Supply of water, crushed nearly 111', less ore than the 
average, and it is conceivable that the longer retention 

of the material in the battery caused undue flouring of 

the quicksilver. It is more probable, however, that the 
explanation is to be found in the personal equation of the 
millnian in charge. 

The crushing units are not in conformity with modern 
ideas, and there is no doubt that, were the plants to be 
built anew, radical changes ill design would he made. 
The Ho stake, unlike many younger mines, has de- 
veloped gradually from comparatively small beginnings. 
The mills represent the growth of 30 years. Built before 
the cyanide process was known, they then represented 
advanced nulling practice. It must be conceded that the 
stamp duty of 44 tons, with W 1 ', of the tailing passing a 
100-mesh screen and 6095 passing a 200-inesh screen, is 
fairly good even when compared with the results re- 
ported from many newer installations. 

We find that heavier stamps crush more rock, with 
little or no change in the sizing of the tailing unless more 
open screens are used: in which case, even without in- 
Creasing the falling weight, tonnage may be gained at the 

sacrifice of fineness. To us it appears that compactness 

of plant, with the saving both in first cost and, later, in 
labor and supervision, constitutes the leading claim of 
the heavy stamp for preferment. Indeed, if the gold 
metallurgist is ready to dispense with amalgamation — 
and we are by no means prepared to do this — it is more 
than probable that he will do well to investigate the 
crushing practice of modern copper-mills before he com- 
mits himself to the heavy gravity-stamp. Alaska, al the 
moment, holds more of interest than does Africa. 

It may be pertinent to note that T have never encoun- 
tered a Hornestake mill-tailing, no matter how far ad- 
vanced in secondary treatment, from which some free 
gold could not be recovered by laboratory amalgamation 

Re-grinding. Operations at the re-grinding plant 
offer little of interest, the practice conforming closely to 
the usual methods. 

.lull 1 i I'M • 

Ml\l\u Scientific I'KI SS 

■.i,| t.i the tube mill is alread) so Bne nnl} 
remali that the efflciencj of the 

mills is low The • i - in. I delivered to the 

sjin.l plants is iiImhii Iihi in.sii for unoxidised ore, and 
80 mesh for oxidised. It is advantageous, to operate the 
mills in .1. eed circuit, l>ui n is difflcull to do thia with 


out permitting sulphide particles that have been suffi- 
edently reduced in size to remain La the circuit. By in- 
troducing a double baffle or trough-classifier, containing 
a hydraulic device, into the slime-overflow end of a Dorr 
classifier this difficulty has been in a measure overcome, 
and two of the mills arc at present using this system. 
The accompanying table of tube-mill data has been com- 
piled from earlier records, when none of the tube-mill 
discharge was returned for further grinding. 

Each mill discharges its tailing over an amalgam table, 
and about 40 cents is recovered per ton ground. 
Ri.-(;kinlhni: Plant Data 

Mill number 1 2 3 4 

Denver All'a-Chal- AUis-CI al- nardingn 

.Manufacturer Eng. men mors Conical Mill 

Works Co. Co. <'o. 

Dimensions, feet 5 by 14 5 by IS 5 by 18 6 by 6 

Speed, rev. per min.. 27.(1 28.5 28.0 26.5 

Actual horse-power 

(motor input) 32.0 42.0 42.0 27.0 

Fed from Dewater- Dorr Dorr Dewater- 

ingcone classifier classifier ingcone 

Tons fed per day 9S.0 138.0 133.0 93.0 

Pebbles per ton 1.40 1.24 1.38 1.71 

Tons to pass 100 mesh 41. 52.0 49.0 34.0 

Tons to pass 100 mesh 

per horse-power ... 1.2S 1.24 1.17 1.26 

Re-grinding Plant Operating Cists for 1914 

Cost per ton 
Cost per ton fed reduced to pass 
to tube-mills. 100-mesh sieve. 

Labor $0.0496 $0.1289 

Pebbles and liners 0.0259 0.0673 

Renewals, mills, and cones 0.0074 0.0193 

Machine-shop service 0.0037 0.0096 

Silver-plating 0.0077 0.0200 

Sundries 0.0029 0.0075 

Power 0.0292 0.0759 

Total $0.1264 $0.32S5 

Tons fed to mills, 152,106. Tons ground to pass 100-mesh 
sieve, 58,605. Cost of re-grinding, per ton crushed in stamp- 
mills, $0.0121. 

Sand-Tri vi mi-, i Tbj siiini is leached with cyanide 
solution in Mils it fi .ham by 9 fl deep, holding 610 
■ .1 each, The operations arc distinguished by 
unusual care in the preparation of the material ft 
traction, rather than m the extraction itself 

i laasification and aeration are the i»" essentials to 
successful work. The latter, necessar) to overcome the 
tendency of the ten-.. us compounds in the ore to n mow 
the vital oxygen from the solutions, is achieved bj ton- 
ing, at intervals, air under slight pressure into the false 
bottom, below the flltei canvas. The charge is suitably 
drained before tins air is applied ; the pressure is bo ad- 
justed thai the air is foi I into the sand, yel is s> low 

that the column of s;n,,| is now here broken or disturbed. 
To secure this immunity thorough classification is essen 

tial, and this lias always been I Ignized as a mailer of 

firsl importance. 

Four batteries of cones, each fed from the discharge of 
the preceding set, the lirsi three sets acting bj gravity 
alone, the last assisted by a hydraulic connection, deliver 
a clean sand to the vais. As a further precaution, the 
vat is filled with water before sand is turned into it, so 
thai a constant overflow is maintained during tilling and 

a final Separation of slime particles added to the sum of 
the cone separations. As a matter of fact, the sand is 
so clean when it enters the vat that this final step is not 
one of strict necessity, but we have found that a charge 
filled in this manner is in a less compacted condition, 
presumably easier to leach and certainly easier to dis- 

The action of the air is interesting. Laboratory tests 

sluicing- the dig sand-vats. 

indicate that, on an average, about 75 cu. ft. of oxygen 
is absorbed by a ton of ore, before its reducing action is 
corrected. If this air is not supplied from some ex- 
Ira neons source, the solutions are vitiated and extraction 
ceases. When air is applied and is followed by a water 
wash, calcium thiosulphate appears in the effluent solu- 
tions; When the air is followed by cyanide, the effluents 
contain sulphocyanides and free cyanide appears only 
alter some time. After a limited time of leaching, the 
extractive power of the solution decreases and further 
aeration of the charge is necessary. Each aeration is 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 17. 1915 

attended by the formation of some acid and the o 

quenl destructi f some lime and cyanide. After 

treatment, the Band slums no sign of oxidation; neither 
analytical nor microscopic examination can detect dif- 
ference between charge and residue. 

Dime, crushed in a one-stamp, mill to pass a 7-mesh 
screen, is added to the pulp stress) as it flows to the vat. 
Regulation is by weighing a prescribed amount of lime 
into the automatic stamp feeder at 2-hr. intervals. The 
choice of screen is determined by the rate at which the 
lime slakes, the intent being to exhaust the particles 
only when treatment is completed. Formerly small quan- 
tities lit' lime were added to the top of charges during the 
drainage periods, to supplement that fed with the sand, 
but this is no Longer considered to be necessary and is not 
done except in emergencies. 

It had long been recognized that a high protective al- 
kalinity was detrimental, but until within the past two 
years it had been tacitly accepted that it would be im- 
possible to dispense entirely with protective alkali. 
Eventually this was done; extractions improved and con- 
sumption of cyanide was materially reduced. 

The gratifying results are in a measure due to another 
change in procedure, initiated at about the same time. 
Reference to the treatment chart will show that solutions 
of two strengths are used; that stronger in cyanide is 
used earliest in the treatment of a charge. When these 
solutions appear as effluents, one portion is precipitated, 
the other brought, to full working strength by adding 
cyanide and thereafter returned to the extraction of 
another charge of sand. 

This custom is by no means unusual, yet wherever it is 
used the procedure seems to be to maintain the stronger 
solution at a fixed content of cyanide and to allow the 
weaker to vary in strength according as the varying 
losses in treatment may determine. This is wrong in 
principle. The critical strength is that below which the 
weaker solution will no longer dissolve its quota of gold, 
or. if dissolving it. will no longer freely yield it to pre- 
cipitation. If the strength is greater than this, we may 
confidently expect some cyanide to be destroyed without 
giving compensatory service. In such circumstances, if 
the maximum working strength is reduced, the weaker 
solution will be automatically restored to the lowest 
economic strength; if it falls below this, a temporary in- 
crease in the maximum strength will restore it. In other 
words, cyanide should be added to the strong solution in 
accord with the determinations of strength made on the 
weak solutions. Thus, operating with a strong solution 
of variable strength and a weak solution also variable, 
but never far from its effective limit, it may be antici- 
pated that little cyanide will be needlessly expended in 
this way. 

Slime-Treatmext. The slime-plant is equipped with 
30 Merrill presses, each of 90 frames, 4 by 6 ft. by 4 in. 
One press holds 26 tons of slime, and has a capacity of 
about 70 tons a day. 

The entire treatment is given in the presses, which 
successfully meet the conditions for which they were de- 
signed, holding a tight and homogeneous cake during 

aeration periods (which impose a most exacting require- 
ment on the machine ) and discharging readily without 
requiring manual labor. In this connection it may be 
mentioned that all the operations incident to the tilling, 
aeration, leaching, washing, anil discharging of 30 

presses — totaling about 75 charges daily — arc conducted 
by three men on each shift. The actual time required by 
one of these men in the performance of every step in 
the treatment of a charge is slightly less than 15 minutes. 

Treatment is in principle identical with that of the 
sand, periods of aeration and treatment alternating with 
sufficient frequency to maintain the activity of the solu- 
tions. The alkalinity is carried at a very low point, but 
the working solutions are of low cyanide strength, as ref- 
erence to the charts will show. Within the restrictions 
sed by practice, there seems to be no solution so 
weak that it will not freely extract gold from the aerated 
slime. The problem seems to demand the passing of a 
definite volume of solution through the slime-cake, rather 
than treating with solution of a definite strength or for a 
definite time. So long as this amount of solution is 
passed, the extraction is accomplished. Thus the treat- 
ment time is a function of the leaching rate. 

The minimum working strength is determined by our 
ability to precipitate the effluent solution, and iri, de- 
veloping this minimum much of the treatment is given 
with very dilute solutions, with the result that the con- 
sumption of cyanide has been reduced to an extremely 
low figure. For instance, a 10-day period, concluding as 
this is written, gives the sodium cyanide (128%) con- 
sumed per ton of slime treated: In treatment, 0.127; 
added for precipitation. 0.008; making a total of only 
0.135 pound. 

The precipitation of the 'low solution' (first and final 
effluents, low in both gold and cyanide) is difficult; 
doubly so on account of the low alkalinity ; and after 
trial of many expedients to assist it we are not able to 
improve upon Carter's old system of a drip of strong 

This, usually added with the feed of zinc-dust at the 
rate of 1 lb. per hour (or per 25 tons of solution pre- 
cipitated) constitutes from 5 to 10% of the cyanide used. 
An excessive amount of zinc-dust is also necessary to in- 
sure clean precipitation of these solutions, and this en- 
tails further expense, not merely in the first, cost of the 
zinc, but in the refining of the larger bulk of low-grade 
precipitate. Combined, these costs consume about 25% 
of the profit won through the reduction of cyanide con- 
sumption, a satisfactory enough result in a plant where 
treatment methods have been so well established as is 
the case here, even though the impression may be con- 
veyed that one branch of the work has lost efficiency. 

Some assistance in this precipitation difficulty is re- 
ceived through the application of this barren low solu- 
tion as a preliminary wash. 

Double cloths are used on the presses, the lighter one 
being in contact with the frame. This is unbleached 
muslin twill, and is in turn covered with cloth of No. 10 
canvas duck. Joints are made with Thermalite paint. 

During the early days of the plant, when the equip- 

Jul} 17, l"l ■ 

MINING and Scientific PRLSS 


in. ut wu not equal in capacity to the tannage of avail 
able alime, a sun of cloths waa oaed foi aa much 
months, n being preferable to loae alime rather than to 
atop !■• repair leaka It ihonld be remembered thai the 
arrangementa of porta and ohannela in the preaaea is such 
that treatment mas be given in either direction, so that 
a tingle leak would in do wiee affeet treatment, bul would 
merely entail the wasting from the plant of a certain 
amount of untreated slum-. At tins lime, as much as ■ 

tons \wis wasted in a t ith. As the plant has been 

brought to full capacity, the cloths have I n renewed, 

'.r Is month*' service, DOW after lli months'; the 

leakage loss on the latter basis baa been brought to an 
average of leas than 40 tons monthly over an entire year, 

with a minimum of 8 tons in a single month. This in 

treating s total output tonnage of more than ."iS.ihhi tons 
of pulp. 

Precipitation. The Merrill system of precipitation 
with zinc-dust is oaed at all cyanide plants, as is the 
Merrill Blter-preaa of triangular Bection. This method 
has been fully discussed,* and the technique remains 
about as there described. It has been mentioned that the 
effect of the it. -rut variations in treatment has been ad- 
vene i" precipitation, since the tonnage of solution re- 
quiring precipitation has been increased at the same time 
that the contenl of solution in gold atul cyanide has been 
reduced. Beyond the natural effects — increased zinc 
consumption and lower-grade preeipitati — no difficulties 
have been encountered. 

Double cloths are used on the frames, the outer one be- 
ing taken off when the press is cleaned and replaced by 
the inner cloth, which is in turn replaced by a new cloth. 
The outer doth is burned, the ash going to refining. Ex- 
periments are still in progress to find the lightest and 
cheapest cloth that can be used for this purpose without 
unduly increasing the hazard of leakage. All washing 
of cloths is eliminated by this system. Against the added 
cost of cloth may be set the advantage of security from 
leaks due to rotten or wrinkled cloths and the labor of 
washing soiled cloths. 

Refining. In its essentials, this remains as described 
in the earlier paper, except that after acid treatment of 
the lower-grade precipitate, the briquettes are charged 
to the blast-furnace instead of being fused in the cupel. 
The latter treatment is still the standard for precipitate 
of higher grade. 

Acid-treatment is a preliminary to furnace-treatment 
of all precipitates. It may not be necessary, but in my 
judgment it is sound metallurgy, since it enhances 
security from stack losses and insures more fluid slags. 
Moreover, the decreased bulk of product to be smelted 
with lead decreases the time required for that operation, 
always more or less hazardous to the health of the work- 

Oil is now used as a fuel in the cupel furnace, replac- 
ing wood. It is an ideal fuel for the purpose, and its use 
has resulted in an acceleration of nearly 50% in the rate 
of cupeling. 

Flotation at Broken Hill 

\ ording to the annual report of the Zinc Corpora 

tion, recently issue, i. the following results were obtained; 

Operations were suspended for four months owing to the 

Tl panj i icits tailing h other mining 

companies, all •■• I'r its own mine, the South Blocks. 

The had concentrator treated 1 11,667 tons of ore of an 

average asaaj rail I ill', lead, 2.6 or, silver, ami 

.inc. This prodi I 26,567 tons of lead ooncen 

trate assaying 64.69) lead, 9.2 oz. silver, and 6.4591 ano; 

and 34,317 tons of Sine middling assaying l.'i.S', /inc. 

1.6 oa. silver, and l' 1 ', lead. Th st at this plant was 

$1.13 per ton. 

The zii ocentrator treated 221,620 tons of tailings 

assaying 13 68| , /inc. 6. 12 0Z. silver, and 5.98| . lead. I >f 
this. 169,180 Ions was from dumps, the remainder being 

ore from the British and Junction mines, ami th in- 

pain's own lead concentrator mentioned above. This 
yielded 63,300 tons of flotation concentrate assaying 
43.96% zinc 13.91 oz. silver, and 13% lead. The re- 
treatment of this product, by tabling and the Horwood 
process combined, yielded 

Zinc, Silver. Lead, 
Tons. % oz. % 

Zinc concentrate 48,325 40.77 10.58 7.64 

Horwood zinc concentrate. . 3,986 48.17 15.16 6.47 

Lead concentrate 7,469 15.69 32.84 54.66 

Horwood lead concentrate. . 1,688 14.63 38.01 35.4.8 

In addition to the above, 1362 tons of zinc slime was 
produced, assaying 37% zinc, 18.42 oz. silver, and 13.43% 

The Horwood process plant treated 6144 tons of zinc 
slime direct from the zinc concentrator and 3169 tons 
from the accumulated dumps for a return of 


Zinc concentrate 5,882 

Lead concentrate 2,619 

The cost at this plant was 30 cents per ton. The enhance- 
ment in profit due to treatment by the Horwood process 
amounted to +1.72 per ton of zinc slime. 

The sulphuric acid plant worked steadily at full capac- 
ity and made 2914 tons of acid. Working costs averaged 
$2.50 per ton, the Horwood* process being responsible 
for 30c. per ton of this total. The estimated amount in 
the dumps still remaining to be treated is 1,522,074 tons. 













♦Trans. Inst. M. & M. Vol. XXII, page 


Material dredged at Panama in May amounted to 
1,092,637 cu. yd. Of this, 671,149 yd. was from the Gail- 
lard (Culebra) cut. 

*The principle of the Horwood process, according to Hoover, 
in 'Concentrating Ores by Flotation,' is that when a mixture 
of iron, copper, lead, and zinc sulphides is roasted, the sur- 
faces of the particles of the three former sulphides are 
changed to oxide and sulphate at a comparatively low tem- 
perature, whereas the zinc sulphide is practically unaltered. 
The partly-roasted material is then subjected to a heated-acid 
oil-flotation process, when the zinc sulphides will float away, 
and the deadened or sulphated compounds of iron and lead 
will sink with the gangue. 

MINING and Scientific PRtSS 

July 17, 1!)1"> 

A Mine-Owning Tribe of Indians 


Members of the Quapaw tribe 1 of Indians in Ottawa 
county, northeastern Oklahoma, are, almost t<i a man— 
and squaw also— firm believers that "a bird in the hand 
is worth two in the bush," which explains the recent de- 
cision of the Supreme Court of the United States, which 
has decreed thai the Quapaws shall no longer have the 
privilege of selling their royalty rights on the zinc and 
lead lands they own. 

About ten years ago zinc and had ores were found in 
abundance on the Indian tracts and since then some of 
the most productive mines in the entire Missouri-Kansas- 

Oklal ia district have been developed on these lands. 

In this district there are about 24 different camps, pro 
ducing in all about $18,000,000 worth of ore annually, 
and it is interesting in note that the northeastern Ok 
lahoma district now ranks third among the list of pro- 
ducers with a yearlj ore output valued at $2,000,000. By 

an ;M-t of Congress in 1S97 the Indians were permitted 
to lease their lands for mining purposes for a period of 

in years, but at thai time no mines of importance had 

been opened. It was about eight years later that the first 

i>ig mines were developed north of Miami. Oklahoma. 

The operators would procure leases from the Indians. 
agreeing to give them .V, of the money received from 
the sale of ore: at this juncture tin- speculator would 
appear upon the scene and purchase the Indian's right 
to whatever royalty money might accrue. The assign- 
ment of such royalties would lie duly printed in legal 

form in some newspaper and presumably the transac- 
tion was in accordance with law. 

In the early days of royalty-selling the Indian's right 
would he transferred for an absurdly small sum. When 
a speculator learned that a rich drill-strike had been 
made on a certain piece of land he would go to the Indian 
land-owner ami endeavor to show him — and usually with 

success — wherein he could he benefited by disposing of 
an uncertainty for a certainty, the latter being some 
specified sum of money, usually not more than two or 
three hundred dollars, and sometimes as low as $2f>. As 
an illustration, a slate official of Oklahoma, some years 
ago, purchased for .+2.~>o the royaltj rights on the land of 
Wah-tah-noh-zhe, a squaw, the lease id' which land was 

held by the .Miami Royalty Co., which had agreed to give 
ii.-m a .")', royalty. By the assignment of the roy- 
alty rights the proceeds would go to the state official in- 
stead of to Wah-tah-noh-zhe, hut to the latter the $2.~>ii 

in hand was a much safer bet than the slim chance of 
ever getting such a vast sum out of the mineral that 

might he produced fr her property. Besides, that 

was in the early days of develop nt and dig mines were 

yet to he a thing of the future. But it chanced that on 
Wah-tah-noh-zhe 's land the famous Turkey Fat mine 
was opened and tin' royalty already received by the 
Oklahoma politician who purchased the squaw's royalty 

rights has exceeded $100,000. By the recent decision of 
the Supreme Court, which reversed the decision of the 

Lower courts. Wah-tah-noh-zhe will not onl\ he entitled to 

ili. royalties henceforth — and the Turkey Fa1 is still a 
big producer — but the way is opened to her to bring 
suit for the recovery of the royalties paid over to the 

Oklahoman during the past several years. 

Scores of similar instances, on a smaller scale, might 
he mentioned. In the more recent transactions, how- 
ever, tin 1 price of the royally assignment has begun to 
grow. Meh-hunk-a-zhe-ka Beaver, a squaw, sold for 

$1200 In a Speculator at Baxter Springs. Kansas, her 

royalty rights on the land where the Oitt & Buchanan 

Mining Co. is now opening a large lead-producing prop- 
erty. Meh-hunk-a-zhe-ka Beaver received her $1200 in 
cold cash ami possibly has spent it by this time. Just 
where the purchaser of the royalty rights gets a run for 
his money in this instance it is hard to determine, as he 
had not yet begun to receive the royalties that he had 
purchased when the Supreme Court's decision knocked 
his cleverly-laid plans into a cocked hat. Will Meh- 
hunk-a-zhe-ka Beaver be required to return the $1200? 
The purchaser of her royalty rights is worrying more 
about the answer to this question than anyone else. 

The Quapaws are the most uncivilized and the wealth- 
iest Indians in Oklahoma; yet they are the only tribe of 
Indians in the United States who do not have to submit 
to the Secretary of the Interior, for his approval, their 
plans for the disposal of their land. This condition was 
the result of a lobby at Washington lead by ex-Governor 
( Irawford, of Kansas. He was aided financially by A. B. 
Abraxas, of Baxter Springs, a homeless New York Indian 
with a Jewish ancestry. Abrams has succeeded in 
gathering unto himself and relatives 1700 acres of valu- 
able land in north-eastern Oklahoma and is now seere- 
tary of the Quapaw tribe. One of the rewards of ex- 
Governor Crawford's efforts at Washington was his 
acquisition of 160 acres at Lincolnville. Oklahoma, on 
which the famous Omaha-Petersburg mine was located. 

The allotment of Quapaw lands was made in 1896, 
each adult allottee receiving 240 acres. Although most 
of tie- laud was highly productive the members of the 
Quapaw tribe, not more than 500 in number, gave little 
attention to its cultivation. Many of these Indians arc 
almost what might be termed 'blanket Indians' and 
their homes consist of rude huts in the backwoods. They 

lack every vestige of ability to promote the development 

of their rich mineral lands, and. instead id' being able to 
go forth and organize mining Companies on their own 
responsibility and share in the greater profits to which 
they are entitled, they are content, with receiving a mere 
pittance, comparatively speaking, although in reality the 
royalties they arc receiving aggregate a good many 
thousands of dollars each month. They are willing to 

.lulv 17. I'M. 

MINING ud Scientifi< l'KI SS 






MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 17, 1915 

lease their lands at 5<; and would still be willing to take 
a '-ash settlement of a few hundred dollars rather than 
take their chances on getting thousands or hundreds of 
thousands of dollars in royalties later on; but Uncle 

Sara has awakened to the i sssity of protecting them to 

sonic extent at least. Oftentimes the lessees who pro- 
eme the lands at o% royalty sub-lease the same proper- 
ties out Eor 10, 1">. or even as high as 40% royalty where 

tl re is rich, and while the actual land-owner is thus 

receiving a meager 5% return, the middle-man, or first 
who really does no actual mining himself but who 
encourages others to mine, sits back at his leisure and 
rakes in his big royalties, frequently getting independ- 
ently wealthy in the course of a year or so. 

In Ottawa county there are seven other Indian tribes. 

but so Ear the Quapaws have been the only ones fortunate 
enough to own mineral-producing lands. The Cornfield 
mine, shown in an accompanying illustration, is a new 
producer of importance on the land of Benjamin 
Quapaw, who assigned his royalties to a Kansas specu- 
lator. Harry Crawfish sold, for a song, his royalty 
rights on the lease north of Miami where the Picher Lead 
Co. has opened one of the most productive zinc-lead 
mines in that district. Julia Greenback owns the land 
on which the Lost Trail mine is situated. She, likewise, 
disposed of her royalty rights for a few hundred dollars, 
whereas, by waiting, she would have received something 
like .$15,000 in royalties. 

Leaching at Yerington 

Some months ago the General Development Co. was 
induced to undertake extensive drill exploration at the 
Copper Flat property, two miles west of Yerington. 
Nevada. The work was in charge of Louis F. Wright, of 
the General Development Co.'s staff. About 700,000 
tons of 21'; ore was developed on a part of the ground 
and enough work was done to justify a total estimate of 
2.(MI0.0II0 tons of ore, all oxidized. The Walker River 
Copper Co. lias been incorporated in Nevada to under- 
take the work of exploration. 

Tlie laboratory work in developing a process to treat 
the ore- was done in the plant of the Midland Ores & 
Patents Co.. at Waverly. New Jersey, and the results 
have been satisfactory enough to justify the drafting of 
plans for a 400-ton mill. The proposed process is com- 
paratively simple and economical. The ore will be 
treated with an acidulated solution of ferric chloride 
containing sodium chloride. The copper will be pre- 
cipitated on granulated iron in tumbling-barrels in the 
usual way. the resulting ferrous chloride will lie regen- 
erated to ferric salt by the electrolytic deposition of suf- 
ficient metallic iron to liberate the requisite amount of 
chlorine. The economy of the process lies in part in the 
regeneration by electricity of the spent solution and the 
recovery of the excess iron, permitting the repeated use 
of both without materia] loss. At the one-ton plant of 
the Midland company, it has been found possible to use 
the solution as many as 14 times and it was still in good 

condition for further use. Test-runs have been made on 
many different oxidized silicious copper ores and from 
those at all adapted to the method, a recovery of 90% 
has been usual. 

A solution containing 3% ferric chloride and 5% salt 
has proved aft effective solvent with most ores. The 
amount of iron entering the solution in the copper pre- 
cipitating step is theoretically 50% in excess of the 
amount separating in the ore treatment when the copper 
dissolves. The acid required is the amount necessary to 
re-dissolve such iron as may separate by reason of oxida- 
tion or basic reactions. 

In the regeneration an efficiency of 95% has been 
obtained at the anodes and 75% at the cathodes. The 
current strength is 3 to 4 volts and current density 4 to 
ti amperes per square foot. The deposited iron is used 
to precipitate the copper, with a corresponding reduc- 
tion in the amount of scrap-iron. 

The reactions incident to the several steps are as fol- 
lows : 

Ore treatment 

3CuO -f 2FeCl 3 = 3CuCl, + Fe.O, 

3CuO + 2FeCL = CuCL + Cu„CL + Fe 2 3 

CuS + 2FeCl 3 = CuCl 2 + 2FeCL + S 

Note. If the solution is acid the iron remains dis- 
solved in proportion to the amount of acid used. 

Copper precipitation 

CuCL + Pe = Cu + FeCL 

Cu 2 CL + Fe = 2Cu + FeCL 

2FeCl 3 + Fe = 3FeCL 


FeCL 4- electrolysis = Fe -f OL 
2FeCL + 2C1 = 2FeCl 3 

Blast-Furnace Gases in Silver-Lead 

Oxygen is present from to 1.5%, and in a well-run- 
ning furnace not in excess of 4%. With the higher con- 
tent, namely, toward 1 ',' ', . reduction is poor. 

In current practice where much sintered ore is used, a 
good deal of galena remains nndecomposcd in the sinter. 
If this is not decomposed in the blast-furnace, some 
enters the slag as lead sulphate, so that the fume arising 
from such slag, when it is spilled on the dump, may con- 
tain as much as 52% lead. 

When the matte goes as low as 12% lead, reduction is 
good; when it runs up to 22','. the reduction is poor. 
In the first case the slag may carry no more than 0.5%, 
in the latter case, as much as 2 to 24% lead. 

All these statements refer to normal tonnage condi- 
tions and not when the furnace has been pushed by a 
plentiful supply of air, exceeding its capacity. 

Sixteen plants in the United States in 1914 produced 
250.635 tons of coal briquettes worth $1,154,678. This 
was an increase of ::7.s2 per cent. 

.1 III N I 


Mining in Arizona 


Tin- past month baa made a record in the annate of 
na mining Ni» discoveries galore, record prodnc 
al a decreased oost, Dew plana announced, consoli- 
dations, bonding and leasing, and, perhaps, what is best 

of all, the number <>f engineers i dng to the state to 

make examinations. Copper is. of course, the most ac- 
tive but this lias been closely followed by favorable 
developments in the new goldfield of Oatman or Gold 
Road The demand for properties containing tungsten 
iiihI molybdenum has been marked and many options on 

properties of this nature have changed hands, ae< 

panied by increased activity at the mines of tungsten and 
molybdenum already in operation. 

Oi \ the largesl transactions consummated in re- 

cenl years, and from a copper mining standpoint of 
far reaching effect, is the taking over of the interests of 
the Gila Sulphide Copper Co. by the American Smelting 
& Refining Co. This is the well-known Christmas mine. 
near Harden, one of the most promising of the low-grade 
properties in the state. With the necessary improve- 
ments to handle a large tonnage, success is assured. It 
is also reported that the A. S. & R. has purchased the 
Bush & Baxter Tiiine in the Twin Buttes district. This 
is a property that will make interesting reading for the 
get-rich-quick promoter's prospectus. With a total out- 
lay of only $350. to do the assessment work, a few months 
ago in a neglected district, over $1000 per day is being 
cleared. The reported sale price is $-lon.noO. 

Jerome has turned its attention during the past 
month to consolidations, the result of which has been 
that practically the entire district is now in the hands of 
two companies. Extensive geological work has been re- 
cently done in this locality by Walter Harvey Weed, in 
the employ of the United Verde Copper Co. the result, 
being that the United Verde has taken under its wing 
all of the properties of the Hull and Cleopatra mining 
companies, the consideration being stated as about $1,- 
000,000. The United Verde Extension Mining Co., of 
which James S. Douglas is president, has gathered pretty 
nearly all of the surrounding claims not included in the 
United Verde transaction. Deals have been closed on 
the Hooker and Ewing interests, the Mountain View, the 
Bouquet, the Parker, the Lippey, the Stifel, and the 
Johnson groups. By these acquisitions the United Verde 
Extension owns 30 mines, all of which adjoin the present 
holdings on the south. The sale of the Harris mine in 
the Black Canyon district to an Oklahoma corporation 
is another notable event. 

The Globe-Miami district is prominent. Three sec- 
tions of the Inspiration concentrator, to treat 2250 tons 
per day, have been started. Two more units will be 
started during July and probably three more monthly 

•Director Arizona State Bureau of .Mines, Tucson, Arizona. 

until the entire is unit-, arc working. This marl 
beginning of active production by the Inspiration I on 
solidated Copper Co. When completed the concentrator 

will have a capacity of from 14,400 U) 15,1 tons daily. 

Early in the month, the International Mueller was l.lown- 

in. in the same district : this has I n handling the .Miami 

iipany's CO nlrate. which has been stored for scv 

era] i tths, The International plant will also handle 

the product of the Inspiration mill. The Old I) inion, 

although almost drowned in the month of April, has 
overcome all ils difficulties and is hack to full capacity. 
The blowing-in of the third furnace recently lias marked 
its rise to maximum production again. 

Two new railroads have been put into operation within 
the month. A narrow-gauge road. 28 miles long, con- 
nects the .Magma mine at Superior with the railroad at 
Florence. This road overcomes the handicap that the 
Superior district has suffered for many years, and it is 
now anticipated that there will he increased mining ac- 
tivity there. The town of Mascot was connected with 
the outside world on dune 15. The event was Suitably" 

celebrated. The railroad connects the property of tin- 
Mascot Copper Co. at the new town of Mascot, in the 
Dos Cabezos mountains, with the Southern Pacific line 
at Willcox. 

In the southern part of the state much activity is evi- 
dent. Contracts have been let. for the construction of the 
Gila Bend-Ajo railroad, connecting (iila Bend on the 
Southern Pacific line with the property of the New Cor- 
nelia Mining Co. at Ajo. The contract calls for the com- 
pletion of the road by January. It is evident that the 
company is going to lose no time in getting its copper 
on the market. The road will be about 40 miles long 
and will have a maximum grade of 0.5%. It is hoped to 
complete the erection of the reduction plant next year. 
In the Ajo district, extensive diamond-drill prospecting 
is being conducted by the E. J. Longyear Co. for the Ajo 
Consolidated Copper Co. Day and night shifts are 
being used, and the work is progressing rapidly. 

It has been definitely announced that the Sacramento 
central hoisting-shaft of the Copper Queen Consolidated 
Mining Co. at Bisbee, will be concreted from the 1700- 
ft. level to the surface, making it a fire-proof shaft. The 
work will commence as soon as the material arrives and 
it is anticipated that it can be done in 60 days. A pre- 
liminary test made in this shaft proved that the work 
could be executed in a satisfactory manner, according to 
plans already completed, both from the standpoint of 
expense and workmanship. A novel feature of this work 
is that it will be the first instance of a shaft being con- 
creted while still in use. Officials of the company ex- 
press complete confidence that the work will be carried 
out perfectly, and it will be watched with much interest 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July IT. 1915 

by mining men. This achievement is made possible by 
the type of form adopted. After the concrete is put in 
plan-, all that becomes necessary will be to connect the 
stringers in the shaft and proceed to the work of hoist- 
ing. The placing of the concrete will all be done from 
skips and cages, no platforms being put in the shaft; it. 
will be started at three places in the shaft, at the 600. 
1200 and 1700-ft levels. George Meyers, chief master 
lanic, is in charge of the work. 
During the past month the Bunker Hill Mining Co., 
owners of the old Tombstone Consolidated, will 
again come into line as producers. The test-mill has 
been re-constructed and sufficient ore is blocked out to 

run this mill at the rate of 100 tons daily. During this 
time the best method of treatment will be determined. 
It is evident that Tombstone is to be revived. The Bunk- 
er Hill Mining Co. is a Phelps-Dodge enterprise, a con- 
nection that generally spells success. 

All of the large copper mines of Arizona have been 
pushing their production while copper has been rising 
but the Calumet & Arizona is passing all records and is 
now producing almost 6.000,000 lb. per month, although 
there has been no increase in the number of men em- 
ployed. The Calumet & Arizona is today a big earner 
with fine mines producing ores of the direct-smelting 
class, and its new smelter, the best to be found anywhere. 
Conditions at the C. & A. allow such flexibility of work 
as is necessary to meet varying economic conditions, thus 
permitting high production at a low eost. 

Notable among the new discoveries of the past month 
is that of vanadium in Commercial quantities in the 
Shattuck mine of the Warren district. This mine, which 
has been familiarly known as "the biggest little mine," 
has a record for the variety of commercial mineral de- 
posits found within its workings. Vanadium makes a 
notable addition. 

The intense excitement that followed the finding of 
rich gold ore on Juniper Flats, north of Bisbee. has 
settled down to tlie steady development of a few claims. 
The Truax brothers, who were among the first discover- 
ers of the district, are steadily developing their claims. 
While it now looks as though it may prove a gold dis- 
trict of some merit, it is not likely to be a bonanza. 

Near Kingman, at the Enterprise Mines, rich tellu- 
ride ore has been reported. Samples assayed at Kingman 
ran from $4000 to .$6000 in gold and high in silver. 
This property has been recognized for some time as a 
producer of lead, copper, and zinc. It is evident that the 
silver and gold values were overlooked. 

The development of the Commonwealth Extension at 
Pearce has recently disclosed 5 to 7 ft. of ore averaging 
$20 per ton. Machine-drills are shortly to be installed on 
this property, which aspires to be another Common- 
wealth, and has a good start in that direction. 

Never at any time has the mining situation in the 
state of Arizona been as promising as at the present 
time. With the high prices of all the metals, the mines 
are all working at 100% capacity, and in many cases at 
an overload. Wages are the highest during the present 

Russian Copper Production 

The production of copper in the year 1914. according 
to the report of the Russian syndicate known as the 
Mied. was not as large as had been anticipated, accord- 
ing to the estimates of the factories included in the syn- 
dicate and within its radius of influence. Instead of 
tlie expected increase in the production compared with 
the preceding, year by over 400,000 poods (6451 tons), 
as a matter of fact the quantity of copper smelted did 
not even reach the level of 1913. It amounted to 1,968,- 
660 poods t 31,752 tons i only. Such a reduction, ac- 
cording to the report of tlie syndicate, must be ascribed 
in the first place to the influence of the War. which 
brought about a complete shut-down in the month of 
October at the Dzansul plant of the Caucasian Copper 
Co., the failure to start the Kvarty Chan smelter of the 
Siemens Successors, and the reduced number of work- 
men at all the remaining plants. Besides these causes 
of reduced production, the influence of which was seen in 
the second half of the year, there were others of a 
sporadic character that acted unfavorably on the pro- 
duction of copper. In the course of the first half of the 
year, under conditions of peace, all the copper-smelting 
works, except Kyshtim and Verch-Isset, instead of in- 
creasing their production, fell short of that of the pre- 
ceding year by about 40.000p. (645 tons), and only at 
tlie two smelters named was there an increased output: 
at the former of 34,463 poods (555 tons) and at the lat- 
ter of 17.605p. (283 tons). Compared with the pre- 
ceding years the production of 1914 shows as follows: 

Total Production or Copper in the Russian Empire 

Year. Poods. Tons. 

1910 1,378.399 22,232 

1911 1,564.010 25.225 

1912 2,062,731 33,269 

1913 2,048,393 33,038 

1914 1,968,660 31,752 

The production of copper according to districts was 
as follows : 

, 1913. s 1914. , 

District. Poods. Tons. Poods. Tons. 

Uralsk 997,279 16,085 1,026,723 16,560 

Caucasus 619,398 9,990 517,452 8,346 

Siberia 346,684 5.591 338,088 5,453 

Chemical works and refineries 85,032 1,371 86,397 1,393 

Total 2,048,393 33,037 1,968,660 31,752 

The consumption of copper in Russia for 1914 amount- 
ed to 2,072,318p. (33.424 tons), or 10,614p. (171 tons) 
more than in 1913 and 192.659p. (3107 tons) more than 
in 1912. According to estimates, the production of cop- 
per in 1915 is expected to be 2.165,000p. (34.919 tons), 
or 196,340p. (3166 tons) more than in 1914. 

In view of the exceptional circumstances* under which 
the Caucasian Copper Co.'s works are placed, no copper 
is expected to be produced there this year. Last year 
this company produced 192.538p. (3105 tons). 

♦The mines and smelters are in a region now the scene of 
military operations between Russia and Turkey. 

Jnh 17. 1915 

MINING ami Sornl.h, I'KI SS 


Invltod 10 
I and 
■i in is in s' i mining, milllni 

i iqi me is faster from > square orifice than 

I'min a round ■ 

Scrap mbtai worth over $50,000,000 is recovered in 
the United States eaoh year. 

Amiim river-ehannela in Sierra county, California, 
have averaged $150 to $500 in gold yield per linear foot, 

Efmcibncv of belting depends primarily on its 
strength, s| I, and the arc of contact with its pulleys. 

Design oh lay-out of underground tramming systems, 
especially switches and crossings, is of considerable im- 
portance in ii mine of large output 

Ball-bearings are considered a success in electric 
motors. Mining locomotives, which gel fairly rough 
usage, are fitted with them, resulting in decreased re- 
pair hills. 

Thb advantages of using dynamite thai "ill not 
freeze until after water freezes, is recognized by practic- 
ally all large users of explosives whose operations are 
carried on in freezing temperatures. 

Blast-furnace slag was considered a nuisance in re- 
ducing iron ores. Now it is a valuable residue, as it is 
used in road construction, ballasting, railways, concrete, 
tire-proof floors, roofing gravel, and in the manufacture 
of cement. 

LEATHER BELTS are affected by changes in the weather. 
A damp atmosphere lengthens these belts, decreasing 
their tension on pulleys. Balata belts get very slack in 
dry weather, and tight when wet. Rubber belts are 
hardly affected. 

Extractions of metal based on differences of assay- 
results in experimental work should be definitely stated 
as assay-extractions, and should be clearly distinguished 
from possible or probable recoveries. The actual extrac- 
tion sometimes exceeds the assay-result, but when it ex- 
ceeds 100"/? it shows that the sampling is not accurate. 

Leaky PIPE-LINES may be repaired cheaply by oxy- 
acetylene welding. At Ophir, San Miguel county, Colo- 
rado, pipes at the Carribeau mine required over 100 
patches. In two days these were repaired at a cost of 
one-third of what new pipe would cost, not counting a 
shut-down to put in new pipe. 

Pennsylvania oil is practically free from sulphur 
and asphalt, is rich in paraffin wax. and yields a high 
percentage of gasoline and illuminating oil. For many 
years it has been first in demand by the refiners, and 

though Hindi rn refining methods havi 

remedying t" a notable degree the deficiencies of crude 

petroleum fi i other parts of the United States, Penn 

sylvania grade still retains its rightful prestige and 
forma the criterion by which the merits of other crudes 
arc judged. 

Tin: Government employs geological and mineral ez 

perls In make examinations of mining claims within the 

National Forests; but, unless the claims arc actively in- 
terfering with the administration of the (•'uresis, no ez 
animations are undertaken until application tor patent is 
made, The proportion of mining claims examined prior 
t" application for patent is very small, probably less than 

i the total number located. There are thousands iif 

mineral Locations within the National Forests of which 

DO examination has been made by the Forest Service, and 

in all probability never will I xcept in cases where ap 

plication for patent is made. 

Terns plate is made by passing thoroughly cleaned 

Steel plates through molten terne mixture. This terne 
mixture is an alloy of pure tin and pure lead in varying 

proportions, the most i iiimn mixture being 27', tin 

and 7.'!',' lead. When [dales emerge from the bath of 
molten metal they are thoroughly covered with a fairly 
Uniform coating of this alloy. Since terne mixture itself 
is practically incorrodible, long service may lie expected 
from a roof formed of this material. Terne plates are 
furnished commonly in sheets 20 in. by 28 in., 112 sheets 
to the box. but as in the case with galvanized and black 
sheets it is also furnished in the form of roll rooting 
where the sheets are soldered on the ends and ready to 
roll out on the roof and fasten at the sides in one of the 
well-known methods of flat-seam or standing-seam con- 

Nickel may be qualitatively detected in ores by pow- 
dering a small sample and dissolving it in aqua regia. 
The solution should contain 10 to 15 e.c. of double nor- 
mal acid to every 100 c.c. of solution. H 2 S is then passed 
into it until it is saturated, dilute with an equal volume 
of water and pass in H 2 S until it is again saturated. 
Filter off the precipitate, the nickel is in the filtrate. 
Boil out the H..S, add ammonia to alkaline reaction, and 
then add colorless (NH,),S until no further precipitate 
is produced. The nickel is in the precipitate. This 
should be washed four times with water containing 
(NH,),S, three times with pure water and then treated, 
with constant stirring, with cold double-normal hydro- 
chloric acid until no more H 2 S is given off. Any pre-' 
cipitate that remains undissolved may he .the sulphide 
of nickel, cobalt, or both. Wash it well, and dissolve in 
aqua regia, evaporate the solution to dryness. Dissolve 
in a little water and add KCN solution drop by drop 
until the precipitate first formed re-dissolves completely ; 
2 or 3 c.c. of caustic soda solution is then added and 
chlorine conducted into the cold solution. If nickel is 
present a black precipitate of Ni(OH) 3 is formed with- 
in a few minutes. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 17. 1915 

Recent Patents 

1,141.377. — Ore-C<im:entrating Apparatus. John M. Callow, 
Salt Lake City. Utah, assignor to Metals Recovery Co. Filed 
October G. 1913. Serial No. 793,695. 

1. Id apparatus of the character described, the combination 
of a tank or receptacle adapted to receive ore pulp and a sub- 
stance having the property of frothing in the presence of a 
gaseous medium and agitation, a casing within the lower por- 
tion of the tank and separated therefrom to form a surround- 
ing space or chamber, a body of porous material within said 
inner casing and supported above the bottom thereof so as to 

form a chamber between said porous body and the bottom of 
the tank, a feed pipe terminating in the lower portion of 
the tank above the porous body and adapted to deliver the 
pulp into the casing above said body, a pipe leading into the 
chamber below said porous body and adapted to admit a gas- 
eous medium under pressure thereinto, said porous body sub- 
dividing the gaseous medium and distributing the same irregu- 
larly substantially throughout the entire surface of the pulp, 
and a discharge means connecting with the space or chamber 
between the inner casing and the tank and adapted to deliver 
therefrom the heavier material which has settled into said 

1,141,419. — Combined Batea, Jig, and Pan Motion Concen- 
trator. Karl Senn, Alameda, California. Filed June IS, 1914. 
Serial No. 845,841. 

1. The combination in a concentrator, of a concave pan with 
a central discharge, means for feeding pulp at the centre of 
the pan, a screen in the pan discharge and supporting a mobile 

mass, the particles of which are too,large to pass through the 
screen, means for gyrating the pan to agitate said mass and 
the ore solids concentrated, the concentrate gravitating toward 
and through the screen and the gangue being washed out- 
wardly by the wave action and water flow, means for hvdrau- 
lically jigging the concentrate and the mobile mass at the 
screen, and a preliminary separator superposed above the pan 

discharge and into which the feeding means discharges pulp, 
the rim of the^eeparator being adjustable relative to the sur- 
face of the pan to form an annular mouth, through which a 
counter-current, derived from the jigging means, runs out- 

1,141,833. — Magnetic Ore-Separator. Sven Ragnar Salwen, 
Grangesberg, Sweden, assignor to American Grondal Co.. New 
York. Filed October 9. 1914. Serial No. 805,924. 

1. In a magnetic separator, a plurality of magnets of alter- 
nating polarity mounted on a suitable axis, a rotary magnetic 
drum arranged around said magnets and in close proximity to 

their poles, and means for rotating the magnets and drum 
simultaneously in opposite directions. 

2. In a magnetic separator, a plurality of magnets of alter- 
nating polarity mounted on a suitable axis, a rotary magnetic 
drum arranged around said magnets and in close proximity to 
their poles, and means for rotating the magnets and drum 
simultaneously in opposite directions in combination with 
means for washing the ore while it is tumbling over the face 
of the drum. 

1,141,852, — Process oe and Apparatus for Sizing of Classi- 
fying Comminuted Materials. Henry M. Sutton, Walter L. 
Steele, and Edwin G. Steele, Dallas, Texas. Filed July 21, 1913. 
Serial No. 780,360. 

1. The process of sizing a mass of comminuted material, con- 
sisting in subjecting a mass of material containing particles of 

different sizes in dry condition, to a continuous movement in 
one direction upon a moving support, causing the particles to 
gravitational]}' deviate from the line of normal movement, re- 
tarding said gravitational deviation and so proportioning the 
forces, that the deviation shall be proportional to the size of 
the respective particles, and separately collecting the thus 
sized particles. 

2. The process of sizing a mass of comminuted material, con- 

Julv 17, l"l i 

MINING . ,„d Scientific l'KI SS 

»litln< In subjecting a mai* of p irtlclaa 

of uiff' dltlon, to <i continuous movement 

•Ion uiion a t-uiitlnuoui>l> ui"Uiik' gupport, eaMlni 

■ :,tiu tha lis 

illonal davit,- 
mtlguoualj and 
iIdj tin- fo i ihall be i ri>i 01 tlonal 

• iii ollecttng 
the thus sited partli 

1.143.461 OttvDuua Leon SI D Roylancc San 

Francisco. California. Kit. ii December 27, 1911 s. No 

I. In an oi rator, n tank for holding the solution 

containing the ore. an abrading surface wlihln said tank, elec- 

trodes positioned within said tank and means for causing the 
contents of said tank to circulate to impinge upon said abrad- 
ing surface and pass between said electrodes. 

2. In an ore-disintegrator, a tank for holding the solution 
containing the ore. an abrading surface within said tank, elec- 
trodes positioned within said tank, a compartment provided 
with an elongated opening to said tank positioned opposite 
said abrading surface, and means for drawing solution from 
the tank and returning the same to the tank by discharging 
Into said compartment. 

1.142.324. — Treatment of Subdivided Orks tor Agclomkrat- 
ixo or Redi-ci:*! them and Apparatus Therefor. Gustaf Grbn- 
dal. Djursholm. and Herman Nilsson, Nyhammar, Sweden. 
Filed May 23. 1914. Serial No. 840,549. 

1. A method of treating subdivided or pulverulent ore con- 
sisting in packing the ore. in a moistened state into an iron 
receptacle open at both ends, providing longitudinal channels 
in the ore, arranging a number of such filled receptacles in 

series adding thereto a suitable fire-place, passing the com- 
bustion products through the said channels until the ore in 
the receptacle lying next to the fire-place is brought to the de- 
sired state, afterward removing this receptacle containing the 
ore and placing it on the other side of the fire-place to be tra- 
versed by the air for combustion moving the series of remain- 
ing receptacles toward the fire-place and placing another re- 
ceptacle filled with fresh ore at the other end of the series, 
and so on, substantially as described. 

1,141,988. — Screen or Separator. Thomas Joseph Sturte- 
vant, Wellesley. Mass.. assignor to Sturtevant Mill Co. Filed 
March 1, 1913. Serial No. 751,560. 

1. In a separator, the combination with a suitable casing, of 
a vertically disposed stationary screen within the said casing, 
a vertically disposed rotating fan arranged adjacent to said 

i lad with aUarnatlnj reverse!) Inclined 

nil diKpoiwd In one circular plane and earring lo produi i 
allng raver tl ng or pulsating air currenta, and means tot 

supplying to the upper part of the separating mean 
mat< rial to be screened. 

1,141,660. — Ari'Aiuiis for siwiiim. Metals m Fusion, 
Charles Tlbbit Lack. Impington, England, assignor of one- 
half to Culvers & Sons, Limited. Hlston, England. Filed 
November 25, 1914. Serial No. 874,063 

1. In apparatus for severing metals by fusion, the combina- 
tion with a blow-pipe, of a carriage, adjustable wheels on said 

carriage for adjusting the angle of cut and a motor geared to 
one of the wheels of the carriage to propel the same during 
the severing operation. 

2. In apparatus for severing metals by fusion, the combina- 
tion with a blow-pipe, of a carriage, adjustable wheels on said 
carriage for adjusting the angle of cut, a motor geared to one 
of the wheels of the carriage to propel the same during the 
severing operation, and an adjustable support carried by the 
blow pipe for controlling the path of movement of the carriage. 

1,141,972. — Pax-Motion Concentrator. Charles H. Muhle- 
man. Western Springs, 111., assignor of fifty-five one-hundredths 
to Frank Low, St. Louis, Mo. Filed June 4, 1914. Serial No. 

1. In a concentrator, in combination, a pan and a supporting 
column therefor, means for tilting the column, means for tilt- 

ing the pan independently of the column and means for re- 
volving the column about a vertical axis without rotation of 
the column. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 17. 1913 


Wobbies in Zino-Obe Producers. — New Sepabatihq-Plahts.— 


In many ways June was an interesting month in the zinc- 
ore mining districts. 

Probably in no other region in this country is there so wide 
a disparity in metal content as found here. Production in- 
cludes material by wet concentration containing from 2n . to 
60% zinc. As long as smelter representatives offered a market 
for the medium and lower grades, operators were content to 
make delivery with a small profit. These same low-grade pro- 
ducers thought that the rapidly advancing offers for both 
metal and ore would enable them for once at least to get a fair 
return on their labor and investment. Instead, as the demand 
for metal became radically abnormal, so also became the de- 
mand for high-grade ore only, which could be converted into 
metal quickly. Low-grade producers found themselves utterly 
ignored. Production was splendidly maintained regardless of 
the absence of demand, until at the close of the month there 
was 10,000 tons of surplus ore at all points containing under 
inc. Machines were needed to make better products. 
The Mathey revolving cylinder and the Cleveland-Knowles and 
Dings' separators have been in use in this field for many years. 
The introduction of electrostatic separation found two types 
of machine adaptable for this method of reduction to high- 
grade product only, the Blake-Morscher and the Huff (Boston) 
type. The latter has gained more in favor until today it is 
greatly used, yielding as high as a 62';', zinc product 

The abrupt demand for finished product found the few 
separating-plants in the field utterly unable to meet the de- 
mands made on them, and mining concerns decided quickly, 
with the following results: A new 1000-ton separating-plant 
of the Skinner type is being constructed in the New Diggings 
district; a new custom-plant is being built in the Mifflin dis- 
trict to accommodate the Peacock Mining Co. and others in the 
immediate vicinity; in the Platteville district the independent 
separating-plant of the Homestead Mining Co. has been con- 
verted to public patronage, and all low-grade producers are 
turning their output into the plant for reduction; in the 
Shullsburg district the Fields Mining & Milling Co. is rushing 
to completion a new separating-plant to handle the ore from 
two producers capable of supplying 800 tons of raw ore per 
week; the National Separating Works has increased the 
capacity of its plant at Cuba; and the same was done at the 
Linden and Mineral Point establishments. While production 
of raw ore is to be considerably increased by the starting of 
a score of new producers on thoroughly proved properties, 
deliveries will scarcely show much increase in tonnage. The 
gain will all be in the value made. In addition, a stronger 
element of competition will be injected into the field on high- 
grade open-market offerings exclusively, as is already wit- 
nessed in the introduction during the month of new buying 
interests, notably the Robert Lanyon Zinc Co., Picher Lead 
Co.. Granliy Mining & Smelting Co.. and the Edgar Zinc Co. 
Zinc ore at the beginnin- nonth was bid in on a 

basis of $0S per ton for 60'; metal content. Operators alleged 
that smelters were giving them a bad deal. Whether this was 
true or not. there may have been something in it as the Picher 
Lead Co.'s buyer immediately raised the price of 60% ore to 
$90 per ton. After several weeks $130 per ton had been reach- 
ed. The best information during the month came from the 

Fields Mining & Milling Co., which, under contract based on 
the ruling quotations on spelter enabled it to secure J156.ll per 
ton for 42'', product. Four cars of ore realized over $20,000. 
Fortunately for the smelters, many of whom contracted metal 
long periods in advance at 7 and Sc. per pound, not many con- 
tract arrangements for ore deliveries existed, and contracts 
expiring have not been renewed. Smelters have been hard hit 
on the lower-priced metal deliveries, by being compelled to 
pay high prices for ore. The close of the month found both ore 
and metal receding, but still remaining abnormally high. 
Zinc-ore bids ranged at the close of business June 30 from $90 
to $115 per ton 60% basis. Buyers also showed less inclina- 
tion to submit offerings, some even admitting instructions 
demanded restriction in buying. 

Lead ore started the month at $52 per ton for 80% metal con- 
tent. Here also sensational developments featured business, 
prices advancing rapidly to $60 per ton. New buyers again 
were responsible for improved offerings, and bidding re- 
vealed inside deals at $70 per "ton. This figure was not long 
maintained, and the end of the month saw lead ore established 
firmly on a base of $60 per ton. Considerable ore of this class 
held close, came to the surface, and deliveries were slightly 
improved, but producers showed little disposition to unload. 
The reserve in the field at the end of June was over 2500 tons. 

Pyrite business was fairly good, when on June 15 the burn- 
ing of the Wilkinson mine equipment, removed the chief pro- 
ducer. The plant will be re-built without delay, production will 
be maintained. Separating-plants securing pyrite as by-pro- 
duct, unloaded freely during the month at an average of $3.75 
per ton f.o.b. 

Carbonate zinc ore producers held for years under the con- 
trol of the New Jersey Zinc Co.. witnessed the most remark- 
able advances of any branch of the industry, the calamine 
base of the Missouri field applying to this commodity. At 
no time has ore of this class changed hands at over $20 per 
ton, but near the end of the month offerings were strong at 
$80 per ton, 40% zinc. The Wisconsin ore is converted into 
zinc oxide, which is mostly used in the manufacture of paint. 
The Picher Lead Co. again violated all injunctions of the 
'fraternity' by breaking into the northern districts for carbon- 
ate ore to be used in the manufacture of spelter. The ore was 
delivered to the smelter at Collinsville. Illinois: under lease 
to the Picher Lead Co. Thousands of tons of mill-feed are be- 
ing piled on the dumps, and the season's clean-up was well 
on all the month. 

Shipments in June were as follows: 

Districts Zinc Lead Pyrite 

Pounds Pounds Pounds 

Benton 9,898,000 64.900 1.465,300 

Galena 4,976,000 162,000 

Hazel Green 4,178,000 60.000 

Cuba City 3,054,000 1,469,440 

Platteville 2,792,000 

Livingston 2,534,000 

Linden 1,230,000 

Dodgeville 632.000 

Shullsburg 616,000 

Highland 576,000 

Mifflin 364,000 ' 

Mineral Point 104,000 

Total 30.954.000 286,900 2,934,740 

MINING and Stimuli, I'KI SS 


Point . 


Kni[.i i • .iiii hem 

I. III. I. II /HI' I'".. 

ttv I' •iralili> 



inghl to U>« produ 
other;- ! .>n account nf ih. market; and to prevent a 

strike among mtnera n« in Ulaaourl wages were raised 15c 

During the week .if .inn,. io, Attornej General Barker, of 

i. Bled Information In tin' itate Supreme Court against 

■ -mi. - alleged to be Interested in the purchase of zinc 

..[■•• in ih..- Ulaaourl districts stating that he had reason to be- 

Itore the] were in an unlawful combination to control prices. 

ah of the companies represented in tin. Wisconsin fleld were 

Cited. The court Is asked to appoint a commissioner to take 
testimony, with the ultimate rtew of Dllng proceedings 
against any or all of the companies the testimony may show 
guilty of the practices charged. 



The estimated production from the Cripple Creek district 
during June, as reported by the mills and smelters, is as 
follow B 


Plant Tons value Total 

Smelters 4,700 $55.00 $258,500 

Golden Cycle Mill 36.000 20.00 720,000 

Portland. Colorado Springs 12,000 19.50 234.000 

Portland. Cripple Creek IS, 250 3.14 57.305 

Stratton's Independence 8,000 3.20 25,600 

Gaylord 1,800 2.50 4,500 

Wild Horse 690 3.50 2,380 

Total SI, 440 $16.00 $1,302,2S5 

During the month five of the local mills were shut down most 
of the time for various reasons. The Kavanaugh. Neville, 
Ajax, Isabella, and Jerry Johnson mills did practically nothing 
during the entire month. 

It is expected that the Golden Cycle Mining Co. will pay 
its regular monthly dividend of 2c. per share on July 10. The 
distribution will be $30,000. 

At a recent meeting of the directors of the Portland company 
it was decided to increase the regular dividend for the current 
quarter of the year from 2 to 3c. per share. This dividend 
will be paid on July 20 to stockholders of record on July 12, 
and will amount to about $90,000. This will bring the total 
dividends paid by the Portland company to a little more than 

[At the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy at the Exposition at 
San Francisco, a model of the Portland company's sampling- 
plant is shown. It is driven by a Vi-hp. Westinghouse motor. 
The Short Line train brings ore to a large bin. The ore-flow 
is then as follows: jaw-crusher, elevator, rolls, trommel, coarse 
from trommel returned to rolls by No. 1 elevator, high elevator 
feeding Vezin sampler, first cut through rolls, three cuts in all, 
excess ore then taken by belt-conveyor to railroad cars. — 

The past week has been a broken one, and generally quiet. 
All of the mines and mills shut down for two days over the 
Fourth and fifth. Numerous reports may be heard about im- 
portant developments being made, however, if one bears in 
mind that "many are called but few are chosen" he will not 
believe all reports about wonderful discoveries. Nothing new 
has developed concerning the new Blue Bird mill. It is gen- 
erally thought, however, that as soon as the preliminary plans 

mpletsd, the opl n the .^mi. will I 

Hi lion "ii Hi., mill Hturted. The d which 

the district sd t"r th<- pas) few s 

favored the working otter ..i old dumps. Oonatderabls n 
u being earned from this source, 

Dieraici Tohnaok, Jumbo I v Dcvclopuents, 

imi )Iim,,iiiim Mi in. mi tan Atlanta. Cohpaicibs. 

Companies and 'Mh district are sending orer 800 

tons of smelting ore daily to the sampler "i the Western Ore 
Purchasing t'o. This comes principally from the Jumbo Bfai 
tension, Atlanta, and Florence mines, and from leases on the 
Red Top and Jumbo claims of the Qoldneld Consolidate! 
Minis Co. The Consolidated mill Ib treating 1070 tons per 
day, The equipment installed for the treatment of tailing, to 
supplement the production from the mines, has not 
started yet, as there has been no lack of ore. Complete tests 


are to be made with oil-flotation and other processes to devise 
a method by which the low-grade, refractory ores of the dis- 
trict can be treated profitably. It is reported that these tests 
will be made at the Consolidated mill. 

J. K. Turner, in charge of the Jumbo Extension mine, esti- 
mates that company's June production at 235S tons shipped to 
smelter, with a gross value, as indicated by control assays, of 
$93,000; freight, sampling and treatment costs $24,000; oper- 
ating expenses $15,000; and net realization $54,000. This 
product was shipped to the sampler in 50 steel ore-cars. 
From January to June production was nominal and insufficient 
to pay costs, as the company was working under an injunction, 
issued by the Federal court at Seattle upon application by the 
minority faction of the Merger Mines Co. directors, and all 
receipts from ore marketed during that period were impound- 
ed in the bank. The company has since been freed of all 
litigation. Production will continue for the present at about 
the same rate as in June, owing to the limited capacity of the 
main Polverde shaft; but with the completion of the Velvet 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 17. 1915 

shaft to the 1017ft. level the output can be easily more than 
doubled. The best ore is exposed in the wide fissure that 
extends within the shale, hut a larger tonnage, of almost 
equally good grade, is now exposed at the shale-latite eon- 
tact, the lattir channel lying above the former, both dipping 
south at about 30°. A drift lately started from the most 
southerly raise. No. 526-A, at a height of over 60 ft. above the 
mi 7-ft. level, has exposed 6 ft. of $65 ore. while another raise 
and drift, at almost the same height show the same character 
of ore on the contact fully 300 ft. to the west. This is within 
approximate of the south end-line of the Jumbo Ex- 

u agios property, and less than 500 ft. from where the Merger 
Mines Co. is seeking the continuation of this orebody on the 
shale-contact, at a depth of 1175 ft. Six new faces in the 
Jumbo Extension mine, all in the newer workings at the 
south and all on the shale-contact, are showing high-grade 
ore. varying from $50 to $250 per ton. Nearly all recent pro- 
duction has resulted from development work, but storing will 
he carried on east of the raises from the lul 7-ft. level, in 
Order to make room for filling with waste. Work is now be- 
ing directed to the western part of the mine, where little 
development has been done, as the limits of the orebody have 
not been defined in this direction. Cross-cuts that were 
driven far to the southwest, in the shale, on the 921 and 1 "U 7-ft. 
levels, and which were long regarded as useless work, will now 
Berve to facilitate the work in this part of the mine. The 
kholders' meeting Of the Jumbo Extension com- 
pany will be held at Phoenix. Arizona, on July 1!). The new- 
hoard of directors will probably be composed of Charles S. 
Bprague, J. K. Turner. Ben Gill. A. I. D'Arcy, and Willard P. 
Ward of Colorado Springs. Mr. Sprague will be chosen presi- 
dent. Mr. Turner gam ral manager, and Mr. Gill secretary and 
treasurer. Mr. D'Arcy will represent the Booth company's 
Stock interest, recently acquired ,n settlement of that com- 
clalms. Mr. Sprague already has more than 

"- 1 ' proxies to control the meeting and all the principal 

holders will give him their support. 
In Merger Mines territory, work is confined to the east 
drift along the shale-contact, at a depth of 117:, ft., and short 
from tl,j s drill, at intervals of 40 ft., to prospect the 
latite hanging wall, as in the Jumbo Extension mine the best 
ore of the contact area is found on this side of the silicious 
mass that lies between the latite and shale. The Jumbo Ex- 
tension orebody appears to extend directly toward the Merger, 
but the latter may be compelled to drive from ion to 200 ft. 
r before finding this ore. The great fissure, in which 
high-grade ore is found in large quantity in the Jumbo Exten- 
sion, also appears to dip into Merger ground and much interest 
will attach to the exploration of this fissure south of the 
Merger boundary and to the conditions that will be revealed at 
the point where this fissure reaches the basic granite, below 
the shale. 

The future of the Atlanta mine must depend, in large 
measure, upon the discovery of a process by which the low- 
grade, base ore of this property can be treated. The main 
cross-cut on the 1750-ft. level was advanced through the vein 
for 107 ft., but not directly across the lode, which is approxi- 
mately mi ft. wide here. The manager. A. I. D'Arcy has 
reported that nearly all the material passed through by this 
cross-cut can be treated profitably with a suitable reduction 
plant on the ground. Smelting ore assaying $30 per ton is 
shipped at the rate of 50 tons daily. There is a considerable 
quantity of this ore available. 

A west cross-cut at 500 ft. in th* Silver Pick recently re- 
vealed the downward extension of the old Phelan lease vein. 
it is 12 ft. wide. The assays, although low, are en- 
ing. A large flow of water was also encountered. 

Several Goldfield men went by auto on July 12 to Silver 
Crown, the old Stiniler centre. 50 miles west of Goldfield. They 
will inspect the mines and return next week. 



The attitude assumed by the British government with re- 
gard to zinc is galling to the mines, and also to the makers 
of munitions in this country. The sanctity of international 
law is apparently of greater moment to the Government than 
the requirements of the Allied armies on the battlefields. 
Zinc concentrate shipped from Australia to Germany just be- 
fore the outbreak of war is held as prize of war in English 
ports. English companies are not allowed to terminate their 
long-time contracts with German buyers, hut must hold their 
production and re-commence delivery at the end of the war. 
In Australia efforts are being made to pass a law through the 
Federal parliament that will permit the mines to re-arrange 
their contracts. Any such easing of the situation would not 
help the Zinc Corporation or the Sulphide Corporation, which 
are both companies operating at Broken Hill, but registered 
under English laws. In some quarters the position does not 
create irritation, for it is held that no alternative method of 
disposing of zinc concentrate can be devised. The sale to 
American smelters is not considered as highly remunerative. 
even at the present level of prices, and the American smelters 
are reported not to be enthusiastic about the complex Austra- 
lian product. As for starting zinc-smelting works in England, 
it is argued that two years would be occupied in building a 
plant, that suitable labor could not be procured, and that the 
money required for capital outlay is not forthcoming. Thus 
a general attitude of nun possumus or 'it-can't-be-done' is 
prevalent. In the meantime the Broken Hill companies are 
doing their best with the prodttction of lead, and the Associ- 
ated Smelters Co. has been formed to operate the Proprietary's 
smelter at Port Pirie. under the joint ownership of the Pro- 
prietary. North, and South companies. Since its formation, 
the Zinc Corporation has taken a share to the extent of £100.- 
000, and the money to purchase this share is to be raised by 
loans against profits. 

The position of the Zinc Corporation deserves mention. On 
the outbreak of war, the finances were greatly inconvenienced 
by the moratorium, which prevented the directors calling in 
the funds that had been lent on short notice, so that the pay- 
ment of the preference dividend had to be postponed, and also 
the payment of the purchase price of the Barrier South con- 
trol. But this stringency has long passed away. The cor- 
poration, however, is feeling the inconvenience of not being 
able to collect a sum of over £15 000 from Aron Hirsch und 
Sohn. of Halberstadt. Germany, for zinc concentrate delivered, 
and an action has been entered in the Australian courts for 
the recovery of this amount. The necessity for such an action 
is intelligible only to those who are harassed by legal absurd- 
ities, national and international. It is presumably devised as 
a means for the eventual annulment of the Hirsch contract. 
In reading the report for the results during 191-1 it is necessary 
to remember that the Corporation was formed 10 years ago 
to treat by flotation methods tailing-heaps containing large 
amounts of zinc, that had been accumulated by various mines 
at Broken Hill, and that in 1911, the position was strengthened 
by the absorption of the mine and plant of the South Blocks 
company, which was formed in the same year as the Zinc Cor- 
poration by the same group for the purpose of working the 
lead-zinc mine at the southern end of the Broken Hill dis- 
trict. The Barrier South company, of which control has re- 
cently been purchased, owns the mine to the south of the 
South Blocks, in earlier days called the South Extended. The 
work done by the Zinc Corporation now consists of mining and 
milling the South Blocks ore and treating the old zinc-tailing 
dumps. An abstract of the results in 1914 appears on pace :n 
of this issue. The revenue from concentrate, etc., was 
£448.992. Total charges were £330,048. Preference shares were 
paid 3s. 6d. (84c), and ordinary, ls.Od. per share. Concentrate 
on hand is valued at £27.222. Investments are worth E226.947. 

Jul* 17 |!M3 

MIMV. and Scientific l*KI SS 



i dents and oomplled From th« local i 


in Alaska Biibnitv is dim oi the most widely distributed <<'■ 
■i ••irriiiK uK mi aooeaeory in iiuui> other on 1 deposits, 
AnUnoo) bearini reins nave been found on Seward penin- 
sula, in the Nome rlvai basin, on uppi r Fish river, and In the 
Kantishna district Bttbnlte was Frequently round In the con- 
oantrate from alluvial mining In the Fairbanks district and 

was later found In veins In many places in the district. A 
stlbnitc vein occurs at Port Wells, Prince WU1IBJH sound. 

All the creeks In the Fairbanks district are the scenes of 
unusual activity. Everybody is satisfied with the outlook. Up 
to the beginning of June the gold output was reported to be 
|300,000 greater than for the season up to that date of 1911. 
This results from earlier sluicing, four weeks in places. 

At Tolovana a ditch is to be dug from Mike Hess creek to 
Livelihood creek. This work will take most of the summer to 
complete. Ten sluice-heads of water will be available In the 


The repaired shaft for the Central hoist at Treadwell was ex- 
pected to be in place by July 10. 

The Alaska-Juneau company will double-track 5500 ft. of its 
tunnel from the mill to the mine, according to P. R. Bradley. 
Grading for the mill is to be done this summer, but the plant 
will not be built until late in 1916. The Marcy ball-mill is to 
be experimented with. There are 300 men employed at pres- 
ent, in charge of J. Richards. 

The Gastineau mill is treating 4000 tons of ore per day. 
Within a month this quantity will be increased to 6000 tons. 

In the hills above the timber line the Alaska Gold-Belt 
company has machine-drills driving an adit, and by July 20 
it expects to enter the ore-zone. This adit should cut ore at 
a depth of over 3000 ft. A lower adit has been started from the 
beach. A large tonnage of ore is calculated should be opened 
by this work. 

Interesting contests were held at Treadwell on July 5. 
Three teams of six men each entered the first-aid display. 
The Mexican team won the prize of $150 with a rating of 
97%; the Bullion followed with 93%; and the Treadwell with 
92% winning $60 and $30 respectively. 

In the fire-hose contest, stringing five lengths of hose from 
a hydrant 230 ft. distant, making connections and getting 
water, was won by the Bullion team in 191 seconds. No other 
team succeeded in getting water under 2S seconds, the time 
limit first trial. In the second run the Cyanide team made it 
in 21 seconds, taking second money. The prizes were $250 for 
first and $100 for second. 



In the first half of 1915 the Oatman district's gold output was 
approximately $1,000,000 from 85,000 tons of ore, reduced by 
60 stamps, and then eyanided. The Tom Reed and Gold Road 
mines were responsible for this yield. The June production was 
$165,000 from 14.000 tons. From January to July the Tom 
Reed returned $520,000 from 26,000 tons. Dividends in that 
period amounted to $272,886, or 30c. per share. 

Seven claims, adjoining the United Western at Oatman, have 
been purchased by Globe and Miami men. A company is to 
be organized under the title of Clarissa Gold Minin; Co. It 

win await further developmenl In the United Western before 



Si\ n 
Near Gillham, Arkansas, oxides and sulphide of antlmon) 
OCCUr in Quart* veins following the bedding plain's of the shales 
and sandstoui s in which they occur. The orebodjea occur in 
lenticular masses. They were first worked in 1S73, and a de- 
sultory production was maintained from about ten mines for 
thirty years thereafter. 


Calaveras COI'XTY 

The old Thorpe mine's new shaft is down t',7 ft. A 5-drill 
motor-driven compressor is being installed. A. H. Summer- 
ville is superintendent. 

Into County 

At the south end of Death Valley is a new district known as 
Silver Lake. Railroad is not far away. While water is scarce, 
it may be obtained from wells of moderate depth. There is 
little vegetation, and plenty of shifting sand. Temperatures 
rise to 130°F. in the shade. In the property of P. H. Ltetzow 
and T. Koerner, high-grade gold ore has been opened, with some 
silver and copper. Country rocks are diorite and granite. 

Kebn County 

A good deal of interest is being taken in the antimony de- 
posits of this county. The San Emidio district contains several 
promising veins. The Kern County Land Co. owns land there. 
Erskine Creek deposits, 50 miles from Caliente, are attracting 
attention. Rich ore is said to have been found on Greenhorn 

Nevaoa County 

It is probable that the Kenosha mine near Grass Valley will 
be re-opened soon. The shaft is down 450 ft. on the incline. 

Financial troubles were the cause of the shut-down. The 

Goodwin and Nicholls drift-gravel claims of the You Bet com- 
pany have been leased to a syndicate of Chinamen, who will 
employ 75 men. San Francisco Chinamen are said to be 
largely interested. 

Placer County 

Development at the Herman mine near Westville has been 
very encouraging of late, notably on the Cavins vein. Trench- 
ing uncovered this orebody for S00 ft. where it was from 4 to 
13 ft. wide. Four feet on the foot-wall assays from $2 to $12 
per ton. The drainage adit is expected to cut the vein. A 30- 
stamp mill and other machinery is ready for work. S. H. 
Brockunier is in charge. 

Plumas County 

Several claims in the Soda Creek district are developing into 
profitable mines. At the Compton and McBeth Monitor mine 
a 6-ft. vein has been opened. A Straub 10-stamp mill is re- 
ported to recover $10 per ton. More stamps will be erected. 
Shasta County 

The old Greenhorn mine is shipping eight tons of very rich 
copper ore per day to Keswick. Some of it contains 60% metal. 
Haulage costs $6 per ton. High-grade streaks run through 
the main shoot, which is of peculiar formation. 
Sierra County 

The Downieville-Alleghany-Forest district is very active. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 17. 1915 

both prospecting and mining. Fifty men are employed at the 
Gold Bluff-Oxford mine in charge of G. Snyder. The 20-stamp 
mill Is working. The Gold Point is being placed in condition 
for a larger output. Ten stamps are ready. Twenty stamps 
are crushing at the Monarch-Cleveland mines. D. McGonigal 
is manager. Shaft-sinking is progressing well at the Tightner. 
About 100 men are employed. 

In three weeks' time the new 15-stamp mill at the Plumbago 

mine was erected. R. L. Hathaway was the contractor. At 

the South Fork mine it is thought that the Tightner vein has 
been cut. 

Siskiyou County 

At the old Mt. Vernon mine on Cherry creek, J. S. Dobyns 
has opened a shoot for 300 ft., assaying from $5 to $18 per ton. 
A 500-ft. cross-cut adit is to driven. Five stamps are at 

work. It is reported that T. George and sons, and R. Brown 

have sold their placer mine for about $20,000. It is situated 
on the east fork of the Salmon river. 

Tuolumne County 

(Special Correspondence) — At the Santa Ysabel mine, two 
miles south of Jamestown, the main shaft is being steadily un- 
watered. Work has been started at 400 ft. to develop the 
Mascot vein. Ore in this vein above 250 ft. will keep five 
stamps busy. Lessees in the Knox and Boyle mine are break- 
ing a full face of ore in the south drift. The entire stope is 
in ore on the 700-ft. level, which is being broken with two 
machines working two shifts. Ten stamps are crushing this 
ore. It is the intention to keep the mill in operation continu- 
ously. The west vein will be developed from the 800-ft. level 
west from the main shaft, where there Is over 50,000 tons of 
good grade ore available. Upon the development of this body 
the capacity of the mill should be maintained with 40 stamps 
in operation. 

Jamestown, June 28. 

A drilling contest was held at Sonora on July 4. It re- 
sulted as follows: Peyton and Dynon. 365 in.; Pedro and 
Marcus. 36, 1 ;,: Lumsden Bros., 3S-f„; Jacovovich and Vucaso- 
vich. 33: and Page and Bartlett, 24} inches. 


The output of Colorado mines during 1914, according to 
figures compiled by Charles W. Henderson, of the U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey, was $19,883,105 in gold, 8,796,065 oz. silver, 
74,211,898 lb. lead, 6,639,173 lb. copper, and 96,774,954 lb. zinc 
(in terms of spelter and zinc in zinc oxide), with a total value 
of $33,460,126, compared with $18,146,916 gold, 9.325,255 oz. 
silver, 87,897,773 lb. lead, 7,227,826 lb. copper, and 119,346,429 
lb. zinc, with a total value of $35,450,585 in 1913. This shows 
an increase of $1,736,1S9 gold, and decreases of 529,190 oz. 
silver, 13,685,875 lb. lead, 588,653 lb. copper, and 22.571,465 lb. 
zinc. In addition to the decrease in quantities of silver and 
the base metals, the falling off in average value for these 
metals caused a decrease in value of $768,230 silver. $973,23S 
lead, and $1,747,877 zinc. 

There was a total of 2,677,526 tons of ore treated. The larg- 
est tonnages were in the following counties: Teller, 939,423: 
Lake, 547,463; San Miguel, 495.942; Pitkin, 118,000; San 
Juan, 117,988; Ouray, 105,560; and Clear Creek, 101,366 tons. 
Cripple Creek produced 60% of the total gold yield, con- 
tributing $11,996,116. The output to date is $258,786,653. 
Lake County (Leapville) 

At 470 ft. in the Penrose shaft of the Down Town com- 
pany, a station is to be cut for two electric pumps. The 
water in the mine will not be lowered further until this work 

is finished. The zinc smelter is producing five tons of oxide 

daily, averaging over 75 r c zinc. Thirty tons of $20 gold ore 

per day is again being extracted from the Big Four on 

Breece hill. The Jacketts lease at Ibex No. 1 is shipping 100 

tons of 40% carbonate ore monthly. In the Birdseye district, 

G. Scheunemann and others are driving a 200-ft. adit at the 

Key mine. Other work has been done, and good results are 

expected. Installation of electric motors at the Fortune 

mine in Big Evans gulch is completed. The Mt. Champion 

mine is producing a good tonnage of rich gold ore. Three to 

four teams are hauling it. The Ponsardin lessees so far 

have not arranged for the sale of their zinc sulphide recently 

discovered. Extensive development continues at the St. 

Louis-Colorado* property at Lackawanna. From the Lacka- 
wanna Belle, near by, rich gold ore is being shipped. 
San Juan County 
Shipments of ore and concentrate from the Silverton dis- 




trict in June totaled 109 cars. Of this, the Gold King dis- 
patched 42: Iowa Tiger, 24; and Sunnyside, 22. The Amer- 
ican Oil Flotation Co. completed installing its plant at the 

Silver Lake mill at the end of June. Snow is melting fast 

at the higher points, and prospectors will be able to start 
work soon, especially in the Gold Belt area. 
San Miguel County 
In the Colorado School of Mines Magazine for July, A. F. 

.lull 17. 

MINING «nd Scentihc PRFSS 

106 describee the milling ,,r vanadium orr »t Uu Prtmos 
nit in Vanadium. Th. ini From 1 m 

1% vanadium kii.- i..ii wagons bring the on two miles fran 
the mlii.- After mlting »iili mill ami Iron sulphide, I 
to n Jawbreaker, ond dried, II Is Ndumd 10 :n» nu*h In n Lull 
niiii. UeOongal and Wedge tun th,. eruahed mix 

turn. The vanadium Is coDTerted Into sodium feu 
soluble in water. The routed material ,, oonveyora, 

Bind witli a weak solution of sodium vanadate, alld run 
Into 5 by 30-ft. rata, holding 1"" The aba 

ifii. mad with hoi water Irani the tarnae Aitei 

the an Union l» cooled, it la transferred u> three BO-ton 
Hating vats, precipitation being by means of Iron sulphate. 
The prodpita In Sell) preeaea, the mad resulting 

lu'im; dried In a Rugglea-Coles machine. The lacked product la 
th.'n shipped to a refinery In Pennsylvania. 


Am I'm s n 

Boise people, with J. W. Cox, own the Red Ledge copper 
mine on Deep creek. It is 16 miles from the terminus of the 
Homestead branch of the Oregon Short Line. An adit lias 
been driven t"n ft. in ore. A great l.imth averaged VH metal. 
According to C. T. Barrlnger. the property can be best worked 
by steam-shovels. 

Lemhi County 

About 2000 tons of ore was sold during June by the Pitts- 
burg-Idaho mine at Gilmore. The ore averaged 30% lead, 10 
to 14 oz. silver, and a little gold. 

Shoshone Cot nty (Coedb h'Ai.ene) 

About 5000 men are now employed in the Coeur d'Alene 
mines and mills. On July 20 the Success company will dis- 
tribute 4c. per share, equal to $60,000. Liquid assets total 
|264,600. Shipments in June were $168,803 zinc concentrate. 

and $12,066 lead concentrate. At the old Keating mine 

near Wardner, the East Caledonia company has umvatered 
the 400-ft. shaft. Extensive development is to follow. The 
property is well equipped. The Stewart dividend is 25c, in- 
stead of 30c. as given in the Press of July 10. 

A drilling contest was held at Wallace on July 4. with the 
following results: Four teams were entered for the $500 
prize. Kinsella and Leaf, from the Tamarack & Custer mine, 
won the first prize of $350, by drilling 341.J. in. in hard gran- 
ite; Rossman and Haff. with 33 T i in. to their credit, took 
second money: St. Germain and Morrison, the Osburn drill- 
ers, were third with 33 ft in.; Stokes Bros, of Moon creek, 
drilled 32ft in. Entrance requirements demanded a residence 
in the district, thus insuring local men for the contest. In the 
'mucking' contest. Campbell and Jones captured first money, 
eight teams competing. Their time was 1 minute and 10 
seconds. Anitila and Jantii stood second with 1 minute and 
25 seconds. 


Houghton County (The Cokpeb Country ) 
Copper output of the principal mines in June is estimated as 
Mine Pounds Mine Pounds 

Calumet & Hecla... 7,600,000 Superior 356,000 

Tamarack 635,000 Hancock 145,000 

Osceola 1,933.000 Isle Royale 780,000 

Ahmeek 2,629,000 La Salle 13,000 

Wolverine 715.000 Winona 250,010 

Mohawk 1,317,000 White Pine 730,000 

Franklin 256,000 Quincy 2,057,000 

Centennial 276,000 Copper Range 5.150,000 

Allouez 850.000 Victoria 240,000 

Mass 515,000 

The White Pine mill is treating about 800 tons of ore daily, 
mostly from No. 3 shaft. The stock pile has been removed. 

iglng i" ii i ton i 

mine u prodoi ihk nearlj 3600 tons of or.' dally. Ti 

jAaraa Cocwti 
tatemenl i>. an issm-ii by operators In connection with 
the minora' »i r I k.- At the meeting held la 

5831 iii.n were In attendance, Thej claim 

thin the strike was started bj new n In the district 

Intimidated old hands. The principal mines were 
machine-men $i per B-hr, shin al the time »f the atrll 

higher than In 1914. TI peratora win resume work when 

they are sat isii. <i thai there will i Interference They 

will mu recognise any union. The) are willing in pay wagea 
baa d on the price of ore. 

The strike is over, and nearly nil miners have returned to 
work. They have agreed to accept the wnges paid al the 
beginning of the strike. 

Owing in the strike two weeks ago the output of tin. .Mis- 
soui'l-Kansas-Oklahoina region «as ::iiiin tuns l.-ss last weak. 
The range of prices for sine-blende was from 686 to $i 1 <> pa* 
ton. The output was as follows: blende, 4395 tons averaging 
$101.66; calamine, 94 tons at $58.51; and lead ore. 1168 tons 
at $59.87 per ton. The total value was $519,100. 

At I.awton in Kansas, the new 300-ton mill of the Green- 
field & Lockwood Co. was blown down on June 30 


Jefferson County 

The adit of the Boston & Montana Development Co. hi Elk- 

horn is in 2000 ft. Cross-cutting has been started for the 

Central and Idanha veins. The adit will lie driven 1000 ft. 

farther later on. 

Lewis ami Clark County 
The famous Drum Lummon property is again the subject 
of litigation. This time stockholders of the St. Louis Mining 
& Milling Co., owners of the Drum Lummon. are seeking to 
have a receiver appointed to handle the affairs of the com- 
pany until other litigation in which the company is involved 
has been settled. 

Churi'iiill Count* 
Ninety miles west of Fallon is the Bernice district, from 
whence Black and Solomon of San Francisco have arranged to 
haul 100 to 150 tons of antimony ore per month to Fallon, and 
then by rail to San Francisco. The ore is said to be high 
grade and free from impurities. The Chapman Smelting Co. 
has received several lots of it. County 

At San Francisco on July 8 a final settlement was made 
regarding the Merger Mines Co. The directorate will be re- 
organized so as to give all interests representation. At 600 

ft. in the Yellow Tiger, it is thought that a winze has been 

found in which rich ore was opened years ago. At the 

Atlanta, the dump at the Merger shaft is growing steadily. 
Ore worth $42.90 per ton was cut last week in incline raise 
1011-A on the vein above 1750 ft. in the Union Jack claim. 
At 1660 ft. the drift is in 150 ft., showing quartz for the full 

width. In June the Florence mine shipped 600 tons of $20 

ore. At the Jumbo Extension six faces are yielding 100 tons 

of ore per day. The mine continues to develop well. The 
miners' change-house has been fitted with showers. A con- 
nection has been made with the Goldfield Consolidated com- 
pany's fire system. 

At the Fourth of July celebration at Goldfield the following 
are the results of the drilling contest: doubles won by Collins 
and Lindquist, 40% in., prize $500; second, Hughes and Jelik, 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 17, 1915 

third, Scbram and Olson, 38% in.. $26 In 
merchandise. Singles, first. Llndquist, 23% in., $250; second. 
Brooks. 19| In., $100; third. Malll, 18 : in.. $12.50, in mer- 

Hi Mm ii in Col my 
At ahout 125 ft. from the Nivalin Packard north end line, 
the Packard North Extension has cut 9 ft. of good ore. It is 
supposed to be an extension of the former's vein. 

At Wlllard, the Faucctt-Campbell lessees at the Sheepherder 

claim have Bhlpped 25 tons of ore to smelters. Two veins 

'•en cut in the Honey Bee. This property has sent out 

ars to date. Results are very satisfactory. Ore has 

111 in the Finland No. 2 adjoining. An adit is in 150 ft. 

Two to seven feet of $30 ore has been cut in an upper 

adit of the Borland-Hunter lease. Lessees at the Finland 

have opened rich ore. At the Enterprise, 1000 ft. from the 

Henry Bee.'the adit is in 75 ft. A carload of ore is at the mill. 
Numerous other lessees are meeting with encouraging re- 

Lincoln Coimy 

It is stated that shipments of tungsten ore are being made 
from the Silver Comet mine in the Pioche district. Boston 
people are interested. 


(Special Correspondence.) — The Round Mountain Mining 
Co. Is hydraulieking with two monitors, washing from 1200 
to 1500 cu. yd. of gravel daily. Tests have shown a minimum 
gold content of $1 gold per yard. Operating costs are approxi- 
mately 30c. Net earnings are estimated by the management 
at from $33,000 to $39,000 per month, including profits from 
quartz-mining operations. Sluicing can be conducted during 
five or six months of each year, after which the reduced water 
supply will cut down production by 25 to 50';. The deposit 
was briefly described in the PBESS of June 19. Present earn- 
ings are at the rate of 2'_.c. per share per month. The com- 
pany has paid dividends aggregating $363,000. and it is an- 
nounced that distributions will be resumed by the end of this 

Round Mountain, July 10. 

Owing to the holidays the Tonopah district produced only 

S264 tons of ore worth $174,712 during the past week. A 

machine-shop is to be erected at the Jim Butler mine, where 

developments continue to be excellent. Lessees at 535 ft. in 

I In- Midway will probably produce a good deal of ore before 

long. A new trial in the Jim Butler-West End case was 

denied last week by Judge Averill. 



For some time past tungsten ore has been sacked at the 
"Wasp No. 2 mine, a small vein being worked during the ex- 
traction of the low-grade gold ore. Several shipments have 
been made, the last two carloads on July 3 being valued at 
over $300 per ton. More attention is to be paid to mining 
this valuable mineral. Other properties in the district are 
said to contain similar ore. 


Beavee County 

During the second half of June the Moscow company shipped 
14 cars of lead-silver ore. Eight of these netted $1600 per 
car. The Cullen shaft is to be sunk 300 ft. deeper. A double- 
drum electric hoist is to be ordered. About 60 men are em- 
ployed iii'in 100 to 117." ft. depth. ' The mine, in charge of 
G. S. Wilkin, is in good condition. 

Garfield County 

On Coyote creek stibnite and oxidation products occur in flat 
lying deposits in sandstone and conglomerate. The ore is 

found in lenses remarkably free from gangue; these have 
been worked at irregular intervals since 1S80. In 1906 the 
Utah Antimony Co. erected a concentrator and maintained a 
fair production for a few years thereafter. 
Salt Lakk COUNTY 

At Midvale the 0. S.' Smelting, Refining & Mining Co. is 
enlarging its mill. The present concentrators and Huff electro- 
static plant can treat 350 tons per day. This will he increased 
to 600 tons. About $75,000 is being spent in improvements. 
The copper furnaces are still idle, having been so for eight 

The Bingham & Tooele Mining Co. has resumed driving its 
adit. It will be 2000 ft. long, where it will be at a vertical 
depth of over 1500 feet. 

Summit Cointy 

Park City mines last week shipped a total of 2836 tons of 

ore. The holdings of the Grasselli Chemical Co. at Park 

City have been bonded to C. C. Broadwater of the Merrill 
Metallurgical Co. of San Francisco. A large tailing dump is 
to be treated by the lessees. 

Pierce County 

Owing to the increased deliveries of copper ore from Alaska, 
the A. S. & R. Co. contemplates enlarging its smelter at 

Stevens County 

Last week the Spokane Chamber of Commerce-Mining Men's 
Club visited the Chewelah district. At the United Copper mine 
it was seen that the ore-shoot had been opened for 1225 ft., 
where it is from 2 to 20 ft. wide. Two raises have connected 
the 600 and 1000-ft. levels. Sinking to 2000 ft. will be started 
in September. The oil-flotation process at the mill is recover- 
ing 90'/ c of the metal-content, and 95% is expected later. By 
August 1 the plant will treat 300 tons of ore per day. Gener- 
ally the property is in excellent order. 


The correlation and geological structure of the Alberta oil- 
fields is discussed by D. B. Dowling in Bulletin 102 of the 
A. I. M. E. The principal difficulty experienced in correlation 


was in connection with the measures known as the Montana 
group. In Dakota and Manitoba this consists of a series of 
shales of marine origin. In the eastern Montana section two 
sandstone members appear, leaving a shale member at the top, 
and another near the bottom. In the section in western Mar- 

Julv IT V>\ i 

MINING and Scirnlilic 1'KI .s> 


tana the lower aha Pound, and th« upper on* li n duced 

In thuknr.- ad BFeeteru sections bavs bean cot 

related i ibam to tha international houndm 

niaktn. Ian bj means of tha lot nmtlons on the Cana- 

dian Mil' I h. Dakota sands mid Colorado shales ui. di 
d Including theli Qreea hills 

Structure mi,) development of the reiclon la alao discuss, d 

Baman Coi i uai \ 

Tha smelting plan) ol tha Hntinh Columbia Copper Co. al 
rlbad in Bulletin 101 ol the A. I. M B. up to 

Ihraah of war. Il »., il I > MiielUiii; In ono r.i 

ii., ami two .M by 160 iii. blast-furnaces the lowest grade 
copper on of nil plants in America, in order to do so. it had 
10 inn at ran high efficiency, which neeaasarlly required a 
large tonnage pit equare tool or hearth ana, together with 
tin- minimum amount of iat>or and othei costs. The furnaces 
■melted dall] 1280 tone of or.- (6.61 ion- per sq. ft. of hearth 

containing . r. .it a smelting coal of 11.18 per 

ton. The entire plant required ISO nun to oiierate it ami keep 
up repairs, showing a labor efficiency of about 17..", tons per 
man |ier day. With Illustration and plans the paper covers 20 

Tin' Standard Bllver-Leed company's oew contract with the 
Trail smelter makes a reduction of $1,333 per ton in the treat- 
meat charge and receives .">■ _c. per pound for lead, against 4c. 
under the former agreement. The total freight and treatment 
charges an $•> per ton. 

The Fisher Maiden zinc-lead-silver mine, near the Standard, 
has been leased to the I.ippert Investment Company. 

The Quatsino Copper Co.. operating on Vancouver island, has 
acquired under bond some more property for $100,000. The 
company is spending up to $10,000 per month In development 
of its claims. A railway will be constructed from the mines to 
June landing on Quatsino bay. 


During the first quarter of 1915 the Mclntyre mine yielded 
gold worth $177,261, from 23.145 tons of ore, an average of 
$7.57 per ton. Costs were $5.02 per ton. and profits were $59,- 
182. The average value is $1.43 lower than in 1914. when 62,209 
tons was treated with a profit of $15S.74S. The second quarter 
should show a better result than the first. Development con- 
tinues from No. 4 and 5 shafts. Sinking is still under way. 

The report of the Buffalo Mines Co. covers the year ended 
April 30, 1915. The manager. T. R. Jones, stated that devel- 
opment amounted to 2415 ft., and 40,363 sq. ft. of stoping. 
There was broken 45.237 tons, of which 39,455 tons were hoist- 
ed. Reserves of mill ore provided 12.212 tons. Ore reserves 
are estimated at 16,097 tons broken, and 26.000 tons in place. 
The ore contains about 20 oz. per ton. The mill treated 51,667 
tons, averaging 19.5 oz. per ton. Including sales of silver and 
metal on hand (125.000 oz.) the output was 822,793 oz. The in- 
come was $372,260, and profit $79,690. No dividend has been 
paid since July 1914; the total to date is $2,807,000. 



A flotation plant is to be installed at the Cananea Consoli- 
dated mill by David Cole of the Arizona Copper Co. This will 
reduce losses in the tailing. When the Nacozari railway re- 
sumes, the Nacozari Consolidated company will start ship- 
ments of zinc-lead-copper-silver-gold concentrate. This will 
probably go to El Paso, according to the general manager. 
J. G. Alexander. 


W, il win, is al Unite. 

in mi i, .Inn Is In Montana. 

s, oi i Ti kmh is at Petrograd. 
w. it. Winston has gona t" Denver, 
William hum, in has returned to Chile. 
iiow.Mih n. smmm la al Oatman, Artaona 
i. T. Mm i imv is hen from cripple Creek. 
.1. W. HALCOLM80N is hen from Kansas city. 
ii h. Winn is expected hen tram New York. 
1 \ Demand has arrived here from Mexico. 
Howlaud Bancbofi is at the Coplej Plaaa hotel. Boston. 

STEPHEN litiii ii is al the Kennecotl copper mine. Alaska. 
RxNSBKLAKB II Ton is in charge of a mine at Carson Hill. 

E. S. M< Ci any has returned from San Bernardino to Angels. 

H. C. HOOVES and M. K. BhaLXB have returned to London 
from Belgium. 

W. .1. LOSING is making a visit of inspection to the Plymouth 
mine. California. 

BKiiXAKn M. Barvcii, of New York, has been visiting the 
Utah copper mines. 

H. C. Goodrich, chief engineer to the Utah Copper Co., is on 
a holiday at Los Angeles. 

.1 Parke Channikg, who has been in attendance at the flo- 
tation suit, has gone to Montana. 

Edwin C. Holden, professor of mining in the University of 
Wisconsin, has been visiting the Exposition. 

Bert Linceforii, for eight years superintendent of the Tom 
Reed mine, at Oatman, Arizona, has resigned. 

F. R. Lynch succeeds W. L. Honnold as local manager for 
the Consolidated Mines Selection Co. at Johannesburg. 

W. L. WoTiiERsroox. mechanical engineer to the Canadian 
Mining & Exploration Co.. has been visiting the copper mines 
of the Southwest. 

W. L. Honnold left Johannesburg on May 27, having re- 
signed numerous important appointments previous to his re- 
turn to the United States, after 13 years of honorable and 
profitable sojourn in South Africa. At the meeting of the 
Brakpan. Springs, and Transvaal Coal Trust companies he re- 
ceived a cordial valedictory. As consulting engineer, and sub- 
sequently managing director and chairman, he is given credit 
for the success of these important mining enterprises. Mr. 
Honnold has been on the Rand 13 years; he is a graduate of 
the Michigan College of Mines. We venture to add that Mr. 
Honnold's departure was the cause of added regret because it 
involved that of his capable and charming wife. 

Schools and Societies 

The Calendar of the University of Western Australia, at 
Perth, for 1915 consists of 361 pages. This institution is one 
of the newest universities, commencing actual work in 1913. 
There are eight professors, four lecturers, and four assistant 
lecturers. The third term begins on August 30. Full instruc- 
tion is given regarding courses, examinations, and degrees. 

The University of Pittsborg has issued its announcement 
series for the School of Mines for 1915-1916. The first division 
of the semester commences on September 27. The bulletin 
describes the equipment, admission, courses, degrees, and 

The A. I. M. E. meets at San Francisco on September 16, 17. 
and IS. There will be excursions to oilfields, dredging, deep 
mining, and hydro-electric plants. Papers accepted for presen- 
tation include five on mining, one on mining law, six on geol- 
ogy, three on milling, four on copper, eleven on gold and 
silver, four on lead, five on petroleum and gas and four on 
iron and steel, and four miscellaneous. A joint session will 
be held with the American Electro-Chemical society. A 
branch of the A. I. M. E. has been organized at Bisbee, 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Julv 17. 1915 


Weekly Summary of Metal Prices and Notes on the Markets. 

Metal Prices 

San Francisco, July 15. 

Antimony 36 — 35^ 

'lytic copper 20 V4 — 2091 

Fig lead 6.00— 6.95 

Quleksilv . ir i per flask) $95 

22 —22% 

Tin -11 — 4214 

zinc-dust. 100-lJg sea S! 

(By wir..- from New York.) 
N"K\v vniiK July 16. — The oopper market is lifeless; lead is 
very uncertal Is quiet with freer offerings. 

i,i olyflc in New York, In cents per pound. 




B i:> :." 

n Sunday 

u> 19.60 

13 19 50 

u 19.60 

Average week ending 

: 18.67 

9 19.89 

" 16 20.12 

•■ 23 - 

•• 30 20.00 

Julv 7 19.75 

■■ ii i •.'.:>" 


Jan 14.21 

Feb 14.40 

Men 14.11 

Apr 14.19 



Monthly averages. 


l .: ., I 



Julv 13.26 

Aug I 


Oct 11.10 

Nov 11.75 

Dec 12.75 


Exports during the week ended June 26 totaled 7.171.707 lb.. 
worth 11,8.94,986. Of this. England took 8,868,860; Prance, 

u. 672.C and Holland, 110,499 lb. Empo 

all kinds amounted to 5,666.831 lb., valued at 1797,168. Of this, 

Ir Chile, 1,781,212 from Japan, and 1,1 

from Peru. 

Stocks in England and Frs n Tune 16 were 26,674 tons. 

ii, , , •■. as also afloat from Chile to Europe S( ■ 

tons from Australia. 

.pper mines are now producing at the rate of 

324,000, lb. per year. ne. greater than In 1912, B normal year. 

In a few weeks the output will he at the rate of 360,000.000 


Below me given the average New York quotations, in cents 

per ounce, Of line silver. 



9 17.02 


ii Sunday 

12 17.62 

13 17.87 


rage week ending 

June 2 49.40 


" 16 II'. Ill 

'• 23 1S.K7 

" 30 18.40 

July 7 IV 10 

II 47.56 


.Inn. 57.58 




May 58.21 

i une 56.43 

Monthly averages 


50 Hi 


July 54.90 



Oct 61.12 

Nov 49.12 

I 49.27 


Silver quotations during the past week are self-explanatory 
On July 1" about 500.000 OS left San Francisco for China. The 

Niplssing itt Cobalt last week Bhlpped 249,559 oz. to London via 

New York Exports from London I" June 23 of 1915 and 1911 

were wortli (2,619,000 and E8, 916, 000 respectively, about 13,000.- 

000 OZ. less Sleeks in London total about 17.000.000 OZ. Advice 

from London dated June 22 states that offerings "Were on a 

.t the support, mainly from India, was 

limited. The rainy season "I" I I':. . > o:. M v. Later rains are 

of far more importance to the in.r m crops, BO the price of sil- 
ver has not i.e. -ii affected yet. 


The primary market tor qulckBllver Is San Francisco, Call- 
largest producer. The price Is fixed In the 
market, and. as quoted weekly in this column, is that at 
which moderate q .- sold. Buyers by the carload can 

obtain a slight reduction, and those wanting but a flask 

..i two must expect to pay a slightly higher price. Average 
weekly and monthly quotations, In dollars per flask of 75 lb., 
en below : 

Week ending I June 30 95 ... 

90.00 July 7 96.00 

■' 23 95.00 | " 14 96.00 

Monthly averages. 

1914. 1915. 

:i;*.jo .i ... 

39.00 60 00 

Men 39.00 78.00 

Apr 38.90 77.50 

May 39.00 76 00 

June 38 60 90.00 


July 37.50 

Aug SO. 00 

Sepl 7>;.2:. 

Oct 53.00 

Nov 5! 




Lead is quoted in cents per pound or dollars per hundred 
pounds, New Y'ork delivery. 

July S 

', ; 5 


week end 




" 16 

" 23, 

" 30 

July 7 


1 1 Sunday 



. . . 5.70 


. . . 5.65 







. 3.90 

3. S3 

r. 7:. 

" 14 












According to a United States commerce association at Berlin, 
lead In Germany early in June was 5.83c. per pound. The 
monthly output was about 13,000 tons. 

Zinc is quoted as spelter, standard Western brands. New Y'ork 
delivery. In cents per pound. 


8 22. SI) 

9 22.50 

10 22,25 

i i Sunday 

12 22.00 

13 22.0.1 

14 22.IUI 

Average week ending 

June 2 22.1a 

9 26.17 

" 16 22.83 

" 23 18.71 

" 30 20.58 

July 7 

II 22.26 





Inn- 4.84 

. 5.14 
. 5.22 
. 5.12 

Monthly averages. 



2 2.21. 








. 4.75 

. 4 45 

. 5.16 

, 1.7:. 

. :..iii 

. 5 in 


Prices In New Y'ork. in cents per pound. 
Monthly averages. 

1914. 1915. 

37.85 34.40 

39.76 37.23 

38.10 48.76 

36.10 48.25 

Jay 33.29 39.28 

June 30.72 40.26 



July 31.60 

Aug 50.20 

Sept 33.10 

Oct 30.40 

Nov 33.51 

Dec 33.60 

According t" L. Vogelstein & Co.. the tin position at June 30 
was just 100 tons different to that of the same date of 1914, 
namely, ir.,1'27 and 16.1127 tons supply, although there was an 
alteration in holdings as follows: 

Country. 1915. 1914. 

London 6.136 10,737 

Holland 62 1,188 

United States 9.729 4.1»2 

15,927 16,027 

i 'f the totals. 11.166 and 7251 tons, respectively, was afloat. 
This change shows the magnitude of the American Interest in 
tin supplies, the War resulting in shipments direct to home 
ports Instead of via London. On the whole, considering what 
the market has been through, the situation must be regarded as 


The market has weakened a little under the influence of 

slightly heavier arrivals, but the spot price still ranges from 

15 to 36.75c. Otherwise no feature of interest is observed. 

A 1,1 11IMII 

This market is strong at 32 to 33c. on new business. 

.1 >it v 17 I'M i 

MINING ami .Sornlifii l'Kl SS 


Eastern Metal Market 

All of ihr metals, with U n of »in-ltcr. I. 

• lull and unlnlen .1 lino* Hi'- lam 

amount o( buying; but there wai 
enough ni .i iteady, quiet waj to maintain quotations. Re 

I ut lower prices, bat despite 

the concessions consumers nave been almost Inactive. Lead 

id lis ope and downs, bnl most .if the cheap lead iu» 

iken up by dealer*, sonic of whom predict 8c lead In the 

mure. Tin 1ms been dull throughout the week: con 

snmsrs are well supplied, the la ils In sight have 

i. .1 the market. Antlmonj la a trifle weaker, but prices 

arc nevertheless well-sustained. AJumlnnm is strong. 

The slid Industry continues to make Mc tains, reports from 

every direction being optimistic. Another large gain In pig 

Iron production was shown In June. In 30 days the Output was 

.7 yross tons, or T9.3G1 tons per <lay, a gain of 6346 

tons dally over Hay, Of the Increase, Bteel-works turnacea 

contributed nearly 1500 ions. The month brought 12 additional 
furnaces Into blast. The War business Is steadily gaining 
greater headway. The American Can Co. is the latest great 
corporation to consider entering contracts for supplying muni- 
tions of war. The total number of companies now engaged in 
that work in the United States exceeds 100. The number 
supplying miscellaneous supplies to the warring countries is 
many times greater. It Is interesting to note that some of the 
shell contracts now offered have three years for completion. 
War business with Italy is now in prospect. A commission 
from that country is now In the I'nited States. 

Sales have been few and small, and the entire attitude of 
the market has been one of waiting. Naturally, under such con- 
ditions, prices have softened. The producing interests continue 
to quote around 20c, full terms, for electrolytic, but second- 
hands have offered and sold copper as low as 19.50c. cash, 
New York. The London market has been weak and irregular 
for some days, with especially sharp declines in standard or 
paper' copper. Between spot standard and electrolytic there is 
a difference of £15 17s.6d. Yesterday there were reports that 
a few round lots had been purchased by France on approxi- 
mately the basis of 19.87%c. cash. New Y'ork, but if such sales 
were made they are yet to be verified. The consumption for 
purposes of war continues heavy and must become heavier as 
the output of munitions increases. The consumption of 
metal in the arts of peace is far from satisfactory, though 
some improvement has been shown in this direction of late. 
High-grade Lake is quoted at 22.50c, with less desirable grades 
quoted down to 20c. Exports July 1 to 10 total 3977 tons. 

A steady business has been done in spelter, both in nearby 
deliveries and in positions running into 1916, and this fact 
together with the difficulty in finding prompt metal has sus- 
tained quotations and within the last day or two caused them 
to strengthen. On July 7.. for instance, sales were made at 
22.50 to 23c In some ways the present high price is hurting 
business at large. There are the galvanized-sheet mills which 
have suspended operations pending a return of spelter prices 
to more normal levels. Not only is the situation bad for mill 
labor, but there are cases where the mills have held up cer- 
tain contracts for their needs until they can resume business. 
Then again, with galvanized sheets at a high figure their use 
is minimized and the jobbers suffer a falling off in their trade. 
Many complaints are heard. Brass-mill spelter is quoted at 
about 24c for August delivery, and 25c for last quarter. 
Very choice brands are practically out of the market. Some 
zinc concentrate produced from ore mined in the northern 

in""! of the -. a \..ii, is now being shipped i > Bl 

a um Thi have noi . 

na. In the Aral I this month exports amounted 

ah easier trend bus developed In thi pasi two or three days 
ami. wbii.- the a s a- i; Co baa held to Its quotai 

Nea York, other tellers have offered c lei to i"i 

points. Prior to ibis developmenl the market bad gained In 
strength, and the re-sale bus which bud made prices so ir- 
regular were bought up. H is significant that much ol the 
buying was on the pan or dealers. Export Bales are I 
by the fact that the London price is below New vmi, parity. 
There are those In the trade who predict 6c bad before very 

long. Exports up to July in were 842 ti 
The course of quotations for spot Straits has been almost 
steadily downward. It was quoted July 8 at 38.50c. and then 
were lots to be had ai a still smaller figure. The demand has 
been light and almost entirely for small lots of spot. The 
fact is that consumers are well supplied under the contracts 
they entered some weeks ago. The lack of demand and con- 
sequent pressure to sell brought about the decline referred to. 
A feature of the situation is the large quantity afloat, 7160 
tons. The arrivals this month aggregate 950 tons. 

Holdings of Guggenheim Exploration 

As the Guggenheim Exploration Co. had nearly $12,000,000 
surplus, a large special distribution was expected. So far, how- 
ever, no announcement has been made. It was rumored that 
the company had been liquidating some of its holdings of 
copper shares with intention of distributing the proceeds 
among stockholders. It is authoritatively stated that not a 
share of any of Its holdings has been sold. The company's 
most valuable asset is its 404,504 shares of Utah Copper. 
Market value of this stock on July 2 was approximately $27.- 
500.000. or more than $2,000,000 above the value of all other 
stocks held by the Guggenheim company. Yukon Gold shares 
stand next in value on account of the large holdings, which 
exceed 2.S42.000 shares. 

A tabulation of the company's assets made a few weeks back, 
when the securities market was higher, gave a book-value to 
Guggenheim shares of $78.90. On the basis of the July 2 
market quotations the book-value is lowered to approximately 
$77.70, the market prices being put at round figures for con- 
venience of calculation. Roughly the distributable value of 
assets has declined $1,000,000 by the stock market's recession, 
the value now being $04,627,479 for the S31.732 shares of 
Guggenheim Exploration outstanding. Holdings are as 

Approximate Market 
Shares. price. value. 

Utah Copper 404,504 $68 $27,506,272 

Chino Copper 97,750 45 4,398,750 

Ray Consolidated 154,300 24 3,703,200 

A. S. & R. com 69,500 79 5,490,500 

Smelters Securities pfd. A. . . 33,656 84 2,827,004 

Yukon Gold 2,842,625 2J 7.817,218 

Alaska Yukon properties and equipment 1,047,262 

Cash and demand loans •11,837,273 

Total $64,627,479 

•December 31, 1914. 

A new high record in income will be set this year. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 17. 1915 

The Route: a Guidebook of the Westers United 
States. Bulletin 612. U. S. Geological Survey. 111. P. 244. 
Price. $1. 

This is one of four books to be issued by the Geological 
Survey with a view to giving scientific information to travelers 
on the transcontinental lines of railroad. They are based on 
the data contained in previous geological reports, plus unpub- 
lished information, supplemented by a special field-examina- 
tion by officers of the Survey. The present volume is credited 
Chiefly to Messrs. Willis T. Lee. Ralph W. Stone, and Hoyt S. 
Gale. No less than 29 accurate maps are interleaved, besides 
numerous photographs, geological sections, and sketches. The 
foot-notes are so absorbing that the reader lingers on his way. 
as at one of those Harvey "eating houses" (what a term!), or 
railroad-hotels, that used to cheer the traveler in the days be- 
fore the pretentious Pullman 'diner' came into use. From 
Council Bluffs to San Francisco the story runs. Lincoln stipu- 
lated that the Union Pacific railroad should begin on the Iowa 
side of the Missouri river, so that the railroad company had 
to build an expensive, but extremely useful, bridge. At once 
the geologist gets our ear. for he tells us about the fossils of 
pre-hlstoric animals uncovered in the gravel through which 
the railroad grade has been cut. Before we finish with that 
absorbing foot-note we have gone to Siberia and seen the real 
fleshly mammoth that was discovered there, held in cold stor- 
age by the ice for years untold. Nebraska is "a State without 
a mine," as if to emphasize the fact that the other states tra- 
versed are so rich in mines: Colorado. Wyoming. Utah. Ne- 
vada, and California. The mere names trumpet their fame 
as mineral regions. In the earlier hours of his journey, the 
traveler's attention is directed to the boulders and vagrant 
fragments of rock that indicate deposits of glacial origin: 
whereupon his imagination is quickened by a brief outline of 
the Great Ice Age and he is given a map that marks the limits 
of the ancient ice-sheet. From the car-window he sees the 
southern fork of the Overland Trail that the railway followed 
and that the western part of the Lincoln Highwav is also to 
follow. This transcontinental automobile road will be 33S9 
miles long and will traverse 13 States. The work of improving 
the road is under way. Beyond Cheyenne the sale of fossils 
suggests the great finds of these beautiful relics of a by-gone 
period that have been made in the bluffs of the Laramie foot- 
hills. A note, with illustrations, describes the extinct animals 
that flourished in the Miocene period. Then come the coal- 
fields, with Green River, from which Major Powell started on 
his famous expedition to explore the canyons of the Colorado. 
In Utah the geologic history of the Salt Lake arrests the 
traveler, who is told a great number of interesting facts in 
such an engaging way that he forgets that it is science that he 
is imbibing in large draughts. Indeed, the note on Salt Lake 
is an admirable precis of accurate information. As the rail- 
road nears the various mining centres, the guidebook tells a 
little of their history and production; it outlines the salient 
facts in the civic development of this vast mineral territory; 
it sketches incidents rich in human interest. Many of the 
photographs are beautiful; some of them are accompanied by 
diagrams that elucidate the relation of the landscape to the 
underlying geology. It is an excellent performance. Those 
who expect to go 'overland' should read this book as an in- 
structive preparation for intelligent travel; those who have 
crossed it so many times that they have ceased to count their 
traverses will rejoice that so much useful knowledge should 
now be readily available to the observer along the well-worn 
trail that the buffalo, the Indian, the fur-trader, the Mormon. 
the immigrant, the train, and the automobile have followed 

Materials of Construction. By Adelbert P. Mills. P. 658. 
111., index. John Wiley £ Sons, Inc., New York. For sale by 
Mining and Scientific Press. San Francisco. Price, $4.51). 

This work is primarily a text-book, but. notwithstanding 
the necessarily brief treatment that must be given to each 
subject, has also considerable value as a book of general refer- 
ence. The materials of masonry construction are first con- 
sidered, the chapter headings being Gypsum Plasters, Quick- 
lime, Hydrated Lime, Puzzolan Cements. Natural Cements, 
Portland Cement, and Concrete. The production, properties, 
and uses of each material are briefly discussed. Stone and 
then brick masonry are then considered, the latter subject in- 
cluding special kinds of brick, terra cotta. and tile. Iron and 
steel are naturally given the largest space in the book. Meth- 
ods of manufacture of the different grades of iron and steel 
are discussed and considerable space devoted to the effect of 
different proportions of carbon and other foreign substances 
on the properties of the finished product. In this and also in 
several succeeding chapters these effects are shown graphically 
in a number of diagrams. A chapter is devoted to the various 
special alloy-steels for which the needs of certain modern 
machinery has created a demand. The different non-ferrous 
metals that are of importance in construction, together with 
their alloys, are briefly considered. The last chapter of the 
book is devoted to timber, the data contained being mainly 
abstracted from the many government publications on the 
subject. While the volume as a whole contains little that has 
not already been said in other books, yet it is several years 
since all this information has been collected under one cover, 
and in the meantime, considerable progress has been made 
both in the production and the use of many structural ma- 
terials. The book is well illustrated and there are a number 
of useful tables and diagrams included in the text. 

Design of Steel Briiiges. By F. C. Kunz. P. 461. 111., index, 
and 52 plates. McGraw-Hill Book Co.. Inc.. New York. For 
sale by Mining and Scientific Press. San Francisco. Price, $5. 

This volume is intended more as a reference and hand-book 
for the practising engineer than a textbook for the student, 
although the theoretical foundation for design is considered as 
well as practical details. The first chapters take up the forces 
acting on a bridge, and then stresses in trusses and in the 
bracing of simple spans is considered. The various types of 
bridges are classified and their principal characteristics de 
scribed. A chapter is devoted to floor-design, both of railroad 
and highway bridges. Beam and plate-girder bridges, simple 
truss bridges, and skew bridges are discussed in order, and 
data are also given on weights of simple span bridges. Via- 
ducts and elevated railroads are discussed, and then draw- 
bridges and turntables. Arch-bridges both of the two and the 
*hree-hinged type are discussed, and also cantilever bridges. 
Some space is devoted to a general discussion of long-span 
bridges, although suspension bridges are not thoroughly dis- 
cussed. The appendix contains some tables and other useful 
information, and there are 52 full-page plates, most of them 
showing details of bridges actually constructed. There are 
also a number of valuable tables and diagrams scattered 
through the main body of the text 

The Railroad Taper. The theory and application of a com- 
pound transition curve based upon thirty-foot chords. By Lee 
Perkins. P. 356. Illustrated. John Wiley & Sons.. Inc., New 
York, 1915. For sale by the Mining ami Scientific. Press. 
Price. $2.50. 

This is the second railroad book to be reviewed within the 
past few weeks. As its name implies, the subject is technical 
and mathematical, and of value to railroad construction en- 
gineers. Elevation of the outer rail on a curve is of great im- 
portance. The work is an extension and elaboration of that 
published by W. Hood, some years ago. The book includes 
294 pages of tables. 

17, I'M . 

MININC. .S.miih. I'KI SS 






Ix r SI, 
i. in. i in. v contain .1 greal deal of Interesting In- 

Ul being mi 
<1«t Hi. inpertntendenc] ol P. ft. Bradley, the report! 

»in ba considered together. The roar's reaulta may be sum- 
marised aa follows: 

..: Installed In the 1 ■ 
When rami 

m ili. \> hydro-electi Ic planl I 

■hi the dam and tranamlsslon-llnsa An addll 1 

1 Ic planl «"* completed, 1 
metalled al bolati and miiiB. 
The cyanlde-planl treated ocentrate From all 

the mills. 1 ., ooal „f Jl'.Ti; 1 

of concentrati tn ated. 
The assay-office made 14,124 detennlnatloi coat of 

per sample. 
a n. « general office was • re< ted, extensive alterations to the 

and two new warehouses were bull) on the Treadwell 

Reaoli .lions. 

Men employed 

r day 

Development In Mexican, feet 

Devaloi ml In 700-Ft mine, feel 

Central development, feet 

Diamond-drilling, feet 

Underground cost, per ton 

Mine samples, number 

Average value per ton 

Reserves in place, tonB 

res broken In slopes, ions 

Total reserves, tons 

■ value per ton 

Reserves in previous year, tons 

Stamps dropping 

Steam power used, days 

Water power used, days 

Electric power used, days 

Duty per stamp-day 

Ore crushed, tons 

Gold by amalgamation 

Concentrate treated, tons 

Gold uy cyanldatlon 

Total recovery 

Milling cost per ton 

Concentrate cost per ton of ore 

Bullion charge per ton 

Total costs per ton 


Balance from 1913 

Amount available 

Dividends (4) (6) (4) 


Balance for 1915 

Returns to date: 

Ore treated, tons 

Gold recovered 

Yield per ton 

Operating profit 

Operating cost 


♦Done jointly with the other companies. "Now 150 stamps. 



Readj Bullion 700 P i, 







i 27:. 




•I'.d It 

































1,708 66 



.-, lu 








( $195.37 
1 $133.89 



( 14.49 
1 $5.34 











$2211.." Ml 







$252,2 71 













$0. 11797 



































$7,134,93 1 




$2. us 














tn-stamp mill. 

t300-stani|> in 


It will be noticed in the above table that the three com- 
panies contributed to the Central development work. This 
included operations at 1750, 1950, 2100, and 2300 ft. The Cen- 
tral shaft was sunk 83 ft., making it 2354 ft. deep in waste. The 
Central hoisting and crushing-plant, the former breaking down 
on June 19. 1915. worked throughout the year. It handled 

wharf. The fire department and committee of safety showed 
their usual interest in their work. 

In Bulletin 103 of the A. I. M. E., W. P. Lass describes the 
electric furnace for gold refining at the cyanide plant. From 
three to four tons of gold precipitate, worth $40,000 to $00,000 
per ton, is produced from the concentrate per month. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Julv 17. 1915 

Time-Study Watch 

The Time-Study watch, of Mortimer J. Silberberg, Peoples 

aiding, Chicago, a photograph of which is shown, gives 

direct reading in operations per hour, eliminating mental and 

pencil computation. The dial is divided into tenths and hun- 


dredths of minutes. There are also figures spaced two-hun- 
dredths of a minute apart, distinctly legible, that indicate at 
any point of elapsed time exactly what the corresponding out- 
put per hour is. The watch is very convenient for observa- 
tions of all kinds of work where the study of time taken is 

Rotary-Converters in Coal Mines 

According to the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Co. of Pittsburg, it is interesting to note the favorable im- 


pression being made by the rotary-converter in coal mining, 
particularly since the manufacturer has developed the new 
commutating-pole machine in smaller sizes. One of the chief 
troubles in mining work, particularly with small rotaries, has 

been commutation, because the mining load varies anywhere 
from 109! of full load to 100',' c overload in a very short time. 
With the non-commutating pole rotary, it was necessary to 
shift the brushes with the change in load, or sparking and 
damage to commutator would result. This damage to com- 
mutator would end finally in short-circuited colls and burnouts. 
Since the application of commutating-poles. a machine norm- 
ally designed for 35° rise in temperature at full load, will 
carry a 5(K;' r overload for 2 hours with a rise not exceeding 55°, 
and a momentary overload of 100% without the least sign of 
sparking, this better performance being due to the application 
of commutating-poles. With this design the brushes are 
set on the neutral point and fixed there, ana the varying loads 
have no effect whatsoever in-so-far as sparking is concerned. 
An order from the Stonega Coke & Coal Co., Virginia, was 
for twenty-four 150-kw. converters, to be placed in 12 under- 
ground sub-stations. Another installation, above ground, is 
of 200 kw. at the Conemaugh Smokeless Coal Co.. Pittsburg. 
The accompanying photograph shows this machine. Three 
sizes of this type are built. Another type is made in 300 and 
500-kw. sizes. 

Commercial Paragraphs 

The Anaconda Copper Mining Co. is preparing to install 24 
more of the in-ft. diameter Hardinhe mills. This makes a 
total of 44 out of a contract which it made the first of this 
year for 60 of these machines. 

A leaflet issued by the Deister Concentrator Co., Fort 
Wayne, Indiana, shows facsimiles of telegrams from the 
Steams-Roger Manufacturing Co. of Denver, ordering tables 
for the Ajax mill at Cripple Creek. 

Bulletin E-36, superseding E-29, of the Chicago Pneumatic 
Tool. Co.. 1010 Fisher building. Chicago, deals with the various 
Duntley electric grinders. They are useful in foundries, ma- 
chine-shops, structural shops, and for grinding rails on rail- 
ways. No. 6 is for external and internal grinding. 

'Centrifugal pumps and centrifugal pumping units' is the 
title of Bulletin 1632, 44 pages, of the MANU- 
FACTURING Co., Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Single and multi-stage 
motor or engine-driven pumps up to 72 in. are made. One mine 
pump is a solid bronze 10-in. 10-stage machine for lifting 
against high heads. 

The Norman B. Livermore & Co.. San Francisco, advises us 
that a Chalmers & Williams adjustable quick-discharge tube- 
mill has been sold to the California Slimes Extraction Co. at 
Sutter Creek, California. This will re-grind tailing from some 
Mother Lode mills. A 24-in. Symons disc-crusher has been sold 
to the Original Amador company at Amador City. This will 
reduce the present crusher output to a size for the tube-mill. 

The Western Electric Co., New York, sends us the follow- 
ing circulars: The Telephone in China,' (installation at 
Pekin, Tientsin, Changsha, and Tsinanfu, with 4100, 2450, 600, 
and 450 subscribers stations respectively in January 1915, all 
of W. E. manufacture); 'Telephone Cable in China.' (illustrat- 
ing laying W. E. cable, under direct supervision of W. E. en- 
gineers, in Changsha) ; and details of the awards of the com- 
pany at the Exposition at San Francisco. The Grand Prix 
was given for the exhibit as a whole, three gold medals for 
telephone equipment; two bronze medals for mine-rescue and 
mine telephones; and silver medals for various electrical de- 
vices by companies closely identified with the Western Electric 

Mining - Press 

Edllrd by T. A. RICKARD *\N ,~_ 


Volume III 

Number 4 


I. Timber-framing simp _\ Machine-shop. ::. Head-frame. 1. Miners' change-houae. 6. Secondary crushing plant. 

6. ThP mill. 

Vssay office. 

FLOTATION is a method of concentration by frothing. The pro- 
cess promises to be as epochal as cyanidation was 20 years ago. No 
mining engineer, metallurgist, or mine operator can afford to be 
without an intelligent notion of the various applications of the process. 
We have published the most important articles on the subject and we have 
in preparation a number of others describing details of procedure and 
analyses of principles. Make yourself familiar with flotation. In this issue 
we publish an article describing the use of it on silver ore in Mexico. 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 24, 1915 


T takes a twelve-page booklet to tell 
you all about these little hoists, and 
we want you to have a copy, as we 
know you will see their good points, 
and where you can save money ( by 
installing one of them. 


Til. in vs r HI 

M U . 1TZ 

Aulitant l 

Mining *&* Press 

PublUhed at *:o lUrki - 

Dewey Publishing* Co. 

■•iiaui.l.s T 11 i.nger. 


W I'M I III* r 

Hi hell. 


San Francisco, Ji i v 24, 1915 



NOTES li:i 

Amhu.m and Anm. m 

Arsenic has not shared in the demand for antimony 

created by the War. 

Pa 1 1 Ms \M. SECSBOl 115 

■•>■ arising from a desire to secure patent rights 

serves to obstruct progress. 
tmeflmmiica H,; 

The use of flotation has altered the criteria governing 
the use of fine-grinding machinery. 

I'iik* :n 
Adverl -Last I'uk- 


Bio Business 

By IV. L. Austin 117 

Big corporations are looking for big mines, but there 
are far more small deposits than there are big ones. 
The Waste ok Zinc. 

By S. E. Bretherton 118 

Zinc in lead ores is not only wasted, but the seller has 
to pay a penalty for Its presence. 
Stamp-Milling i.\ Georgia. 

By N. S. Keith 119 

A mortar used at the Columbia gold mine in 1833 is 
still in existence. 


Efficiency in Kn.;inkerino in the Copper Countbt. 

By P. B. McDonald 120 

It has been successful from the mechanical standpoint 
and the cost of sinking, driving, and stoping has been 
materially reduced. But the miners do not like 'new- 
fangled' methods and it Is doubtful whether they have 
been speeded up in the work. 

Silyeb Discovert in the Yukon. 

By D. Saunders 121 

Rich silver ores have been found on a tributary of the 
McQuesten river. Ore shipped to lead smelters has 
given returns of $290 per ton. The cost of transport 
is high, and though prospecting has been persistent 
only one ore-shoot has been found. 

Flotation in a Mexican Mill. 

By A Special Correspondent 122 

Experiments showed that by using flotation instead of 
water concentration, the feed of the cyanide plant 
could be reduced from 18 oz. silver to 5 oz. silver. 
This permits a saving in cyanide, and lessens cost of 
precipitation, producing a net increased profit of $1.22 
per ton of ore. 

The Potosi Tin-Mining Distbict, Bolivia. 

By Francis Church Lincoln 127 

This district, world famous for its silver mines, is 
now chiefly of importance for its tin production. 

Established May 24, 1860. as The Scientific Press; name 
changed October 20 of the same year to Mlolne and Scientific 

Entered at the Pan Francisco post-office as second-class mat- 
ter. Cable address: PertusoJa. 


Milling methods an- crude and the louses heavy, so 
thai Beveral plants arc engaged in working tailing 
Smelting is expensive because oi the high cost of fuel, 
and railroad Freight rates outbound are ho much lower 
than inbound rates that It Is cheaper ucen- 

trate to the coast. 

Thk Position oi tmk Tim Mux. 

By Algernon Del Mar ]3q 

Fourteen different arrangements of the flow-sheet in 
a stamp-mill are discussed. The best combination de- 
pends on the ore to be treated. 

Concentration of Gold in Bottoms in the Converter. 

By H. F. Collins 132 

By modifying the converter so that the first copper 
produced from the matte can be drawn off. two-thirds 
of the gold in the matte can be concentrated into 'bot- 
toms' amounting to 8% of the total copper, and can 
then be recovered by electrolytic refining. 

Ore-Bin Construction 135 

Steel bins offer several advantages over wooden ones. 

Testing Working Cyanide Solutions 136 

Two end-points can be observed in titrating, variable 
results may be obtained, according to which is used. 

Japanese Minerals at the Exposition 138 

A most attractive exhibit has been made by the Gov- 
ernment of Japan in co-operation with the mine- 

Obegon Minebals at the Exposition 138 

The mineral resources of the state are well displayed, 
and illustrated by a relief map and pamphlets. 


Concentbates 137 

Review of Mining 139 

Special correspondence from Cripple Creek, Colorado; 
Toronto, Ontario; Petrograd, Russia; Iron River, 

The Mining Summary 143 

Personal 147 

Schools and Societies 147 

The Mabket Place: 

Metal Prices 148 

Eastern Metal Market 149 

Mining Decisions 150 

Recent Publications 150 

New Machines and Devices: 

Cleaning Hollow Drill-Steel 151 

Electric Incline Railway 151 

Motors for Flotation Agitation 151 

New Hose Coupling 152 

Valves, Lubricators, and Fittings at the Exposition. . . 152 

Commercial Paragraphs 152 

Branch Offices — Chicago, 300 Fisher Bdg.; New York, 1308-10 
Wool worth Bdg. ; London. 724 Salisbury House, E.C. 

Price, 10 cents per copy. Annual subscription: United States 
and Mexico. $3: Canada, $4; other countries In postal union, 
21s. or $5 per annum. 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 24, 1915 


Let Us Emphasize This 

The "Empire" Dredge is not manufactured — it is designed and built. The 
vital difference will appear in your dividends. The "Empire" Dredge is sci- 
entifically designed and built by expert dredge engineers to suit the particular 
conditions of your ground. While the first cost should be a secondary con- 
sideration when selecting a dredge, still it is a satisfaction to know that an 
"Empire" Dredge will cost you less than any other of equal size. We special- 
ize in placer mining machinery, including the famous "Empire" Prospecting 

Send for the Catalogs of 

"Empire" Dredges and Drills. 

"Empire" Placer Mining Equipment 

includes Dredges, Drills, Hydraulic or 
Bucket Gravel Elevators, High -Carbon 
Steel Sluices and Riffles, Hydraulic Pipe 
Lines, Giants, etc. We design and build 
your equipment to suit your conditions. 

e^orkSndmeerhd^npa^^% i 


2 Rector S/reer 


Jul) -I. 1915 

MINIM, and Scieniif.. l'KI SS 

II 1 


T A llli'KAIIK 


Aiaoclate Kdllor 

r PHK Ann ti. -jin [natitnte of Mining Engineers meeU in 
San Fraiii-isi-ii on Thnrada] September 16 and for 

tlir. • nafltT. 

]l 1 1-:\ I'l' ' '■ ertisementa on this page ia contrary 

i *'- to oar i-iistoiu. but we shall be forgiven, and no( 
miaunderatood, by our readers if we direct their atten- 
tion to an advertiaemaril of smelter brooms made by the 
blind, appearing on page -l of our advertising annex. 

piv' Ml I HI I'll >N of exports of copper from England, by 
■*• order of the British government, has eliminated the 

international influe ■ of the London Metal Exchange in 

regulating tin- price of the metal. Thus the American 
copper producers are now in a position to dominate the 

TVfANi ; ANKSK production in Russia has been greatly 
-*-*-*■ hampered by the War. Two years ago nearly a 
million tons per annum was exported from the Caucasus, 
about half of it going to Germany. What the German 
steel-makers are doing to secure an alternative Bupply 
has not been made public. 

CDBRENCY problems in Mexico threaten to I ome 
more pathetic than humorous. In our mining news 
we give an outline of sundry projects for regulating the 
paper money issued in Sonora. This should he read in 
conjunction with the special article on 'Conditions in 
Sonora' appearing in our last issue. 

WORK at the Gary plant of the Illinois Steel Cor- 
poration is now on a full-time hasis. for the first 
time in two years. Shipments of iron ore from the Lake 
Superior district during June show an increase of al- 
most 20% over last year. These evidences of increased 
activity presage the return of industrial prosperity. 

TJ70RKINGS in the Morro Vellio mine, in Brazil, have 
" reached a vertical depth of 5826 feet, making it the 
deepest mine in the world. This depth is not reached 
by a single continuous shaft, so that the Tamarack No. 5, 
which is 5368 feet long, still retains its laurels as the 
deepest shaft in the world. The Morro Velho is owned 
bv the St. John del Rey company, in London. 


OREA is to have a new set of mining laws; these 
are in process of being drafted by the Japanese 
authorities. One of the requirements will be that each 
mining company must maintain a head office in Korea, 
but this will not affect the principal foreign companies. 

which operate under special oonoesaioni The gold pro 

auction of Korea in 19] I ia given in a r ml consular 

report as $5,000,000; the mines worked by foreign com 

panics showing an increase ,.i >." ,000 in their output, 

and those worked by Japanese and natives a de 

100.000. A strong Australian company has pur 
chased placer deposits in South Ham Kymig province 

and in South Pyang An province 

PARCELS POST as a means of shipment of mn 

A trate to smelters is the novel method of transport 

described in our news columns, two tons daily being 

shipped ill this way by mines in I Icaiwalcr COUnty, 

Idaho. The cost of the service to the Government is 
greater than the postage charges, so thai it may be re- 
garded as .1 goven nt sul, sidy to pros] ting. 

/^UL production continues to expand, despite falling 
" prices. This is shown by the Geological Survey's 
statistics for 1914, just issued. During last year produc- 
tion increased by 17.316.305 barrels, to a total of 2!I0,- 
312,535 bbl.. despite a decrease of $23,006,173 in the 
value of the output. California retains first place for 
magnitude of production, with Oklahoma a good second. 

CHARES of the New Jersey Zinc Company have 
^ changed hands at $04(1 each. Excepting the Calu- 
met & Ileela, this is the highest quotation reached by the 
stock of a mining corporation in recent years. The high 
figures are justified, as the company has this year paid 
cash dividends amounting to 50%, and will soon pay a 
stock dividend of 250%, the capital of the company 
having been increased from $10,000,000 to sk:*,."».oo0,000. 

TT'LOTATION in Mexico is appropriate. A revolution 
-*- in metallurgy finds there a fitting environment of 
unrest. In the important article thai we publish in this 
issue it is shown how silver ore is readily amenable to the 
process and how the resulting tailing can be cya- 
nided satisfactorily. The use of alkaline water in the 
frothing-cell is another notable point. The detailed re- 
sults, the items of cost, and the careful comparison be- 
tween cyanidation and flotation will prove deeply sug- 
gestive to metallurgical engineers. 

OCR attention has been directed to a misinforming 
paragraph in the Examiner, stating that a large 
acreage of fertile land in Sierra county. California, is to 
be ruined by dredging for gold. This refers, presum- 
ably, to some ground near Redding recently purchased 
by Mr. Lawrence Gardella, a good citizen and an enter- 
prising operator. The land to be dredged is not fertile 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 24. 1915 

in its present condition, nor is any of the land now being 
dredged suitable for farming. Moreover, when the 
ground lias been turned over in the course of digging for 
leveled and mad'- ready for cultivation. 
Olive orchards have been planted in the wake of gold 
dredging. It is poor economics "to destroy fertile lands 
in order to get a single quick profit," says the Examvm r. 
It is poor economics to spread misinformation. 

TVflNKS have a donble meaning: one peaceful, the 

-'-''- other warlike. Hammond is a name Eormerly asso- 
ciated with gold mines in Africa and elsewhere; now it is 
to the front in connection witli wireless torpedo-control. 
We congratulate Mr. John Says Hammond, dr.. on the 
inventive skill that, has won him such honorable promi- 

/""Vl'K weekly letter on the metal market will he found 
^-' interesting despite the dullness of business. A lull in 
activity has followed an interval of excitement. We 
look for another rise in prices at an early date. We com- 
mend our market report with confidence, for our repre- 
sentative at New York gives the consumers', not the 
brokers', price. In short, he gives what t lie mine-oper- 
ator wants. 

jVTEXICO CITY is again in the hands of the Zapatis- 
■'•*•*■ tas, while the previous army of occupation is some- 
where northward preparing to meet Villa's troops, which 
have occupied Pachuea. That is important, for the Real 
del Monte, Santa Gertrudis, La Blanca, and other cele- 
brated mines make Pachuea one of the big mining cen- 
tres of Mexico. Carranza's men have taken Naco, up- 
setting the arrangement made by General Scott. On the 
whole, conditions in Mexico indicate with added em- 
phasis that none of the existing factions is competent to 
restore order. The establishment of a coalition govern- 
ment, backed by Washington, is the only hope for the 

CILVEK-LEAD ore is being mined in the Yukon. 
k -' Last week we mentioned the fact of a shipment of 
such ore having arrived here, for treatment at the Selby 
siiiclnr. In the present issue we publish a short ac- 
count of the find, as described by Mr. D. Saunders. In 
the summary report of the Department of Mines, for 
1913, it is stated that "Galena creek, a tributary of the 
McQuesten river. 11 miles off the road to Dutch gulch, 
was visited as the result of a reported find of a rich 
argentiferous galena vein. Reports were, to some ex- 
tent, confirmed by assays of samples sent by the owners 
to the Territorial Government assay-office at White- 
horse." This refers obviously to the same discovery, 
which has now become a mine. 

■pASQUAL OROZCO, recently of Mexico, we find, has 
-*■ at least one good count to his record. Ten years ago 
the pay-roll money was being taken from Mifiaca to the 
Dolores mine when the escort was attacked by two 
American outlaws. The Mexican escort was commanded 
by Kill Smith, with the aforesaid Orozco as his chief 

aid. Three Mexicans were killed ami six were {founded, 
hut the thieves wen- repulsed, one of them being cap- 
tu I'll ami killed subsequently at Casas Grandes. After 
pisode, in which he behaved admirably, Orozco be- 
came conductor in place of Smith and he continued to 
hold the job until the Madcro revolution broke out. 
Then he organized a hand of mountaineers and joined 
the revolutionary forces, becoming a notable leader in 
the civil war that has brought Mexico to ruin. 

/~\NE of the surprises of the last tw : o years has been 
^^ the maintenance of handsome profits by the Gug- 
genheim companies — the American Smelting & Refining 
and the Guggenheim Exploration — despite the chaos in 
Mexico and the general depression in raining. The 
wide-spread energies of the American Smelting com- 
pany are shown by the fact that of the total lead pro- 
duction in the United States last year — 564,000 tons — 
this company refined 317,000 tons, and out of the total 
domestic output of 1534 million pounds of copper, the 
same company refined 530 million pounds. By the big 
production of the Chile Copper Company, and the in- 
creasing yield of the Braden, in Chile also, and the 
Kennecott. in Alaska, the Guggenheim corporation will 
become a still bigger factor in the copper business. 

TNCREASE of richness in depth is an idea pleasant to 
■*■ the miner. We read in a San Francisco evening 
paper that the ore that assayed $4 at the surface of a cer- 
tain vein in Nevada increased in value to $19.50 at 90 
feet. This is a notable increase. If a baby gains 2 
pounds in a week, he would gain half a ton in 10 years, 
at the same rate. So while we congratulate our friend 
in Nevada on the improved showing at the bottom of his 
prospect-shaft, we would not call it an "increase in 
depth," not yet. At the rate of improvement noted, the 
shaft would strike solid gold at 800 feet. However, al- 
most anything should be possible in the case cited, for 
The Bulletin — the purveyor of valuable information in 
question — says that "the deep tunnel is in anthracite, 
which is a gold formation." Not nearly as good as either 
Guggenheimite or Jacklingite. 

Antimony and Arsenic 

We have received letters from several subscribers who 
seem to be under the impression that arsenic has partici- 
pated in the rise in price that antimony has shown in 
consequence of demands created by the War. While 
antimony and arsenic are closely allied in chemistry, 
their industrial uses differ widely, and, unfortunately 
for producers, there has been no marked increase in the 
demand for arsenic. The metal arsenic has almost no 
industrial uses. A little is used in the making of shot, 
but as arsenical lead is used for this purpose no market 
for metallic arsenic is thereby created. White arsenic, 
or arsenious oxide, is most in request ; it is used in the 
manufacture of glass, in the making of Paris green, 
London purple, and other insecticides, such as arsenical 
sheep-dip, for the preserving of hides, and stuffed ani- 


MINING and Scicnti&t I'Kl SS 


ainl in tl other arsenic oompounda 

ii lulphide aod tri-sulpti iponding t» the 

iiiiip i [■ an. I orpiuient, if • paint, and 

•■.I in the making of fireworks 

and in the dyeing and printing of eloth. Other aalta of 

: limited 

All the arsenic produced In this country is a bj 
prodnel •>( lead and oopper smelting. The origin "i 
araenieaJ lead ia obvious; whit* arsenic, to the amount 
of two or three thousand tuns yearly, is recovered from 
Sue-dust by the Anaconda Copper Co., the United States 
Smelting •'<>. and the American Smelting A Refining 
1 Bach of tins.- companies could increase its output 

if thf demand justified so doing. The pri »f arsenic 

oompounda iaso low that freight-costs an- important and 
for this reason a lurger quantity is imported from Eu- 
rope than is produoed here, sine- ocean-freights are 
much leas than railway-rates from t li « - Rocky .Mountains 
tn tlir Eastern seaboard. In Eastern Canada arsenical 
gold ores an- found in abundance, but arsenic produc- 
tion does not flourish. In Mexico the Pennies mining 
company was a producer of importance, but its output 
has been hindered by political conditions. On the whole, 
tin- production of arsenic is not an alluring business. 

Antimony has had a sensational rise in price because 
of its use in the making of ammunition. Conditions gov- 
erning antimony production were discussed in our issue 
of November 14. 1914. Before the War the market for 
the metal was controlled by English firms, but the em- 
bargo on exports from England made readjustment im- 
perative. The Wah Chang Antimony Co., the principal 
Chinese producer, took advantage of the terms of the 
contract under which its output was being sold by a sub- 
sidiary of one of the English firms and opened its own 
agency at New York, with the gratifying result that it 
soon received more orders than it could make immedi- 
ate delivery. Within a few months the price of the metal 
rose to six times what it had been. As a result the 
Chapman Smelting Co., of San Francisco, re-opened its 
smelting plant and began bidding for antimony ore 
from Idaho, Alaska, and elsewhere, and operators in 
Mexico, where antimony ore occurs in abundance, have 
begun the construction of a plant at San Luis Potosi 
that mil be in operation within three months. Pre- 
sumably it will serve to lower sharply the present level 
of prices, as the proposed output will equal 40% of the 
normal consumption in the United States. The cost of 
an antimony-smelting plant is not great, and if the War 
persists for some time the new producers are likely to 
make large profits. They can hardly hope to develop an 
important permanent business, for the Chinese producers 
are able to supply almost all of the normal demand and 
have demonstrated their ability to work at a profit at 
the low prices formerly prevailing. According to con- 
sular reports, the exports of antimony from Hankow, 
China, during 1914, were 10,071 tons of crude and 1384 
tons of regulus, valued at $486,916 and $88,874 respec- 
tively. Ore and secondary products exported during the 
same period brought the total value of the exports up to 
$768,935. Production for the first quarter of this year 

'..■■ normal for crude. The great in 
in the price baa oorrespondingl) increased the value of 

Patents and Secrecy 

Anonymit) seems t<i eha recent contributions 

to tin- technology of tin- flotation process. We have pub 

I two useful articles under the veil ui' asionaJ 

correspondence, and in this issue me give our readers, 
mi. in- tii,. disguise »( special correspondence, a detailed 
description of notation work in Mexico. For tins con 
cealment of nanus we have no liking, nor, it is lair to 
a. 1,1. have the clever technologists to whom we, and our 
readers, are indebted for so much timely information. 
Such secrecy is the sequel to patent litigation ; it is due 
neither to mock modesty nor to any innate love of t tie 
mysterious. Whether a decision in an important case 
now under adjudication will 'lift the lid' and admit 
fresh air into the fog enveloping technical research into 
flotation, we do not know. We only hope. 

Not that the latest phase of patent litigation over this 
process is to be debited with all the blame for the general 
atmosphere of mystery and jealousy that has distorted 
the technology of the subject during the last ten years. 
Apart from the embargo imposed upon the publica- 
tion of information, the protracted series of conflicts 
over patent rights has served to lessen the scientific value 
of even the scanty evidence available, for it has created 
prejudices and interests so strong as to vitiate the judg- 
ment or hinder the pen of the few men willing to write 
on the subject. On the other hand, it may be admitted 
that the preparation of testimony for lawsuits and the 
cross-examination incidental to the giving of evidence in 
open court have served to clarify the basic ideas under- 
lying the process and its application. Yet we are among 
many that have expressed regret, repeatedly, that the 
leading protagonists of flotation, such, for example, as 
Messrs. Frank Elmore and John Ballot, should not have 
effected a compromise in the early stages of their con- 
troversy. Similarly, we think it a pity that the more 
recent clash of interest between Minerals Separation and 
its opponents should not have been obviated by reason- 
able concessions on both sides. In behalf of the profes- 
sion we express the pious wish that somebody may evolve 
a scheme for rewarding an inventor without taxing an 

It is not the royalty, or tax in money, that does the 
injury, but the tax on knowledge. Secrecy is a thick- 
headed watchman that obstructs the alert steps of prog- 
ress. At the present time the amount of unnecessary 
work being done is pathetic, for experiments already 
tried and attempts previously proved futile are being 
made in many laboratories, simply because there has been 
no publication of the results heretofore obtained by 
other investigators. Similarly, useful hints for obviat- 
ing recurrent difficulties and fertile suggestions for im- 
proving practice are withheld because of the scramble 
for obtaining dubious property rights to ideas by aid 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 24. 1915 

of the Patent Office. As a matter of fact publicity is 
often an invaluable protector, in go far as it tends to 
prove priority of invention or application. Our readers 
are aware, for example, of the Moore v. Butters litiga- 
tion over the vacuum-filter. Not many of them, how- 
ever, know that the best proof of priority brought for- 
ward by Mr. George Moore was the article on his filter 
that he published in the Engineering and Mining Jour- 
nal of December 5, 1903. That, was written at the solici- 
tation of the present writer, who was then editor of our 
ei ntemporary in New York. The fact of publication 
was accepted by the Court as an indication that Mr. 
Moore's competitor must have been cognizant of the de- 
tails of the device, on the supposition that he had read 
the published description. Indeed, a lot of unprofitable 
wrangling over priority of invention could be obviated 
by a frank publication of details, as in the case cited. 
"We need only add that our columns are always open to 
the publication of metallurgical information and we 
shall be glad to serve us a means, of giving guidance to 
the prospectors of technology. Moreover, we hope that 
the alert and generous spirits in the ranks of metallurgy 
— and there are. thank Heaven, plenty of them — will use 
our columns to add to the accelerating progress of this 
important process of flotation, by exchanging ideas 
among each other to the gain of all. 


The rapidly growing importance of flotation as a 
metallurgical process has had the remarkable effect of 
reversing commonly accepted traditions in regard to fine- 
grinding machinery. In ordinary water-concentration 

everj precaution must be taken to prevent the produc- 
tion Of slime during crushing, as metallic mineral in this 
form was lost. During the last decade redaction in 
stages, with the prompt removal of the crushed product 
from the crushing machine, has become highly developed 
in consequence of the effort to prevent undesired com- 
minution. In flotation the emphasis lies on other cri- 
teria. Slime has no terrors for it : in most cases the pro- 
cess seems to work better it' a proper proportion of slime 
is present ; while coarse material, even if consisting 
wholly of valuable mineral, can be floated only with dif- 
ficulty. The metallurgical need for stage reduction dis- 
appears, and the simplest arrangement in milling would 
have a single machine to reduce the ore to the size 
desired for flotation treatment. Since, for this purpose. 
all the ore may have to be crushed to pass 80-mesh, so 
simple an arrangement is scarcely practicable, but at any 
rate the necessity for a complicated series of rolls and 
other crushing devices, with their accessories — feeders, 
elevators, and BCreens — no longer exists. In the Inspira- 
tion flow-sheet, published in our issue of July 3. the 
reduction of the ore to pass 48-mesh is performed by a 
Symons disc-crusher and a Marcy ball-mill in one-half of 
the mill, and by two disc-crushers and Hardinge mills in 
tl ther. It must not be assumed hastily that by reduc- 
ing the number of machines required, the cost of crushing 
can lie equally decreased. It requires the expenditure of 

power to crush ore, and of two mechanically satisfac- 
tory machines, the one that crushes double the quantity 
of ore must necessarily use about double the power. 
Fundamental principles in design must, of course, be 
observed; a heavy hammer is essential for double-hand 
drilling, but unsatisfactory for driving tacks. It is for 
this reason jloubtful whether any single machine can 
give the best results in reducing lump ore to fine sand 
in a single operation. It is common practice to do this 
witli stamps, but it is. well known that the stamp is in- 
efficient in its use of power, nor is it practicable to pro- 
duce by stamps so fine a produet as is desired for nota- 
tion without cutting down the tonnage to an uneconomic 
degree. The tendency of late years has been to allow 
stamps to make a comparatively coarse product and 

finish tl rushing in some other machine. It is not 

probable, therefore, that single -stag.- redaction prelim- 
inary to flotation will ever prove feasible. Two or three 
stages are likely to represent the practical minimum. 

The question arises, however, whether the investiga- 
tion of crushing machines may not be profitably di) 
along wholly new lines. Such machines accomplish their 
work either by impact, as in the case of stamps, by 
pressure, as in jaw-crushers and rolls, by trituration, as 
in a disc-crusher, or by true grinding. Of the latter an 
arrastra is perhaps the best example, though every 
grinding-mill also utilizes one or more of the other forms 
of action. Such machines as tube-, pebble-, and ball- 
mills do their work by a combination of impact-tritura- 
tion, and grinding. Theoretically, grinding is the best 
way in which to obtain a fine produet, while trituration 
is the best method for securing a granular product ; the 
latter cannot be easily applied to very fine material be- 
cause of excessive friction between the triturating sur- 
faces. Friction between the working surfaces is also im- 
portant in grinding machines, leading to waste of power 
and excessive wear. It is obvious that a machine that 
grinds away material fed into it is likely to grind away 
itself. It would appear that the principle of the tube- 
and ball-mills is essentially sound, since the ore particles 
are ground against each other as well as against the 

The factor of time is also of importance in fine-crush- 
ing. Heretofore the aim has been to secure a quick dis- 
charge of the crushed product in order to prevent slim- 
ing. Now that sliming is no longer feared, the desira- 
bility of quick discharge disappears and it may indeed 
prove that a longer retaining of the pulp within the 
body of the crushing machine permits greater efficiency 
because it leads to finer grinding. On the other hand, 
it is obvious that it is not good practice to attempt to 
crush 6-inch lumps and 60-mesh sand in the same ma- 
chine, and it is a waste of power to retain material in the 
machine after it has been crushed fine enough to escape. 
Much careful study is being devoted to the fine-grinding 
of ore by both mill-operators and machhiery-manufac- 
turers. A free exchange of information will greatly 
facilitate the attainment of a satisfactory solution. For 
this our columns are open. 

Jul) 24, 1915 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


rrn.lrri are Invited to uao thl> deparim.-M for the dlacuealon of technical and 
matter* pertaining to mining and metallurgy. The BdltOf w.-lcumea the expreaalon of vlewe 
aeatrmry 10 Ml own. believing that cartful crltlrlam la more vaulable than caaual compliment 

Big Business 

The Bditor: 

mug to the editorial in your issue of July 
lo. under this title, some of the examples cited as illus- 
trative of the economic advantages to !><• derived through 
huge mining operations appear, upon analysis, to be 

lacking in essentials. For instance, examine the r< rds 

of the disseminated copper mines somewhat closi 
1'tnh Copper, Kay. ami others mentioned in your state- 
ment as shining lights in the mining firmament — not 

with a view to criticism, l>ut as t onomic results at- 

tained, and the supporl they lend to the argument you 

Turning back to the Press of June 7. 1913, to an 
article written by Mr. Heath Steele, the actual percent- 
metal recovery effected at some of the large cop- 
per properties are given as follows: 


Name of mine. Year. recovery. 

Utah Copper 1910 55.6 

1911 59.9 

1912 57.4 

Miami 1911 66.7 

1912 61.0 

Ray 1911 50.6 

• 1912 51.2 

Nevada Consolidated 1910 70.0 

1911 69.5 

1912 66.0 

Chino 1912 55.0 

In the article mentioned, Mr. Steele points out that the 
quarterly mill-recoveries reported by the various com- 
panies are misleading, and he gives the reasons for this 
statement. Possibly extraction may have been improved 
since Mr. Steele compiled these figures; but during the 
period covered by his record these examples of efficiency 
on the part of big business (at least as applied to min- 
ing) can hardly be referred to as satisfactory. The 
records made on these properties for the years given 
might even be considered by economists an extravagant 
waste of national resources. 

This copper has been taken out and sold, largely to 
foreigners, at an alleged profit of from two to three cents 
per pound (Mining & Engineering World, May 8, 1915, 
page 863), and in doing this nearly two pounds of cop- 
per have been wasted for every three pounds recovered. 
It must also be remembered in this connection that cop- 
per minerals contained in the tailing run out from mills 
handling 'disseminated' ore, have been irrevocably lost, 
for, exposed to atmospheric agencies in their existing 

line slate of division, sulphates are Formed Which are 

carried off in the rains. 

Conn dared purely from an economic standpoint, the 
country would have been the gainer if this copper had 
been left in tin- ground until methods wen- devised Eor 

effecting a reasonably high r very. In well organized 

i tmunities Germany, tor instance — in ail probability 

overnmenl would intervene where exploitation of 

national assets is undertaken in tl rude manner often 

practised in this country. 

Noj can [\ \„. conceded that very large operations are 
profitable to the shareholders upon capitalization repre- 
sented by stock quotations. Because an enormous quan- 
tity of cupriferous material is rushed through mills, and 

sufficient copper is caught to pay temporary dividends, 

the actual outcome of such operations will not be known 

until the hooks are finally balanced upon exhaiisti f 

the deposits. 

An interesting sidelight upon the relation of large 
corporations to exploitation of 'disseminated' orebodies 
was obtained last year when the output was said to have 
been curtailed 50%. With this greatly diminished yield 
some of the companies claimed that their costs of pro- 
duction did not differ much from what they had been 
when the properties were operated at capacity. 

The tacts enumerated tend to diminish the alleged 
economic advantages of spectacular mining, and pro- 
duce a lingering suspicion that something remains to be 
said in favor of operations upon a lesser scale, conducted 
with more regard for the balance-sheet and less for the 

As to the further example you mention in favor of 
big business in mining, the advantage of having 100 
stamps upon a single consolidated property, crushing 5 
times as fast as a dozen 40-stamp mills on individual 
mines, why should a stamp in a 100-stamp mill crush 5 
times as fast as one in a 40-stamp mill? 

A certain number of stamps can be properly super- 
vised by one battery-tender: the number of such units 
under one roof does not materially affect the economy 
with which the mill can he operated, although, of course, 
expenses in some departments can be reduced somewhat 
in the larger mill. In looking over records for cheap 
milling of low-grade ore, striking examples are found 
among those made by small mills, and it is open to ques- 
tion whether the very large mills have at any time ex- 
ceeded these records. It is not disputed that such large 
operatione as the Homestake and Treadwell are brilliant 
examples of practical mining and metallurgy ; but would 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 24. 1915 

not the same management have achieved equally com- 
mendable results had it been in charge of smaller prop- 

In any event, the dozen 40-stamp mills mentioned by 
ymi distribute more money among the communities in 
which they are operating than does the single large mill, 
even if it should crush faster. And the slower-crushing 
mills il" nut exhaust the mines as rapidly; all of which 
tends toward bettermenl in mining communities, in- 
s subscriptions to the Muting and Scientific 
Press, and encourages advertisers. 

As to the assistance rendered by hig business in the 
development of prospective mines, and we all known 
that mines must be made from prospects, reference again 
to the pages of the Press is instructive. In your issue of 
April 10, 1915, p. 592, it is stated that during the year 
1913 there were 639 mining properties submitted for in- 
vestigation to one of the large mining corporations. Of 
these, all but 101 were rejected on examination of the 
data and reports, and then 82 of the 101 failed to stand 
up under preliminary field-examination. Of the re- 
maining 19, two were taken, and a long-time bond was 
secured on a third. This record is typical of the opera- 
tions of other large companies. It means that out of 
639 prospects brought to the attention of a giant cor- 
poration, 636 were considered unsuited to the require- 
ments of big business, which fact, however, does not 
necessarily condemn them as prospective mines. Big 
business calls for hig mines, for to advance stock quota- 
tions large quantities of metal must be produced. But 
what is to become of the small deposit? And how are 
prospects to be developed under the regime of mega- 
theric corporations? There are far more comparatively 
small ore deposits than large ones, and exploitation of 
the small ones — those which arc not large enough to 
stock and put on the market — must become a matter of 
increasing importance as the larger mines are exhausted, 
and prices of the metals advance in consequence. 

One of the principal representatives of big business in 
mining was recently quoted as saying: "Unfortunately, 
the mining industry cannot see where in the next ten 
years any more substantial producing mines are to come 
from." If this forecast proves to be correct, the neces- 
sary metals will have to be supplied at an advanced price 
from small mines operated by individuals, or small cor- 
porations, and such a state of affairs will not be detri- 
mental to the mining industry. 

W. L. Austin. 

Riverside, July 12. 

The Waste of Zinc 

The Editor: 

Sir — During the last few years we have read a great 
deal regarding the necessity for conserving the coal and 
timber resources of the United States. It should be re- 
alized by our Government that there is equal need for 
preventing the unnecessary waste of our metals. 

The improved methods of concentrating copper min- 
erals has enabled companies (having sufficient capital to 

operate on a large scale) to handle very low-grade ore, in 
cases averaging less than 1J%, profitably, even 
with hisses as much as 40% of the copper. Heavy 
must be expected, of course, when treating such low- 
grade ore as is now being mined in Utah, Arizona, and 
Nevada. The percentage of loss of either lead or cupper 
in the treatment of low-grade ore is necessarily much 
higher than when treating high-grade ore, for where 
there is only a few pounds of metal to be extracted. Hie 
weight of the remaining waste is much greater, so that 
even if the waste to be thrown away is as clean in one 
case as the other, the most waste would carry off the most 
metals to be divided by the smaller weight of metal in 
the original ore. This is easily explained, but seldom ap- 
preciated by the mine-owner. 

The introduction of the bag-house and Cottrell's 
system of saving the fume and dust, at copper smelters 
as well as at lead smelters, has reduced the metallurg- 
ical loss in that department, but, with all the improve- 
ments in copper mining and reduction, how long will the 
supplies of such ore last ? Mr. D. C. Jackling has been 
quoted as asserting that, at the present rate of produc- 
tion, there are no known sources of supply capable of 
meeting the world's requirements for the next 20 years. 

[This reminds us that James J. Hill once ventured a 
similar prophecy as to the supply of iron ore. — Editor.] 

Mr. Jackling is, I believe, right ; but the question of a 
zinc supply is no less important. The loss of zinc, in its 
recovery from the original ore, is much higher than the 
losses of other metals, while no attempt is made to re- 
cover the zinc from ores as poor as the copper ores that 
are being treated successfully. The statement has been 
made that the average recovery of zinc from ore is 51%. 
This poor recovery is no doubt partly due to the large 
amount of low-grade zinc ore mined and concentrated 
throughout the Mississippi Valley states. 

The loss of zinc, when smelting zinc concentrate, is 
greater than the loss of lead and much higher than the 
loss of copper in copper smelting. The greatest waste 
and a double loss to the mine-owner, is not only the loss 
of the zinc, for which he gets nothing when contained in 
an ore treated for other metals, but the penalty he has 
to pay on account of the zinc. This is illustrated in the 
following example. 

The miner sends his ore to a custom smelter : this ore 
contains, say, 20% zinc. The regular penalty is 50c. per 
unit above 10% zinc. The value of 85% of this zinc, 
340 lb. @ 5c. is $17, which is lost. 

Now he pays a penalty on this ore of $5, the usual 
treatment charge on lead ore of $8, and if a sulphide 
ore, a roasting charge of $2, making a total penalty and 
treatment of $15. in addition to the loss of the zinc. With 
few exceptions, 80 to 85% of the zinc in such ore can be 
recovered in addition to lead or copper, with gold and 
silver, for a smaller cost than the combined treatment 
and penalty now charged where the zinc is wasted. 

I am not criticizing the custom smelter for penalizing 
the zinc in the ore, especially the lead smelter, knowing 
too well the trouble the zinc causes them, by helping to 
form incrustations on the walls of the furnace and in the 

Julj -'I I'M ■ 

MINING «nd Scirnin,, l'KI SS 


had eruoible, carrying other metals Into the -\<w and 
adding to the lead lilver loeaei by rolatiliiatioii 

The throughout the Weal itarta In 

the mine, where it ia left U broken In order to gel out 
the other ore, il is thrown over the damp u we 
left in the tills ti> be perhape forgotten or lafl until the 
mine luis been abandoned, when it will not pay to re open 
tin' mini' to get at it 

Now, us the consumption of dne is inereaaing, as its 
value is hut.' fully appreciated, 1 would lik<- to know 
how long our sine mines will last as compared with the 
copper mini's can be worked to great depth 1 

There is no doubt in my mind but that mosl of this 
sine waste can 1"' avoided. Whenever the sine is re 
covered from the complex ores of the Western states, 

the copper, lead, silver, and gold can also i xtracted 

all of which are now almost valueless on a rant of the 

presence of the sine. 

Several metallurgical chemists, with whom I am ac- 
quainted, have spent time and money in experimenting 

on these lines with leaching pi esses for the treatment 

of complex ores, especially ore not suited to concentra- 
tion schemes. Several of these processes have passed 
the experimental stage on small lots of a few pounds 
each, and the chemists are too poor themselves tn erect a 
plant large enough to prove their statements on a corn- 
mercia] basis. When they present their schemes to in- 
dividuals or corporations able to develop their ideas for 
them, the chemist generally asks too much and expects 
to keep control of the process through secrets or patents. 
He makes unreasonable demands. On the other hand, 
corporations are often represented by officials slow to 
act, even when they may think well of the process pre- 
sented for their consideration; first, on account of the 
risk they take of injuring their own reputation in case 
the process should prove a failure after they have recom- 
mended it, and second, some of the officials themselves 
may have some schemes of their own and consider it 
their duty to work out a process for their company them- 
selves. With these two conflicting elements, and the 
men with money naturally afraid of losing it, it is a 
difficult matter to get any new process developed so as to 
justify the installation of a plant large enough to treat 
such ore profitably, and if they did, those who control 
the process through patents or secret usage are not likely 
to let the public have the benefit of it. On the other 
hand, if the Government, through the Mining Bureau, 
had the process developed, and gave the inventor a 
reasonable royalty or purchase price, so as to release the 
process for use under certain conditions, including per- 
haps some small payment to the Government, then metal- 
lurgical advance would be facilitated. 

The excellent research work now being carried on by 
Dorsey A. Lyon and others in the Bureau is not suf- 
ficient. It is necessary to select from and commercial- 
ize some of the processes suggested by this preliminary 
work, which should be continued by our Government. 

I would suggest that the metallurgy of zinc be the first 
to be taken up and improved, on account of it being the 
commercial metal suffering the greatest waste at present, 

and because the recovery lompli 

ivi other valuabli metals 

S \'. Itio 

s.m Francisco, Julj 1 7 

Stamp-Milling in Georgia 
The Editor: 

Jour 'concentrate' in the issue of Julj 3, stating 
that "the first stamp-milling in the United States was 
done in Georgia," impels in.- to send you a photograph 

Of a i tar Which was in use in a stamp-mill at the 

Columbia gold mine, in McDuffl unty, Georgia, in 

Tins mortar is now in the museum of the Ham 


mond Laboratory, Sheffield Scientific School, Yale Uni- 

Gold was discovered at that place in 1829 ; and the 
working of the mine and mill was continued up to 1861, 
when the mill was dismantled by the Confederate gov- 
ernment, which needed the boilers", engine, and iron 

N. S. Keith. 

Philadelphia, July 9. 

The talisman mine is one of the most important in 
New Zealand. During the year ended February 28, 1915, 
the mill treated 50,190 tons of ore by stamping and cy- 
aniding, yielding 63,192 oz. gold and 116,534 oz. silver, 
valued at $1,224,000. Costs totaled $10.94 per ton. The 
operating profit was $777,000. Dividends amounted to 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 24, 1915 

Efficiency Engineering in the Copper Country 

By p. b. Mcdonald 

The recent death of Frederick YV. Taylor, the origin- 
ator of efficiency engineering, or scientific management, 
evoked varying opinions as to whether or nol the systems 
[vocated had succeeded. Not so much is heard of 
scientific management as was the case four or five years 
ago, when il first began to be applied to mining. Some 
mining men still retain their original enthusiasm for the 
system. Others see good in it, but also see limitations. 
Still others never cared for its principles. Thus Frank 
Richards, managing editor of Compresscil Air Magazine 
speaks of 'Taylorism' as one of the tads that the Ameri- 
can people seems to require to play with, and he quotes 
an English authority who styled it "a peculiarly hideous 
system of dehumanization." One of the mining regions 
where efficiency engineering, or 'Taylorism.' has been 
given s most thorough trial is the Lake Superior, more 
particularly in the copper country, where the Calumet & 
Hecla went into it on an extensive scale, being followed 
to a lesser degree by the other copper-mining companies. 
and also by some of the iron-mining companies on the 
ranges to the south. 

By the Calumet & Hecla. as here mentioned, is meant 
not only the consolidated Calumet & Hecla mine proper, 
but also the several subsidiaries. It was in the Superior 
mine, near Houghton, under the superintendent, Ocha 
Potter, that most of the innovations and short-cut sys- 
tems were tested before being applied to the larger mines 
at Calumet. Supt. Potter, a man of considerable experi- 
ence and a graduate of the Michigan College of Mines, 
was a strong advocate of scientific management, as were 
likewise both John Knox, the general superintendent of 
the Calumet & Hecla, and James MacNaughton, the gen- 
eral manager, who took an active interest in all the dif- 
ferent ways and means worked out by Potter and bis 

Efficiency in its every phase was gone into most thor- 
oughly and minutely : drilling, blasting, 'mucking,' tram- 
ming, timbering, co-ordination of work, mechanical aids. 
improved rock-drills, care of old stopes, disposal of waste 
rock, tailing, etc-. Observers with pencil, paper, and 
watches standardized, all movements of the miners. New- 
varieties of reek-drills of various weights, styles, and 
with different pressures of air, were tried and tin- ad- 
vantages of each figured out. Suggestions were made to 

a eoinpans manufact uring rock-drills toward coopera- 
tion to produce a special drill, based upon information 
obtained from experiments in the copper mines, that 
would be exactly suited to the conditions and require- 
ments of the tough amygdaloid rock of the copper coun- 
try and to the abilities of the miners operating it. By 
carefully trying new methods at the Superior mine and 
proving them feasible before adopting them at Calumet, 
it was possible, when some of the old miners at the lat- 

ter place said, "It can't be done," to bring Potter and 
one or two men from Superior and demonstrate that it 
could be done. Soon a regular staff of efficiency engi- 
neers was on hand in all the Calumet & Hecla mines. 
"many of them college men who had been trained for their 
work by an apprenticeship at the Superior mine. The 
results attained were extraordinarily gratifying. In a 
comparatively few months the cost of driving had been 
reduced 60% ; the cost of sloping bad been decreased a 
smaller, but an appreciable, amount; timbering and gen- 
eral co-ordination of work had been materially im- 
proved. The new one-man drills proved great time- 
savers and cut costs immediately. 

Driving, in its various phases of drilling a set of holes, 
blasting, and 'mucking,' offered a favorable opportunity 
for measuring what each man accomplished, and lent 
itself to standardization due to the self-contained and 
comparatively simple nature of the advance of a drift. 
The most noticeable gains in efficiency were achieved in 
driving. Stoping, with the difficulty in seeing and re- 
cording just what one miner had done and how much 
rock he had broken, was less amenable to scientific im- 
provement, and it was found that stoping methods could 
not be accelerated to the extent possible with driving. 
But the most decided obstruction to the instant success 
of the plans of the efficiency engineers was the sullen 
opposition of a great mass of the miners. They did not 
like the new "pencil methods" of standardization, and 
particularly objected to working alone on the one-man 
drills. A few converts were made and won over to the 
cause of progress, hut for the most part a stubborn re- 
sentment and general dislike against doing things by 
rote prevailed in the ranks of the thousands of Cornish, 
Finnish, Polish, and Austrian miners, who distrusted, 
mistrusted, and did not understand this comprehensive 
grafting of a standardized and detailed set of rules on 
what bad hitherto been ordinary everyday raining. 

The efficiency plans that the Calumet & Hecla gradu- 
ally put into practice were so carefully entered into, so 
thoroughly worked out, and so systematically adminis- 
tered, that estimates of the amount of money they were 
going to save in operating ran into the hundreds of 
thousands of dollars per year. The cost of rock-drills, 
drill-repairing, and incidentals in general bad mounted 
tremendously, but wonderful reductions in the cost per 
foot of driving and the cost per ton of rock stoped had 
been gained, as well as considerable savings in the 
amount of timber used and miscellaneous economies. 

Just, when scientific management had got into full 
swing, the disastrous labor troubles came, based, from 
the miner's standpoint, on antagonism to the one-man 
drill, to working alone, and to mistreatroeut by "petty 
bosses." Whether or not the strike of the copper miners 34, 191 • 

MINING Scirm i„ pri s< 


direcl result of the efficiency engineering oampaigu 
matter of opinion. Possibly ii would have 

about anyway, regardless of efflciei ia [i 

ia likely that the new methods of working had something 

with making it possible for agi im the 

in Federation of Miners to gain a foothold and a 
following in Michigan. In the end the oopper mining 
companies won, bul they loal a greal deal of money from 
the long bitter struggle and expensive abut-down oc- 
led by the strike, h is no) difficult to see thai mil- 
lions of dollars were loal both by operators and men in 
the weary months of Bghting and bad feeling. 

In bo far as faster rook drills and superior facilities tor 
repairing them, better co-ordination of the different 
phases of underground work, and more accurate knowl- 
edge of practical mining, have resulted from efficiency 

engi ring in the copper country, the system lias been 

an undeniable success. As to any lasting or consistent 
speeding of the miners at their work, judges of the 
situation are not bo sun'. Averaging losses and gains in 
the labor element, an unprejudiced outsider could not be 
certain that the companies have benefited except in the 
mechanical line, particularly as regards rock-drills and 
their maintenance, and in better appreciation — on the 
part of the staff of officials— of the peculiar problems of 
underground mining. To get a correct valuation of the 
advantage or disadvantage of efficiency engineering, a 
long period of time should be considered, so that the 
effect On the labor situation could he gauged and weighed. 
Other mining companies in the copper country fol- 
lowed the lead of the Calumet & Hecla, and worked out 
many economies and improvements in the standardiza- 
tion of underground methods. But like the Calumet & 
Hecla, they also lost heavily in the strike. On the iron 
ranges to the south and west, a few enthusiasts in scien- 
tific management developed, and the American mine at 
Diorite, the Munro Iron Mining Co. at Iron River, and 
even one or two of the Oliver mines on the Mesabi, con- 
ducted more or less complete experiments in observing, 
recording, and systematizing underground work. How- 
ever, the iron operators were too busy with other matters, 
or were restrained by conservative Eastern managements 
from doing much more than experiment with the new 
ideas. Some creditable improvements were effected at 
several mines, such as better provision for getting dull 
drill-steel sharpened, timber-saving devices, faster rock- 
drills, economies in distribution and use of dynamite, 
etc., but scientific management, where known as such, 
was not persistent to any marked degree on the iron 
ranges. The individual iron mines merely continued to 
do common-sense operating, getting out the ore and ship- 
ping it, as cheaply and as handily as possible, while keep- 
ing all eyes open for wastes and leaks, as has always been 
done in the ore business of Lake Superior. 

In the main, efficiency engineering in this region has 
accomplished a number of economies — mostly mechani- 
cal; in its effect on labor the advantage is doubtful, and 
undoubtedly the disastrous labor unrest was partly due 
to opposition by the miners to the attempt by efficiency 
enthusiasts at standardizing and speeding mining. 

Silver Discovery in the Yukon 

a. o. sAUNDtn* 

The discover} claim was itaked by ll vv MoWhorter 
upon a ,-rcck thai be subsequently named appropriate!) 
Galena. Qalena creek is a tributary of the north fork of 
the McQuesten river; in fact, this pari of the country 

might i rreotly described as the headwaters of the 

McQuesten. Upon the Bret tier of benches from the 
level of the river there is a narrow canyon, about 70 ft. 
offering all thai could be desired in the wa) of 
help to the pros] tor, revealing, as ii .iocs, the forma- 
tion splendidly. About to ft. above the level of the 
creek, between a hanging wall of quartzite and a foot 

wall Of mica Schist (both walls being remarkably well 

defined i i in. of galena showed in the outcrop in a more 
or less decomposed condition. This, upon being assayed 
for silver, gave high returns. An adit was immediately 
commenced and. upon driving only a few feet, 12 in. of 
galena and considerable pyrargyrite was uncovered. 
Sloping operations were started, a trail was cul for 30 
miles through gnarled and stunted firs, swamp, muskeg, 
and mosquitoes to Mayo handing and as soon as the snow 
began to melt 511 tons of ore was piled at the landing to 
await spring and the 'break-up.' After being freighted 
down the Stewart river, the ore was carried up the 
Yukon to Whitehorse, over the White Pass by railroad, 
and down I he Pacific coast to Vancouver, wdiere it was 
again trans-shipped. The ore eventually landed at the 
smelter at Trail. British Columbia, somewhat travel- 
stained and worn but still able to fetch the welcome re- 
turns of $269 per ton. [Some of it came to the Selby 
smelter, San Francisco]. 

A shaft was then sunk upon the vein to a depth of 100 
ft. and a cross-cut driven for 60 ft. To the 100-ft. level 
the vein maintains a fairly uniform width of 24 in. from 
wall to wall, dipping at an angle of 35°, the general 
strike being north-east. 

At this depth a rich ore-shoot about 30 feet wide was 
followed down for another 60 ft., the orebody rapidly 
becoming wider and the dip a little steeper, the galena 
averaging 40 in. in width, with 12 in. of vein-filling 
carrying pyrargyrite in abundance. Argentite and 
stephanite in less proportions are also observed. Al- 
ready 1380 tons of ore has been extracted (by single-jack 
work), sacked, and shipped to the smelter. 

Development work is rapidly proceeding in an en- 
deavor to get enough ore in reserve to warrant the erec- 
tion of a reduction plant, the ore being amenable to con- 
centration either by oil-flotation or water. The cost of 
development in a new camp is always high, but the cost 
of transportation from a remote place like the water- 
shed of the McQuesten to the nearest lead smeller can 
only be described as terrific. 

Some systematic and thoughtful prospecting along the 
strike of the vein has been done on both sides of the dis- 
covery claim but up to the time of writing nothing 
worthy of note outside of the one rich small shoot — 
about 30 ft. wide — now being worked, has been disclosed. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 24, 1915 

Flotation in a Mexican Mill 


Present Concentrating Methods. The mill receives 
200 tons per day of crude mine ore. After being crushed 
to 2-inch size, this ore is passed over a picking-belt, 
where one ton of high-grade ore and four tons of waste 
are removed each day. The remaining 195 tons of sec- 
ond-claaa ore is crushed in stamp-batteries, to pass a 4- 
mesh screen. Lime-water, in the proportion of 7 of 
to 1 of ore, is added in the battery. The pulp from 
these is classified roughly, the coarse sand being ground 
in a Hardinge mill to pass a 20-mesh screen. The pulp 
is again classified roughly into four sizes of sand and 

size of slime. The sand is concentrated on Wilfley 

talihs and tin- slime (after being settled to 7 : 1 in cone- 
bottom tanks i is concentrated on Deister tables. 

The slime-tailing, from the Deister tables, is re-concen- 
trated on vanners. The tailing from the vanners settles 
to 3J tons of water per ton of slime; the water being 
further reduced to J : 1 in a vacuum-filter. The filter- 
cake is washed with weak barren solution before being 
sent to the cyanide plant. 

The sand-tailing from the Wilfley tables of the stamp- 
mill is classified carefully in mechanical classifiers; the 
slime under-size joins the slime-tailing from the re-con- 
centrating vanners. and the sand (after the addition of 
cyanide solution) enters the tube-mill circuit, where it 
is joined by 50 tons per day of dump-tailing. All tube- 
milling is done in cyanide solution. After passing 
through the tube-mills, the combined current and dump 
sands are re-concentrated on Wilfley tables. The tailing 
from these tables is classified, the coarse sand re-entering 
the tube-mill circuit and the slimed sand being thickened 
in three 24-ft. Dorr vats before entering the cyanide 

Metallurgical Results of Present Methods 

Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, 

oz. oz. % % 

The feed to the stamp-mill assays. 0.1 35.4 0.25 0.7 

The concentrate assays 2.0 570.0 2.0 10.0 

The tailing, after concentration, 

assays 0.03 18.0 0.15 0.4 

The recovery therefore is : gold, 65 ; silver, 48 ; copper, 
35 ; and lead, 45%. 

Necessity of Better Concentration. The above 
data show that a little more than half the gold is being 
recovered in concentration, and that the recovery on 
silver, lead, and copper is less than half the contents in 
the original ore. 

Tests indicate that more than 90% of the metal in the 
original ore occurs in the form of sulphides. Hence half 
of the metallic sulphides of the original ore enters the 
cyanide plant. This is undesirable for the following 
reasons : 

1. The extraction of silver from sulphide metals is 
poor in the cyanide plant; the concentrate produced 

from panning current residue assays between 50 and 
100 oz. silver per ton, and the tailing from panning in- 
variably assays below 2 oz., even when the residue assays 
as high as 5 oz. ; showing that the poor extraction is due 
to undissolved silver in the sulphides. 

2. The presence of metallic sulphides increases the 
cyanide consumption. The chemical consumption of 
cyanide is reduced from 4 to 1 lb. per ton when the 
metallic sulphides are removed from the heading to the 
cyanide plant. The present excessive cyanide consump- 
tion is due almost entirely to the solution of copper from 
the ore. 

3. The presence of copper and zinc sulphides in the 
cyanide pulp fouls the solution, thus decreasing the ex- 
traction from the rest of the ore. 

The possibility of improving results by better concen- 
tration of the ore has long been recognized. For this 
reason, arrangements were made for re-concentrating. 
Both arrangements have effected a reduction of assay- 
value in the final residue and a corresponding increase of 

Methods for Improving Present Concentration. 
Lately, extensive tests have been made to determine the 
possibility of still closer concentration. Careful pan- 
ning reduces the average feed to the cyanide plant from 
18 oz. silver to 10 oz. per ton. 

Canvas tables give slightly poorer results. A full- 
sized canvas table, treating tailing from the Deister 
tables (assaying 20 oz. per ton) produced 15 oz. tailing — 
an extraction of 25%. Further tests along this line were 
discontinued on account of securing much better results 
from laboratory flotation tests. 

Laboratory Flotation Tests. All flotation tests, 
made in the laboratory, were run in separatory funnels. 
The general procedure in the tests was to mix 100 grams 
of minus 200-mesh ore with water in proportion of four 
of water to one of ore. Suitable amounts of oil were then 
added and the mixture shaken violently. After allow- 
ing the pulp to settle for a few moments, the bottom cock 
of the funnel was opened and the tailing run into a 
second separatory funnel for another flotation treat- 
ment; the cock being closed before the froth began to 
run out. This process was repeated, on the tailing, from 
five to seven times. Several hundred tests have been run, 
all possible variations of conditions being tried. The 
results of the tests led to the following conclusions : 

1. All ores from the mine may be treated by flotation. 
Semi-oxidized ore from one level yields a tailing assay- 
ing 10 oz. silver per ton, while the oxidized ore from 
another level gives a tailing containing only 2 oz. per ton. 
The tailing from average ore, when conditions for flota- 
tion are right, is 4.5 oz. silver per ton. 

2. The grade of tailing appears to he independent of 


MIMV. ind Sbentifx l'Kl SS 

treated by dotation, or 


ikalinitv during flotation must l»- between 

Kuution The beet reaulta 

I when the alkalinit • lb. When th<- 

alkalimtv is t.»i low, tl atraetion ia i r although t li *- 

lean When the alkalinity is n«> high, 

Uitli tl tioo and grade of ntnte are poor. 

Whan tli<' alkalinity is riu'lit 0.026 lb.) In.tli the ex 
ii and \:i Dcentrate are beat The main 

taoanee ol proper alkalinity «ill require the moal oare 
of anything in th<> plant: although it will not be more 

iir considerably higher when thu U'inpi 
"\> i 100 P , bul ■ 1 1 1 k have I •! « iili the 

m as W P. li »ill ii"t I"- «sary to 

arrange for heating the pulp, especially at thi itart 

6 Pine grinding is neceaaar) for k'""d reaulta in flota- 
tion, When the mill-heading waa oruahed t" 60-meah, 
the tailing from flotation aaaayed ild, and 11 

ii/. silver; when the same ore waa oruahed t" 100 meah, 
the tailing aaaayed 0.04 "/.. gold and G oz. silver; and 
when the c rushing "as carried to 200 meah, the tailing 
aaaayed 0.02 oz. tr< » I < i and 8.75 oz. silver. 

The question of the kind of crushing haniara 


difficult than the maintenance of proper cyanide strength 
in the cyanide plant. 

4. The dilution may range between 3i:l and 7:1; 
with the best results, on average ore, between 4 : 1 and 
6:1. When the pulp is sandy a low dilution is best: 
pure sand, ground to 200-inesh, requires a dilution of 
1 : 1. Average slime, like the Deister feed, on the other 
hand, requires a dilution of 8 : 1. Good extraction may 
be secured on either sand or slime, provided approxi- 
mately the proper dilutions are secured in each case. 
Proper dilutions will be easy to maintain in the plant, 
for the range for the best work is comparatively large ; 
and when either an excess of sand or an excess of slime 
occurs in the ore, the proper dilution will automatically 
adjust itself; for the sand of itself will settle to a thick 
pulp, while the slime will not settle well, but will remain 

5. The temperature is not a matter of vital interest. 
The extraction is slightly better and the grade of con- 

best adapted to preparing ore for flotation is vital ; at 
present the tube-mill, ball-mill, and disc-crusher bold 
the field. — Editor.] 

7. The best flotation agents, so far tested, are pine- 
oils. Low-grade pine-oil gave as good results as the 
higher-grade varieties. S. S. pine-oil, of the General 
Naval Stores Co. (cost 26c. per gal., f.o.b. factory) has 
given exceptionally good results. For the best work in 
flotation it is necessary to have this oil present to the 
extent of 0.6 lb. per ton of ore. In actual plant-practice, 
where the water is returned again and again to the top 
of the mill, the consumption of oil will probably be about 
i lb. per ton of ore. This oil will cost, delivered, 8c. per 

Pine-tar oil is much cheaper. It gives good extraction, 
but the grade of concentrate is low. Cresylic acid, when 
used with pine-oils, increases the extraction about \ oz. 
silver per ton. This hardly pays for its use. 

8. In the laboratory tests the grade of concentrate was 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 24, 1915 

low, averaging 200 oz. silver per (bn. This concentrate 
could be raised to 1100 oz. by re-treating the concentrate 
by flotation. 

9. Cyanide tests, run on tailing from the flotation 
tests, produced residues assaying less than 1 oz. silver 
per ton, with a cyanide consumption of less than 1 lb. 
per ton. 

10. The dump-tailing cannot be easily treated by flota- 
tion. When the methods of flotation that are applicable 

to mil re are applied t<> the dump-tailing, the results 

are nil. Furthermore, when the water that has been in 
eontact with the dump-tailing is used for diluting mine- 
ore, the mine-ore cannot he treated advantageously hy 

flotation. Experiments show that both these effects are 
due to the presence of soluble sulphates (chiefly those 
id' magnesium and calcium) in the dump-tailing. The 
injurious effect of magnesium sulphate ean he overcome 
largely by an excess of oil. No method of overcoming 
the injurious effects of calcium sulphate has yet been 
discovered in the tests. 

When the dump-tailing is washed in fresh water half 
a dozen limes, before being treated hy flotation, the re- 
sults of flotation are as satisfactory as is the ease with 
mine-ore. However, a plant for washing the dump-tail- 
ing would be more expensive than the small tonnage of 
this material warrants, and the operation of such a plant 
would necessitate the waste of more water than is avail- 
able. Some other method of rendering the dump-tailing 
susceptible to flotation may lie devised; hut the small 
tonnage dues not warrant any extended investigation. 
The best thing to do, especially at the start, is to send the 

dump-tailing direct to the cyanide plaid (after concen- 
trating the ground sand on Wilfleysi as at present. 

11. As a result of the laboratory experiment, it was 
decided that full-sized tests should be conducted in the 
plant on run-of-mine ore. 

PLANT TESTS. For this purpose, there were set aside 
for the flotation circuit, one battery of live stamps, two 
Wilfley tables, one classifier, one tube-mill, one 24-ft. 
settler, and one pump for returning the water from the 
settling-tank to the head of the null. 

A flotation-cell of the pneumatic type was first tried. 
Whin treating 20-oz. heading this machine produced a 
290-oz. concentrate and a 15.3-oz. tailing. This was far 
from satisfactory. 

Another machine consisted of a series of mechanical- 
agitation chambers, alternating with a series of settling- 
chambers. From the start, this machine has given ex- 
cellent results. In spite of many mechanical difficulties. 
and trouble with inexperienced operators, the tailing 
from the plant has averaged but little above 5 oz. silver 
per ton. and the concentrate has averaged above 600 oz., 
without re-concentration. 

The chief weaknesses of mechanical agitation, as as- 
certained in this mill, are : 

1. The complex system of shafts and counter-shaft, 
with the corresponding drives, bearings, ile, 

2. The difficulty of adjustment; any slight change in 
feed necessitating a change in the valves of each 

:;. The difficulty of the passages between chamberf 
coming clogged. 

Si BMEBGED AGITATION. It has been attempted to 
evolve a flotation machine to overcome these weaknesses. 
and at the same time give results as good as I he me- 
chanical agitation plant. A small machine (capacity :• 
tons per day" has been constructed, and this, after many 
alterations, has yielded a :'.7-oz. tailing and a 680-oz. 
concentrate, when treating 10-OZ. feed. This machine 
employs a somewhat unique principle of flotation — that 

of submerged agitation — the mixture of pulp, oil. and 
ail' being violently agitated in a partly closed chamber, 
under the hydrostatic pressure of several feet ol' pulp in 
the settling-chambers above. 

In construction, this machine is simpler than the 
machine using mechanical agitation. It consists essen- 
tially of a Y-shaped box or trough, divided into compart- 
ments by a series of vertical partitions. At the bottom 
of each partition is an agitation-chamber. Agitation is 
supplied by a paddle-wheel in each chamber. All the 
paddle-wheels are mounted upon a single horizontal 
shafting, which passes the entire length of the trough, 
leaving the end partitions through stuffing-boxes. The 
pulp cnl eis each agitation-chamber through an opening 
around the shafting, and leaves the agitation-chamber 
through an adjustable aperture, at a slight distance from 
the shafting. The agitator thus acts slightly as a cen- 
trifugal pump, overcoming the friction loss in the pass- 
age from one compartment to another, and keeping the 
height of the pulp the same in all the settling-chambers. 
The adjustment of the aperture is arranged to increase 
or decrease the centrifugal force. This adjustment oc- 
casions much less difficulty than is experienced in me- 
chanical agitation, where the flow from one compartment 
to another is merely throttled. 

Also, in the new plant there are no pipes to become 
clogged, the passage of pulp from one cell to another 
being along a rapidly revolving shafting, which keeps 
all material in suspension. The concentrate overflows 
from both edges of the trough, thus being removed more 
promptly than in a plant using mechanical agitation. 

Further tests with the small machine are being made. 
and a larger machine (capacity 40 tons per day) is being 
constructed, for thoroughly testing the principles in- 
volved. The 40-ton machine will be constructed with 
the idea of using it for re-concentration of the concen- 
trate, should a full-sized flotation plant be installed. 

SiMt'LE Mechanical Agitation. The machine has 
now been operating intermittently for a month. During 
that month it ran six days continuously, treating 25 
tons of 29-oz. pulp and producing 6.4-oz. tailing and 
600-oz. concentrate. During the first five days of the 
following month, careful tests were rim to compare flota- 
tion results with those from current concentrating prac- 
tice. The following tables give the summary of results 
from these tests. 

Mill-Tests. Flotation v. Present Concentration Prac- 
tice. Flotation plant takes 25 tons per day of mill head- 
ing after being crushed to 20-mesh by stamps, concen- 
trated on Wilfieys. and passed through a tube-mill. 



MINING and Sdentifi. I'KI SS 


V I'l ti 


OoM Slh.i 


l 190 

Llqi ii. i, 


ii Is 

$11 IS 

PBODI < I- I'l I TOH "I iii. i. I 


Willi. ,, 

trati 0.0207 

Averai;- concentrate 0.0620 



2 .827 



Copper Lead 

8.00 ii mi 

Zinc, Insoluble. 

13.2 -vl 

1477 0.004 1.98 ".mil 4.71 

Cyanide residues 0.001 i ,001 0.95 

Is bullion 0.002 :; ;,; 


Wilde] and notation ooncentrate, tons 

Gold. 0.123 oz. at 180 22.42 

Sllv.-r. 25.10 OS., 86 I,;.,;; 

Copper 2.81 lb. at 8.2c 0.28 

L*ad, ' i - i.B= 1". 0.29 

haulage, rrelgbt, and treatment, al 219.67 | 

,on $0.80 

Lees taxes, commission, and expense, 7.14'; 0.86 i >■'■ 

Bankable rands per ion »r ore $9.82 

Bullion from current tailing, 24.88 oz. gross: 

Gold, 0.0427 oz. at $20.67 $0.88 

Silver, 16.59 oz. at 50c 8.29 

Less haulage, freight, and treatment at $19.67 

per ion 21.02 

Less taxes, commissions, etc., 7.4491 1.45 


Less haulase ami treatment, at 1.08c. per oz. 
Less express, taxis, etc, 7.8' , 

. n.72 0.9S 


Bankable funds from concentrate per ton of ore. $17.1 1 

Bullion from flotation-tailing, per ton of ore, 5.56 oz. gross: 

Gold. 0.003 oz. at $20.67 $0.06 

Silver, 3.76 oz. at 50c I.vs 


Less haulage, treatment, 1.08c. per oz $0.06 

Less express, duties, etc., 7.8% 0.15 0.21 

Bankable funds from bullion per ton of ore $1.73 

Present Practice. During the five days the flotation 
test was being run. the rest of the mill received 160 tons 
per day of the same grade of mill-heading. This was 
concentrated upon Wilfley and Deister tables and the 
tailing re-concentrated on Wilfleys and vanners. 

Mi i u.lurgkal Results. Peb Ton of Original Ore 

, — Assay — , ,— Contents— ^ 
Tons. Gold. Silver. Gold. Silver. 

Mill-heading 1.00000 

Stamp-mill concentrate. 0.03650 
Wilfley re-concentrate.. 0.00375 
Vanner re-eoncentrate. .0.00060 

Tailing 0.95815 

Residue 0.95S15 




























Bankable funds per ton of ore $S.19 

Costs. Labor and repair costs will remain about the 
same as now. Two high-class operators in the present 
re-treatment plant will In- replaced by three cheap op- 
erators in the flotation plant. 

Power consumption will be increased about 40 lip. 
This will cost 5c. per ton. 

Oil consumption will be about j lb. per ton of ore. 
| lb. @ 8c. = 2c. per ton. 

The total increase in the cost of concentration will 
therefore be about 7c. per ton. 

The present cyanide consumption per ton of ore is 
6 lb., of which 2 lb. is mechanically lost. Small labora- 
tory tests show that the chemical consumption of cya- 
nide when flotation-tailing is treated, is only 1 lb. per 
ton of ore. This is 3 lb. less than the consumption when 
current tailing is treated. If this result is sustained in 
actual plant-practice, the saving in cyanide alone will 
amount to 3 X 19c = 57c. per ton of ore. 

The present cost of precipitation and melting is 2.56c. 
per fine ounce. 

In present practice 16.6 fine ounces are produced per 
ton of ore. When flotation tailing is treated, only 3.7 
oz. are produced per ton of ore. This means an excess 

Products Per Ton of Okic.inal Ore 


Stamp-mill concentrate 0.03650 

Wilfley re-concentrate 0.00375 

Vanner re-concentrate 0.00060 

Total concentrates 0.049S5 
































Bullion, 24.S8 oz. gross; gold, 0.0427 oz.; silver, 16.59 oz. per f 12.9 oz. produced in present practice: 129 X 2.56c. = 

ton - 33c. per ton of ore. 

Probably this amount would be reduced to 28c. on 

♦Throughout this article values are given in U. S. Currency. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Jiilv 24. 1915 

account of certain fixed labor and pumping charges, 
which will not be materially reduced if the flotation 
plant is installed. 

Financial Statemhnt 

Flotation v. Present Practice, per ton of original ore. 

Present Flota- 

practice. tion. 

Bankable funds; marketing concentrate $9.82 $17.14 

Bankable funds: marketing bullion 8.19 1.73 

Increased cost of concentration 0.07 .... 

Decreased cost of cyanide 0.57 

Decreased cost of melting and precipitation. ... 0.2S 

$18.08 $19.72 

Increased profit per ton from flotation, 200 tons per day at 
$1.64 = $328 increased profit per day or $9840 increased profit 
per month. 

The above is calculated on the basis of results from a 
single mill-test of 5 days' duration. During this interval 
the heading to the mill and the residues were excessively 
high ; indicating a greater advantage in favor of the 
flotation plant than is actually warranted. 

The estimate of probable profit may be revised roughly 
by using the metallurgical results of the past two months 
for the basis of calculations. During two months the 
heading to the cyanide plant has averaged 17.8 oz. silver, 
and the residue has averaged 2.75 oz. per ton. The 
residue from cyanide-flotation tailing would assay 1 oz. 
per ton. This indicates an increased extraction of 1.75 
oz. silver per ton of ore. 1.75 oz. at 41c. = 72i\ increased 
profit per ton. 

The indicated decrease in cyanide consumption (as 
determined solely in the laboratory) is 3 lb. per ton of 
ore. Reducing this to 2J lb., to be on the safe side, the 
decreased cost of cyanide would be 2J X 19c. = 47c. per 
ton of ore. 

The decreased cost of precipitation and melting may 
be figured as follows: Cost of precipitation and melting, 
per fine ounce, has been 2.4c. The decreased production 
of bullion, due to flotation, would be 11 oz. per ton of ore. 
11 oz. at 2.4c. = 26.4c. When fixed charges are con- 
sidered, this should be reduced to 20c. per ton. 

When the profit from marketing an increased amount 
of lead and copper is balanced against the increased 
loss occasioned by marketing the silver and gold as con- 
centrate instead of bullion, there is a deficit of 17c. per 
ton of ore. 

The matter may be summarized as follows : 

Per ton. 

Increased extraction $0.72 

Decreased cyanide consumption 0.47 

Decreased cost of precipitation and melting 0.20 

Increased cost of marketing 0.17 

Profits per ton of ore $1.22 

The average tonnage of mine-ore for the past two 
months has been 5761 tons. Hence the indicated in- 
crease in monthly profit would be 5761 X $1.22 = 

Installation of Flotation Plant. Should a flota- 

tion plant be installed, operations in the stamp-mill will 
continue as at present ; though it may be deemed advisa- 
ble, after the flotation plant is running smoothly, to 
eliminate concentration in the stamp-mill, and depend 
upon the flotation plant for all concentration. 

Re-concentration df current tailing on vanners and 
WilfleyB will be discontinued from the start. 

The dump-tailing will be treated as at present, with 
the exception that this material will enter the plant only 
in the day-time. One tube-mill, one classifier, one ele- 
vator, and the re-concentrating \Yilfley tables will be 
kept separate from this circuit, which will be in cyanide 
solution. All lime for the cyanide plant will enter this 
circuit. One of the 24-ft. tanks and one of the pumps 
must be reserved for the dump-tailing circuit. 

All the tube-milling of current sand tailing will be 
done in mill-water, instead of cyanide solution. 

The ground sand, together with the current slime, will 
be settled in two of the 24-ft. thickening-tanks, and will 
then enter the flotation plant. From the flotation plant, 
the tailing will flow to the two 33-ft. thickening-tanks. 
The thickened pulp from these tanks will be de-watered 
and washed in the vacuum-filter before entering the 
cyanide plant. 

All lime lor the mill-circuit will be added as an emul- 
sion to the flotation-tailing launder, where it will be 
under direct control of the flotation-operator. The water 
in the 23-ft. thickening-tanks will contain about 0.4 lb. 
dissolved lime per ton. This is ample for good settling. 
The overflow from these tanks will be reduced, by con- 
sumption, to about 0.1 lb. per ton. This is sufficient for 
fair settling in the cone-bottom tanks of the stamp-mill. 
By the time the pulp reaches the 24-ft. thickening-tanks 
the lime will be reduced to 0.03 lb. per ton. This low 
lime will be extremely detrimental to good settling in 
these tanks. 

Installation Required. The matter of supplying 
proper settling and de-watering facilities will be the 
most serious and most expensive part of the installation. 

The two 24-ft. thickening-tanks, to be used in the flota- 
tion-circuit, must be triple-decked. It will also prob- 
ably be found necessary to double-deck the 32-ft. steel 
thickening-tank. The work on settling-tanks will cost 
about $6000. 

By increasing the settling capacity, the pulp will 
probably be settled to a sufficient thickness that the 
vacuum-filter will be able to handle the combined sand- 
slime feed. 

It may be found necessary, however, to add another 
unit to this plant. This will cost $2000. 

The flotation plant will consist of two units (each of 
which will be able to treat the total tonnage of current 
tailing) and one smaller clean-up machine. The whole 
plant will cost about $3000. A filter-press for handling 
the concentrate will cost $2000. Tanks, air-lifts, laun- 
ders, and buildings will cost $2000. Thus the whole in- 
stallation will cost $15,000, or $20,000 at the most. The 
addition of the flotation plant, for treating current tail- 
ing, will increase the profit about $7000 per month. Prac- 
tically all ore from the mine may be treated by flotation. 

MINING .nd Scientific PRESS 


9C ? * 


I'l \s \ 01 POTO8I. 

mi. KOI M M\ hi 

The Potosi Tin-Mining District, Bolivia 


E&SXOBY. The Potosi tin-mining district is near the 
city of Potosi in the south-central part of Bolivia, South 
America. Besides the mines in the Immediate vicinity 
of the city, it may be considered to include the Huari- 
Huari mines 15 miles northeast and the Porco mines 30 
miles southwest. The Potosi mines are much older than 
those of the .Milium and Quimsa Cruz districts, both of 
which have been described in previous articles!, those at 
Porco having been discovered long before Columbus 
landed in America, while the Bolivian Indians were still 
under the rule of the Incas. 

Maita Capajh, fourth of the Incas, whose reign began 
in 1171, extended the boundaries of the Inca empire 
from Cnzco, now in Peru, as far as what is at present the 
city of La Paz in Bolivia. During this extension, the 
rich silver mines of Porco were discovered and were after- 
ward worked by Maita Capajh and his successors upon 
a large scale. The name Potosi is said to have originated 
with a later Inca, Huaina Capajh, who camped near the 
beautiful peak in 1462. So impressed was he with the 
grandeur of the mountain, that he thought it must con- 
tain silver and sent some of his retainers there to pros- 
pect for the precious metal. The prospecting party was 
overtaken by one of the violent thunderstorms prevalent 
in that region, and becoming frightened by a terrific 
peal of thunder, ran back to the Inca with cries of 
"Potojsi\", which is the Quichua Indian for "It made s 
loud noise!" The prospectors also declared that in the 
calm succeeding the report they had heard a voice saying, 
"Touch not the silver of this mountain, it is for other 
owners!" Some doubt is cast upon the veracity of this 
ingenuous tale by the existence of another Quichua word. 
potojchi, which means 'fountain of silver,' and whose 

•Director Mackay School of Mines, Reno, Nevada. 
tMixixc and Scientific Press, March 27 and May 8, 1915. 

applicability is apparent without the aid of a picturesque 


The silver in Potosi mountain was discovered at the 
beginning of the Spanish colonial period. According to 
the historian. Marco Jimenez de la Espada, four Span- 
iards who were seeking argentiferous galena in the 
neighborhood in 1544, sent an Indian named (iualpa with 
a companion to the summit of the peak to collect any 
valuable offerings that might have been made in the 
huaca, or sacred spot, situated there. Nothing of great 
value was found, but Gualpa loaded his companion with 
part of the offerings remaining to gather the rest himself. 
A violent windstorm then descended from the top of the 
mountain, knocking Gualpa insensible. When he re- 
covered and started to rise, he found in his hand a rich 
lump of silver ore. Another historian says the discov- 
ery was made by an Indian chasing a stray sheep, and 
there are several other yarns in circulation as to how the 
famous mines were discovered, but whatever may be the 
true one, it is at least certain that in 1545 the city of La 
Plata, later known as the Villa Rica Imperial de Potosi, 
was founded by 75 Spaniards and the exploitation of the 
mines was begun. Reports as to the annual and total 
productions of the silver peak of Potosi vary greatly, 
but according to WendtJ, who has made a careful study 
of the subject, there is little doubt that the aggregate 
product has exceeded 1,000,000.000 ounces. Potosi has 
therefore been the largest silver producer in the world. 

The Huari-Huari silver mines were also discovered by 
the Spaniards, who operated them upon a comparatively 
small scale. Huari-huari means "many vicunas," the 
vieu fin being a wild Andean animal closely related to 
the domestic llama. 

All the mines of the Potosi district therefore have been 

tTrans. A. r. M. E. Vol. XIX, p. 74, (1891). 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 24, 1915 

worked for silver in the early clays. Within recent 
years, however, these mines have become important tin 
producers, while their production of silver has become 
almost negligible. 

Geography. Potosi is situated on a branch of the An- 
tofagasta & Bolivia Railway, which leaves the main line 
at liio Mulato. 106 miles ilistant. ami erosses a pass 15,- 

TTii ft. in elevation, to reach the city, which is itself at 

an .leva! ion of 3560 ft. aliove sea-level. The population 
is about 35,000. The peak on which the mines are situ- 
ated rises to a height of 2000 ft. above the city, forming 
a nearly perfect cone, ami as the surface of the hill is 

almost ipletely covered by multicolored mine-dumps, 

it presents a strikingly beautiful appearance. 

PorCO is 2 miles from the railroad at Agua Castilla. 
ami about :il> miles from Potosi. The 
mines are in the hills near the town ami 
are connected with the mill, which is 
iieai- the station of Agua Castilla. by an 
aerial tramway. The town is a small 
one. inhabited only by Quichua Indians. 

The town of Huari-Huari is also a 
small one. only inhabited by Indians. 
It is IS miles from the terminus of the 
railway at Potosi. and at an elevation of 
13,100 ft. From Potosi. the road to 
Sucre (the nominal eapital of Bolivia) 
is followed for 12 miles to the baths of 
Don Diego, whence a branch road 6 
miles long runs to Huari-Huari. The 
mini's are situated in the hills above the 

(Ieology. Potosi peak is formed of 
rhyolite intrusive through Jurassic 
shale and sandstone, as well as Tertiary 
sandstone. The veins form a linked 

system that cuts all the country-rock in- 
discriminately. Tin anil silver OCCiir to- 
gether in these veins. The tin is usually 
in the form of light-eolored Cassiterite 
(tin oxide), rarely in that of stannite (sulphide of tin. 
Copper, ami iron). Tin- silver mined from near the 
surface was mainly in the form of chloride and 
native silver, but in depth most of it is contained 
in argentiferous tetrahedrite. Quartz and iron oxides 
are the principal gangue-minerals of the oxidized 
ore. while pyrite, a little chalcopyrite, and occasionally 
sphalerite and galena occur in depth. 

At Poreo. the geological conditions are similar to those 
at Potosi. save that no Tertiary sediments have as yet 
been discovered and that silver frequently occurs as 
ruby silver (proustite). At Huari-Huari. however, the 
ore deposits are of a somewhat different character. The 
town occupies a valley with Mesozoie sediments on one 
side and Paleozoic sediments on the other. Tin-silver 
veins occur in the Mesozoie shale, no igneous rock having 
been eut in the mines. The tin is in the form of cassiter- 
ite, while the silver occurs as pyrargyrite and as argen- 
tiferous .iamesonite, with galena. Pyrite, hematite, and 
sphalerite also occur in the veins. 

Mining. The mines of the peak feel the ill effects of 
mining regulations dating from early Spanish times that 
are not in effect in the newer tin-mining districts of Bo- 
livia. According to these old laws, mining property is 
not held by surface claims as under the new laws, but 
by bum minus, or mine-openings, each of which pays a 
tax of 4 bolivianos i about $1.1)0 i per year. There are 
some 5000 mine-openings, mostly in the form of adits 
in the mountain. These workings may be continued in- 
definitely as long as they do not run into those starting 
from other mine openings. As far as surface boundaries 
are concerned, it is evident that the mine-opening claims 
may overlap one another, and that the quantity of 
ground controlled by one mine opening is dependent not 
only upon its position, but also upon the activities in 


neighboring mine-openings. It will be seen readil] that 
the opportunities for litigation far exceed those made 
possible by our own apex law: our own system is not, 
therefore, the worst in the world as some of those who 
have experienced its drawbacks are inclined to believe. 

The miners at Potosi receive from 2 to 5 bolivianos 
per day, (from $0.80 to $2). while at Huari-Huari the 
scale of wages is lower, being from 1 to 2 bolivianos (40 
to 80 cents). Mining is conducted in a most casual and 
desultory fashion, the principal operators in Potosi being 
the French firms of Louis Soux and Bebin Freres. Reg- 
ular mining operations have recently been begun at 
Poreo by the Porco Tin Mines, Ltd., a subsidiary com- 
pany of the powerful firm of Aramayo. Franeke Mines, 
Ltd., which is operating many tin, copper, and bismuth 
mines in Bolivia. 

Milling. A list of the principal mills operating in 
the Potosi district in 1914 is given herewith, together 
with their approximate monthly productions of 60 r ; tin 

• llllv 




T.iH \ 01 POX '■ 

Mill ami owner. Tons. 

Velarde, Louie Sow He 

Huaj ra. Beblo EPreree 80 

Socavon Royal. Anglo-Bolivian Mining Syndicate 40 

Cacao, Arturo Oasada 30 

Colavi. Alfredo Melting 20 

Hnari-Hnari, Cla. Itinera y Agricola Huari-Huarl de 

Potosi. A. Oelgado. manager 20 

Re-working tailing, Matlas Mendleta 27.5 

Re-working tailing. Mendoza y Cia 15 

None of these are modern mills, and their operations are 
in every instance both crude and inefficient, -Jigs. Wil- 
fley tables, and convex or concave buddies make up the 

usual equipment. A general impression seems to be 
prevalent that the Wilfley table should discharge all its 
products over the head end, and to insure this some of 
the mills even go so far as to attach boards to the sides 
of the Wilfleys to prevent their discharging in the ordi- 
nary manner! It is therefore not surprising to learn 
that in one mill the Wilfley tailing is re-treated no less 
than 8 times to get the content down to 1 % tin ! 

A brief description of the milling process as conducted 
in the largest mill may prove of interest. The ores are 
obtained from various mines and dumps; they range 
from rich ores containing 15% tin and 8 marcos per 
cajon of silver (about 24 ounces per ton), to poor dumps 
containing only f; tin. The silver-bearing ore is first 
treated by the hyposulphite lixiviation process to remove 
the silver, and concentrated afterward for the tin. 
Wat.r-power is used, supplemented in the dry season 
by power obtained from a 70-hp. oil-engine burning Per- 
uvian oil. which costs about 35 cents per gallon delivered 
at the mill. The tin-silver ores are roasted in small hand- 
rabbled reverberatory furnaces, first raw and then with 
salt. The fuels employed are yareta, a resinous plant. 
and taquia, llama dung, tbe cost being about $8 and $5 
per ton, respectively. After being subjected to the chlor- 
idizing roast, the ore is leached with hyposulphite solu- 
tion in sixteen 14-ton vats, one of which is emptied daily. 
Next the silver is precipitated with calcium sulphide, 
giving a product containing from 40 to 50% silver and 
1 oz. gold per ton. The tailing from the lixiviation. 

v \ IMHAW 

together with ores low in silver, is concentrated for the 
tin content bj the methods described above. The 

hiL'h cost of power accentuates the cost of inefficient 
The two mills mentioned last in the list, as re-working 

tailing, are situated below the city of PotOSI and have no 

mines of their own. They arc engaged solely in concen- 
trating the tailing that escapes from the mills up-stream, 
ami their success plainly indicates the heavy losses from 
which the regular mills arc suffering. 

SMELTING. Twenty years ago there are said to have 
been no less than '■> tin-smelting furnaces in continuous 
operation at Potosi. This number was reduced as it be- 
came necessary to go farther and farther for fuel. Kin- 
ally, with the advent of the railroad in 1912. tin-smelting 
practically ceased. This was because the railroad in its 
endeavor to secure back-haul to the coast made such 
favorable rates on the concentrates that it became cheap- 
er Id ship than to smelt. At the time of my visit, in 1!)14, 
the furnace of Bebin Freres had not been run for over 
a \e:ir. while that of Louis Soux had been running in- 
termittently on old slag that could not be concentrated. 
These furnaces are small water-jacketed blast-furnaces. 

The charge formerly used by Bebin Freres consisted of 
100 lb. tin ore or concentrate 
60 lb. charcoal 
5 to 10% limestone 
The line was briquetted with 5%. of lime before being 
charged. Coke w r as occasionally substituted for charcoal, 
but it is said to have made a fire too hot for the furnace. 
The limestone came from a distance of 12 miles, and tbe 
charcoal from 24 to 30 miles. The costs of fuel at Potosi 
are as follows: 

Per ton. 

Qneuna charcoal $36 

Churqui charcoal 40 

Cardiff coal 42 

Coke GO 

Louis Soux was smelting old slag containing from 4 to 
7% tin, briquetting the fine with 10% lime, and claimed 
to be getting bars running from 94 to 969? tin and a 
slag containing only \% tin. 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 24, 1915 

The Position of the Tube-Mill 

By Algernon del mar 

The millman must recognize the Eaet that the tube- then saw the plates go to a separate building, still taking 

mill has come to stay: whether we amalgamate after the pulp from the stamps; then with the advent of the 

stamping or not, we must fix the position of the tube- tube-mill in the metallurgical treatment of gold ores the 

mill in respect to the stamps and classifiers so that the plates were placed in the tube-mill circuit and aban- 






£, pulp elevator <-- 


ft PUMP 
J~) DiSTItrBtiTIHt 




whole process of extraction is benefited. The most im- 
portanl modification noticed in stamp-milling in conse- 
quence of re-grinding in tube-mflls is that the point in 
the process at which the gold is extracted by amalgama- 
tion has changed. In times past the gold was always 
amalgamated in the mortar of the stamp-mill and the 
plates were immediately in front of the battery. We 



fc f L£ YATOli 

doned in front of the battery: then amalgamation was 
tried in the tube-mill and classifier circuits; then we 
find amalgamation taking place in the tube-mill and not 
in the stamp-mortar, and then amalgamation was con- 
fined to the classifier circuit. Nearly the whole cycle of 
possible combinations has been tried, and, like many 
other problems in gold extraction, we must study each 

. I'll . 



listinot problem. The dmplicitj of 

amalgamating Ihiokening 

promiaing, bnl unfortunately «•• have no publiahed 

data comparing this method with battery amalgamation 

The following diagrams show th>- Bon sheet for •> 
milling or.' trithonl the tube-mill; then the various pod 
if ih. tube mill in reaped to stumps with amalgam 

CLUisiften. + 

pahs , , . rtHS 


P*HS , , . fA 


~~* r 





(_>-' TliSE^-^ 



ation as a feature; then the position of the tube-mill in 
the all-cyanide process. 

A represents an absolutely free-milling process as at 
the Yellow Aster mill, California, where the whole 
process of extraction is in the battery and on plates. 

B shows amalgamating in the stamp-battery, on plates, 
saving the concentrate, as in the usual California mills. 

C. The plates are in front of the battery and likewise 
after the tube-mill. 

D has tube-mill plates, but none in front of the stamps. 

E has plates after the tube-mill and classifier. 

F has plates after the classifier. 

amalgamation Inside tube mill, and In the 

tub. mill and I'laasiticr circuits, 

U . ih. ii have various modification* of the all-aliming 
ing cyanide as the aole tneana of extraction, 

// indicate! the tube-mill taking tend from a Dorr 
classifier and returning ground pulp to the lame, the 
elimination of slim., being from tl laaaifier. 

/. The tube mill takee the underflow from th< ne, 

the overflow of tl laaaifier, the tube mill product going 

to a claaaifler, and the Band to a cone. 

■' A diatributing cone feeda a claaaifler, the elimina- 
tion of slim.' from the circuit being fr il laaaifier. 

h The siamps feed direct to a claaaifier, the on 
going to pans ami concentrators, The slim.' is elimi- 
nated at the claaaifler, to which is added the product 
from the last pan. which can hardly be called all-aliming, 
but could be converted into such by returning ihc pan- 
overflow to the claaaifler. 

L. Two tube-mills and two classifiers working in a 
closed circuit, the slime being separated from both classi- 

M. Cone classifiers and tube -mills in a closed circuit, 
the slime being separated in the last cone. 

N. Shaking screen before stamp, oversize to battery, 
undersize joins battery-discharge, both going to cone, 
undersize from cone to classifier, oversize of cone to 
Hardinge mill, cylindrical tube-mill in closed circuit 
classifier, slime eliminated from classifier. This is prob- 
ably the most complete stage-reduction, as each machine 
is doing the work for which it is best fitted. 

These diagrams represent the procedure in the several 
plants indicated, and while it does not exhaust the pos- 
sible combinations, it is sufficiently extensive to show the 
great variety of processes of ore reduction now used for 
gold extraction by amalgamation and cyanidation. 

Galvanized sheets are made by passing black sheets 
of steel, after the surfaces have been thoroughly cleaned 
and prepared, through pure molten zinc. By this pro- 
cess the surfaces are uniformly covered with an ad- 
herent coating of zinc, which entirely excludes the oxy- 
gen and moisture of the atmosphere, and inasmuch as 
the solution pressure, or, in other words, the corrodibility 
of zinc is very low, the life of such a sheet under weather 
conditions, even without being painted, is remarkably 
long. In addition to the direct exclusion of the elements, 
zinc has another property that makes it an excellent pro- 
tective medium for iron and steel. When two dissimilar 
metals are coupled together and exposed to an electrolyte, 
an electric current will pass from one to the other, due to 
the difference in potential of the two metals. And the 
one which is electro-positive to the other will waste away 
while the electro-negative metal will not be acted upon. 
Zinc is electro-positive to iron or steel. Thus it will be 
readily seen that when the two metals are in contact and 
exposed to the weather, we have all the conditions of a 
simple battery, the moisture acting as the electrolyte and 
a minute current passes from one to the other, and the 
electro-negative iron or steel is protected at the expense 
of the zinc. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Julv 24, 1915 

Concentration of Gold in Bottoms in the Converter 


'Experiments have been made from time to time in 
[irection of utilizing the gold contents of converter 
copper iioi rich enough in the precious metals to make 
electrolytic refining profitable, by means of a partial oxi- 
dation of the bath of white metals to 'pimple' metal and 
'bottoms,' and the separation of the latter before com- 
pleting the oxidation. Hitherto, however, the method 
has never come into regular use, partly, perhaps, be- 
cause copper containing much gold usually contains also 
silver, which is not concentrated in bottoms to any great 
extent, and so far as I am aware no results have been 

The method invented and patented by M. David. 
oamely, the use of the 'selecteur,' a bowl-shaped pocket 
provided with separate tap-hole and fixed to the con- 
verter, into which the refined bottoms were collected by 
turning the converter partly down, so that upon turning 
up again the 'pimple' metal returned to the bottom of 
the converter while the copper remained in the pocket 
and could be tapped out separately, has not been extend- 
ed beyond the original works where it was first tried, and 
I am not aware whether or not the 'selecteur' is still in 
use at. those works. 

Another method tried experimentally with some suc- 
cess is dial of turning down the converter after partial 
blowing, and pouring the supernatant 'pimple' into a 
ladle I'm' transfer into another converter, leaving the 
small charge of bottoms to be poured separately, either 
by itself, or after another charge of metal has been sim- 
ilarly blown, so as to aeeummulate a sufficient amount of 
bottoms for pouring. This method is quite practicable, 
but it introduces an additional complication into the 
routine of the converter plant, which is generally pushed 
lo pretty near the capacity of the existing stands, and 
it introduces a difficulty in that the loss of heat in trans- 
fer is generally so great as to interfere with the finish- 
ing of the charge. 'Pimple' is notoriously difficult to 
blow unless exceptionally hot: upon blowing in the 
second converter after transfer great noses are apt to 
form on the tuyeres, and the charge is liable to freeze 
unless it be heated up by addition of some low-grade 
matte or sulphide ore. which has the disadvantage of re- 
forming slag upon charge which has been skimmed clean. 

The simple method devised by me. and carried out in 
actual practice since the summer of 1914 in small acid- 
lined converters, is that of providing the converter with 
a e;isl-iron tapping-block fixed opposite the tuyeres, 
having a tap holi 1 \ in. diam. "When the lining is being 
rammed this hole has an ordinary J-in. steel bar pushed 
through up to within an inch of the mold, so that the 

•Abstract from paper read before the Institution of Mining 
and Metallurgy, London, on May 20, 1915. 

lining may be rammed round it as tightly as possible, and 

when the molds are removed the bin- is at the same time 
withdrawn in order to facilitate 'drying out.' 

When the converter is pla 1 upon the stand for use 

the tap-hole is close, 1 by a plug of clay, and a short J-in. 
bar is then driven in so as just to protrude inside the 
lining while the head stands out some 16 to 20 in. from 
the front of the converter-shell. After blowing to pre- 
cipitate as metal the required quantity of copper, the 
converter is turned down till the bar stands at aboul 75 
from the horizontal. 

After knocking it in an inch or so in order to penetrate 
any skin of copper that may have formed on the inside, 
the usual ring and wedge are affixed, and the bar is 
driven out as quickly as possible by rapid blows: as its 
point leaves the converter-shell the mold car held in 
readiness at the back is rapidly pushed forward, while 
the converter is at the same time turned until the tap- 
hole is vertical, 

After one, two, or three molds have been filled, ac- 
cording to the size of the charge, and the issuing stream 
is evidently while metal and not copper, the converter 
is tunic. I up as rapidly as possible, the tap-hole being 
plugged with clay while in motion until the next oper- 
ation, and blowing is re-started to finish the charge as 

The success of this operation as carried out in small 
acid-lined converters (the so-called 3-ton size) depends 
primarily upon running the charge hot, not losing too 
much time in skimming, and not. adding too much cold 
scrap after skimming, so that the reduced copper is at a 
temperature much above the melting point of the 
'pimple' tal. otherwise it is liable to chill in the tap- 
hole. Provided the charge is hot enough, all that is re- 
quire! is smartness on the part of the attendants in 
getting out the bar quickly and in carrying out the vari- 
ous movements necessary. 

At first, owing to lack of smartness in driving out the 
bar. the copper in many cases would chill in the tap- 
hole, and after driving and withdrawing the bar repeat- 
edly could not be got out. so that in order to avoid chill- 
ing the charge it had to be finished in the ordinary way 
without getting any bottoms. After a month's practice, 
Ihiw ever, wit h the help of a small bonus on each charge of 
bottoms successfully tapped, the men have become so ex- 
pert that they seldom miss getting out the bar smart ly 
aml tapping a charge from 60 to 120 kg. of bottoms with- 
out spilling more than a few kilograms of metal on the 
floor, and without delaying the finishing of the charge 
more than two or three minutes. The method of tapping 
the converter fur bottoms is therefore no longer experi- 
mental, but has taken rank as a working method. 


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